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Life Choices and SPIN: A Practice Model To Provide Support To Parents with Intellectual Life Choices and SPIN: A Practice Model To Provide Support To Parents with Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities Dr. Elvia R. Krajewski-Jaime, School of Social Work, Eastern Michigan University, Brighton, USA Jessica Holmes, NSO Life Choices Program, Neighborhood Service Organization, Detroit, USA Dr. Linda Cobb-Mc. Clain, Life Choices Program, Neighborhood Service Organization, Detroit, USA Jacqueline Raxter, Life Choices Program, Neighborhood Service Organization, Detroit, USA Tamara Taylor, Life Choices, Neighborhood Services Organization, Detroit, USA Contact: jhausler [email protected] com Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Introduction Intellectual Disability defined as IQ below 70 (Mc. Gaw & Newman, 2005) Neighborhood Introduction Intellectual Disability defined as IQ below 70 (Mc. Gaw & Newman, 2005) Neighborhood Services Organization (NSO) established 1955 in Detroit, MI Supporting Parents Individualized Needs developed in 2010 as a program with in Life Choices department at NSO. Life Choices services over 1400 consumers that have intellectual/ developmental disability (ID/D) from infancy to older adulthood Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

SPIN Practiced based research used to work with parents with ID/D Self-Directed learning (Mc. SPIN Practiced based research used to work with parents with ID/D Self-Directed learning (Mc. Connell & Feldman, 2009) In-home programing and role playing cost effective support (Spencer, 2009) Clinicians integrate these models and bring in family support practice to create the SPIN model Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Literature Review • History ID/D were forced to be sterilized (Pfeiffer, . D, 1994) Literature Review • History ID/D were forced to be sterilized (Pfeiffer, . D, 1994) • 1907 to 1963 over 60, 000 Americans were sterilized without consent • 1960 s states began to repeal sterilization laws • 1974 federally funded clinic sterilized a non-consenting ID/D woman which resulted in federal funds no longer being able to be utilized for sterilization to the nonconsenting (Pfeiffer, D. , 1994) • ID/D population was historically institutionalized and in 1990 s most institutions were closed (Fischer, Geller, Pandiani, 2009) Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Literature Review Continued • In mid-twentieth century a societal belief was that people with Literature Review Continued • In mid-twentieth century a societal belief was that people with ID/D should not parent due to their capacity (Llwewllyn & Hindmarch, 2015) • There is no correlation between IQ and parenting capacity until IQ is below 50 (Feldman & Aunos, 2011) • IQ is not a good indicator of parenting capacity (lamont &Bromfield, 2009) • Research shows between 40%-80% of parents with ID/D permanently lose custody of their children (Getz, 2011; Hertz, 1979) • Those with ID/D are 60% more likely then parents that have mental illness or substance • Most common referral to child welfare for ID/D parents is neglect (Mc. Connell & Feldman, 2009) Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Literature Review Continued • SPIN utilizes recommended curriculum for parents with ID/D that address Literature Review Continued • SPIN utilizes recommended curriculum for parents with ID/D that address health/safety concerns • Both have visuals and handouts that are user friendly – The Health and Wellness Program: A parenting Curriculum for Families at Risk – Building Foundations: A Curriculum Guide for Supporting Parenting • Best Practice model for over 30 years (Alexander, 2006) Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Literature Review Continued • Studies show parents with ID/D were not exposed to positive Literature Review Continued • Studies show parents with ID/D were not exposed to positive parenting role models • Higher levels of stress, depression, and poor mental health compared to non-IDD peers. (parents labelled with Intellectual Disability, 2008) • Studies show it to be less expensive to put in appropriate supports to maintain child in natural home (Feldman & Aunos, 2011) Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Methodology • Does SPIN program decrease parents’ perceived level of stress and increases their Methodology • Does SPIN program decrease parents’ perceived level of stress and increases their level of parental confidence? • Survey created to determine satisfaction, parental perceived level of stress and parental confidence • Survey was offered to all participants and was voluntary • Treatment team facilitated surveys (reading questions, assisting with comprehension due to literacy levels) Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Demographics • • 45/51 consumers participated 39 female, 6 male 44 African American, 1 Demographics • • 45/51 consumers participated 39 female, 6 male 44 African American, 1 white 10 high school diplomas, 22 certificates of completions 13 less then high school 40 less then $10, 000, 5= $10, 000 -15, 000 3 married, 42 single 80 kids services – – – 7 in out of home placements 4 mixed in/out of home placements 34 in home placement 32 single family homes 12 multiple children homes 30 have special needs Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Demographics continued • Parents Diagnosis – – – – 3 borderline intellectual functioning 36 Demographics continued • Parents Diagnosis – – – – 3 borderline intellectual functioning 36 mild intellectual disability 3 moderate intellectual disability 3 no axis II diagnosis 16 will medical Axis III diagnosis 29 no Axis III diagnosis 25 Axis I diagnosis 20 no Axis I diagnosis Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Results 2 some not true 1 -not true PCRSI/1 -My child does things to Results 2 some not true 1 -not true PCRSI/1 -My child does things to be mean to me PCRSI/2 - I feel capable and on top of things when I care for my child PCRSI/3 - I have a hard time getting through to my child PCRSI/4 - I sometimes feel overburdened by my responsibilities as a parent PCRSI/5 - I wonder if I did the right thing having children 27 61% 4 - some true 3 - neutral 2 5% 7 16% 0% 1 2% 2 5% 18 41% 5 11% 6 14% 7 16% 12 27% 3 7% 4 9% 12 27% 13 30% 7 16% 1 2% 3 7% 14 32% 19 43% 0 2 5 - True 5% 6 14% 14 32% 27 61% 8 18% Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Results 1 -poor 3 neutral 2 -fair 4 -good 5 -excellent blank 1. The Results 1 -poor 3 neutral 2 -fair 4 -good 5 -excellent blank 1. The services provided by your S. P. I. N. therapist? 0 0% 1 2% 2 5% 15 34% 26 59% 2. The ease of scheduling? 0 0% 2 5% 1 2% 13 30% 26 59% 3. The S. P. I. N. therapist’s skills and effectiveness with your child? 0 0% 2 5% 22 50% 20 45% 4. The S. P. I. N. therapist’s modeling and teaching skills? 0 0% 1 2% 19 43% 24 55% 0 0% 1 2% 0 0% 22 50% 21 48% 0 0% 3 7% 25 57% 16 36% 0 0% 2 5% 22 50% 20 45% 1 2% 2 5% 19 43% 20 45% 0 0% 1 2% 5 11% 18 41% 20 45% 0 0% 1 2% 16 36% 26 59% 5. The effectiveness of the training you received in your home? 6. The program’s effectiveness in helping you relate to your child? 7. The effectiveness in helping you understand your child’s development? 8. Your confidence in implementing the S. P. I. N. therapist’s suggestions? 9. The appropriateness of the number of sessions? 10. The S. P. I. N. services overall? 2 5% Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

FINDINGS & CONCLUSIONS RESULTS Parent Satisfaction is high Parents report improved skills Still need FINDINGS & CONCLUSIONS RESULTS Parent Satisfaction is high Parents report improved skills Still need to improve parents’ perceived stress CONCLUSIONS Need larger number of participants in further research Need to educate community on the benefits of program and provide more access • Need more rigorous research, both qualitative and quantitative • • Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

References Alexander, T. (2006). The Health & Wellness Program: A Parenting Curriculum for Families References Alexander, T. (2006). The Health & Wellness Program: A Parenting Curriculum for Families at Risk (pp. V- 213). Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H Brookes Publishing Buell, M. , Hallam, R. , Gamel-Mc. Cornich, M. , & Scheer, S. (1999). A survey of general and special education teacher's perceptions and in-service needs concerning inclusion. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 46 (2), 143 -156. Carter, P. L. (2003). "Black" cultural capital, status, positioning, and schooling conflicts for lowincome African American youth. Social Problems, 50 (1), 136 -155. Checkoway, B. , Figueroa, L. , & Richards-Schuster, K. (2003). Democracy multiplied in an urban neighborhood: Youth Force in the South Bronx. Children, Youth, and Environments, 13 (2). Chinman, M. , & Linney, J. A. (1998). Toward a model of adolescent empowerment: Theoretical and empirical evidence. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 18 (4), 393 -413. Driskell, D. (2002). Creating Better Cities with Children and Youth: A Manual for Participation. Paris/London: Earthscan/Unesco Publishing. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

References Feldman, M. , & Aunos, M. (2011). Comprehensive Competence-Based Parenting Assessment for parents References Feldman, M. , & Aunos, M. (2011). Comprehensive Competence-Based Parenting Assessment for parents with learning difficulties and their children (p. X, 12, 15). Kingston, New York: NADD Fisher, W. , Geller, J. , & Pandiani, J. (2009). The Changing Role Of The State Psychiatric Hospital. Health Affairs, 676 -684. Finn, J. L. (2001). Text and Turbulence: Representing Adolescence as Pathology in Services. Childhood, 8 (2), 167 -191. Ford, D. Y. , & Harris III, J. J. (1996). Perceptions and Attitudes of Black Students Toward School Acheivement and Oher Educational Variables. Child Development, 67 (3), 1141 -1152. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New. York: Continuum International. Getz, L. (December, 2011). Parenting with Intellectual Disabilities-Changing Times. Social Work Today, 11 (6) 14. Gutierrez, L. (1995). Understanding the empowerment process: does consciousness make a difference? Social Work Research, 19 (4), 229 -237. Gutierrez, L. M. , Parsons, R. J. , & Cox, E. O. (1998). Empowerment in Social Work Practice: A Sourcebook. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

References Haarstad, C. (2002). Supporting Families when Parents have Intellectual Disabilities (pp. 8 -9, References Haarstad, C. (2002). Supporting Families when Parents have Intellectual Disabilities (pp. 8 -9, 1718). Minot, North Dakota: North Dakota Center for Persons with Disabilities a University Center for Excellence for Persons with Developmental Disabilities at Minot State University Hertz, R. (1979). Retarded Parents in Neglect Proceedings: The Erroneous Assumption of Parenting Inadequacy. Stanford Law Review, 31, 785 -805. How Are the Children April 2013. (n. d. ). Great Start Collaborative- Wayne. Johnson, H. , & Fullwood, H. (2006). Disturbing behaviors in the secondary classroom: How do general educators perceive problem behaviors? Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33 (1), 20 -37. Kieffer, C. (1981). The emergence of empowerment: The development of participatory competence among individuals in citizen organizations. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Krajewski-Jaime, E. R. , Wiencek, P. , Brady, S. , Trapp, E. , Rice, P. (August 2010). Teaching Employable Skills to Special Education Youth: An Empowerment Approach. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 5 (1) 167 -176. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

References Lamont, A. , & Bromfield, L. (2009). Parental Intellectual Disability and Child Protection: References Lamont, A. , & Bromfield, L. (2009). Parental Intellectual Disability and Child Protection: Key Issues. NCPC, (31), 17. Llewellyn, G. & Hindmarsh, G. (2015). Parents with Intellectual Disability in a Population Context. Curriculum Development Disorders Report, 2 (2) 119 -126. Michigan Department of Education. (April 2005 -2006). Dropout Rates. Michigan’s State Performance Plan. Indicator 2. Special Education Facts. Office of Special Education and Early Intervention Services. Annual Performance Report. Retrieved November, 2009, www. michigan. gov/ose-eis Mc. Connell, D. , & Feldman, M. (2009). Child welfare process and outcomes: Caregiver cognitive Impairment: Secondary analysis: Canadian incidence study of reported child abuse and neglect (CIS-2003). Alberta: Family and Disability Studies Initiative University of Alberta Mc. Cusker, B. , & Irwin, B. (1992). Building Foundations: A Curriculum Guide for Supported Parenting. Baltimore, Maryland: PACT: Helping Children with Special Needs. Mc. Gaw, S. & Newman, T. (2005). What works for parents with learning nd. Ed. ). Ilford: Barnardo’s. difficulties. (2 Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

References Midon, R. , Matthews, J. , & Gavidia-Payne, S. (2003). Understanding and supporting References Midon, R. , Matthews, J. , & Gavidia-Payne, S. (2003). Understanding and supporting parents with learning difficulties. Melbourne: Victorian Parenting Centre. Nitcy Hope, L. (2010). Providing Support to Parents who have Developmental Disabilities. AADD (All About Developmental Disabilities), 1 -7. Parents labelled with Intellectual Disability (2008). Position of the IASSID SIRG on Parents and Parenting with Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 296 -307. Perry, J. , & Katula, M. L. (2001). Does service affect citizenship? Administration and Society, 33 (3) 330 -365. Person Centered Plan. (n. d. ). How do I work with a Parent with Learning Difficulties. Primary Times, 13 (1) 21 -23. Pfeiffer, D. (n. d. ). Eugenics and Disability Discrimination. Disability & Society, 481 -499. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

References Random House Dictionary (2005). Eugenics 1880 -1885. New York: Random House, Inc. Rappaport, References Random House Dictionary (2005). Eugenics 1880 -1885. New York: Random House, Inc. Rappaport, J. , & Hess, R. (Eds. ). (1984). Studies in empowerment: Steps toward understanding and action. New York: Hawthorne Press. Spencer, M. (2009). Understanding and Planning Support Assessment and Planning Approach. Australian Supported Parenting Consortium, 3 -3. The Risk and Prevention of Maltreatment of Children With Disabilities. (n. d. ). Psyc. EXTRA Dataset. Wagner, M. M. (1995). Outcomes for youths with serious emotional disturbance in secondary school and early adulthood. Future of Children , 5 (2) 90 -112. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Life Choices and SPIN: A Practice Model To Provide Support To Parents with Intellectual Life Choices and SPIN: A Practice Model To Provide Support To Parents with Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities Dr. Elvia R. Krajewski-Jaime, School of Social Work, Eastern Michigan University, Brighton, USA Jessica Holmes, NSO Life Choices Program, Neighborhood Service Organization, Detroit, USA Dr. Linda Cobb-Mc. Clain, Life Choices Program, Neighborhood Service Organization, Detroit, USA Jacqueline Raxter, Life Choices Program, Neighborhood Service Organization, Detroit, USA Tamara Taylor, Life Choices, Neighborhood Services Organization, Detroit, USA Contact: jhausler [email protected] com Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Construction of Alternative Sexuality/Intimacy: the Japanese Manga Culture Yuri in Chinese Fandom Community Yeung Construction of Alternative Sexuality/Intimacy: the Japanese Manga Culture Yuri in Chinese Fandom Community Yeung Ka Yi , Maggie MPhil candidate Department of Sociology and Social Policy, Lingnan University Email: kayiyeung [email protected] edu. hk Facebook: Academia: https: //ln. academia. edu/virginiayura Ref: I 16 P 0683 Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Introduction : Manga and Yuri Culture Japanese manga ★ This is a research which Introduction : Manga and Yuri Culture Japanese manga ★ This is a research which still in progress - Not only for kids, for adult too - Include wide variety of gender expression : gender transitioning , same-sex love (Yaoi, Yuri) -Challenge assumption on gender and sexuality including gender-role expectation, compulsory heterosexuality Yuri - Japanese manga and animation culture, then absorbed by Chinese fandom (with Yamibo forum as the largest fans forum) - A comparative genre to BL(Boy’s love) Every Yuri fans have their own definition of Yuri There is no absolute definition of Yuri Terms and descriptions that shape Yuri : - Indicating the attraction between 2 girls among manga, anime, games or other entertaining media love tension/intimacy - The vague , subtle romance , the beauty and innocent within relationship of 2 girls - It is sentimental, delicate and a veiled relationship - “Above friendship , Below lovers”(友達以上, 恋人未満)(Yang, 2012) Yuri and Lesbian Yuri : 2 D medium(manga and anime. ) Lesbian : 3 D medium (reality) Yuri : A form of Love Lesbian : An identity Yuri reader sexuality and Lesbian -They share some similarities but not totally identical What is lesbian definition ? Lesbian basic definition: Girl loves girl Yuri: √ Lesbian Whole lesbian culture : i. e. Tomboy culture Yuri : not fully agree on it Resist tomboy culture : consider them not totally embrace female identity Problem that Yuri fans face: difficult to explain their sexuality and how its differ from lesbian Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social the problem of coming out of the closet Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Relevant Theories • • • Queer theory - Consideration of a wide group of Relevant Theories • • • Queer theory - Consideration of a wide group of sexual practice and minorities (bisexual, drag queen, lesbian who have sex with gay man) - A resistance against regime of normal - Experience of marginalization to produce critique of prevailing social system - Knowledge as a social force - Sexual fluidity Yuri -Yuri bear the features of queer that it counters the prevailing social norms -Minority in sexuality which against the regime of normal by their unique marginal experience. Lesbian continuum - Adrienne Rich (1980) , Compulsory Heterosexuality Aims: - Extended the identity of “lesbian” to range of female interaction - Marriage resistance (intimacy among women and the sharing of inner life within females) To violate the male domination & its compulsory - Genital sexual experience less important heterosexuality - Interaction and intimacy bonding among females matters women identified experience - To Against the “male tyranny”. - Phallus culture in the patriarchal society Put sexual experience that important when concerning relationship - Lesbian(under Richs’ conception) : not erotic relationship but women friendship. Yuri - Their priority is not to counter patriarchy although this may be an unintended consequence. but it is also true that Yuri is seeking alternative form of relationship which could other than heterosexuality. Besides, -Great admiration and worship to the female bonding which build on their shared experience , intimacy and understanding to each other. Feminist standpoint theory -It has long been claimed that knowledge is objective oppressed group being ignored during the process -Highlights : woman could have the subjectivity in knowledge -Our knowledge do not come from nowhere but precondition -“Knowledge is always situated”(Donna Haraway, 1988) Via adopting the feminist standpoint theory, -Hear the voice of minority The unique experience of Yuri fan is significant in the production of homosexuality knowledge Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Methodology • • ★ This is a research which still in progress Research Questions: Methodology • • ★ This is a research which still in progress Research Questions: 1) What are their values /attitude in romantic love ? 2) What are the implications of Yuri fans’ sexual subjectivity for homonormativity and heteronormativity? Data collection: Forum Threads & Online individual interviews Forum Threads Field : Yamibo Forum Targeted board: “General Discussion board”(灌水區/海域) Time Frame: From 2016 and backwards until theoretical saturation Targeted threads and posts: Discussions revealing their attitude towards romantic love & sexuality identity would be included. Key words : “Reality”(現實), ”Sexuality”(性向), ”Yuri”(百合), “Les”, “T”(abbreviation of tomboy), “Love”(愛) and “sex” (性). Online interview - Snowball sampling , 15 -20 female Yuri fans until saturation Interview questions : 3 aspects 1) Yuri (What Yuri is? ) 2) Yamibo Forum (What Yamibo forum means to them? ? What attracts them to go Yamibo forum? ) 3) Love values (What are their ideal form of relationship? Is there any influence of Yuri to their ideal form of love? What are their sexuality? Where did they find their potential spouse? Any love experience? What is the role of sex in a relationship ? ) Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Reference • • • Haraway, D. (1988). Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism Reference • • • Haraway, D. (1988). Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Feminist studies, 14(3), 575 -599. Hartsock, N. C. (1983). The feminist standpoint: Developing the ground for a specifically feminist historical materialism (pp. 283 -310). Springer Netherlands. Kinsey, A. C. , Pomeroy, W. B. , & Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Maser, V. 2013. Beautiful and Innocent: Female Same-Sex Intimacy in the Japanese Yuri Genre Schön und unschuldig: Weibliche gleichgeschlechtliche Intimität im japanischen yuri Genre. Rich, A. (1980). Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence. Signs, 631 -660. Rubin, G. (1984). Thinking sex: Notes for a radical theory of the politics of sexuality. Social Perspectives in Lesbian and Gay Studies; A Reader. Sedgwick, E. K. (2007). Epistemology of the Closet. Cadernos Pagu, (28), 19 -54. Seidman, S. (1996). Queer theory/sociology. 楊若暉. (2012). 台灣 ACG 界百合迷文化發展史研究 (1992 -2011). Yang, Jo-Hui. (2012. ) The Development History of Yuri Fan Culture in Taiwan’s ACG Field (1992 -2011) The End. Thank you for watching. Welcome all kinds of questions on Yuri and please feel free to contact me via Email: kayiyeung [email protected] edu. hk or Academia: https: //ln. academia. edu/virginiayura Academia Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Responding to the Refugee Crisis in Europe: The Case of Latvia Vadims Murasovs, Valerijs Responding to the Refugee Crisis in Europe: The Case of Latvia Vadims Murasovs, Valerijs Dombrovskis, Aleksejs Ruza, Vitalijs Rascevskis Daugavpils University, Latvia Contact: vadims. [email protected] com Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Topicality: Refugee crisis in Europe Asylum in Latvia Negative attitudes towards refugees Theoretical model Topicality: Refugee crisis in Europe Asylum in Latvia Negative attitudes towards refugees Theoretical model integrates psychology and nationalism Intergroup theories: Social dominance theory Social identity theory Integrated threat theory Nationalism studies Prejudice model: realistic and symbolic threats + negative stereotyping + intergroup anxiety • Empirical study • • • Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

 • The current study is aimed to examine Latvian residents’ attitudes towards refugees, • The current study is aimed to examine Latvian residents’ attitudes towards refugees, attitudes’ structure and content, and determine factors influencing these attitudes • Research method: - Perceived realistic threat questionnaire - Perceived symbolic threat questionnaire - Prejudicial attitude survey - Intergroup anxiety questionnaire • Research participants (1000) - Age: 16 -94 (Mean=42, 81, SD=16, 64) - Gender: 55, 1% females, 44, 9% males - Residence: 34, 2% Riga, 65, 8% the rest of Latvia - Mother tongue: 43, 5% Latvian, 56, 5% other Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

- - - Preliminary results (1) All participants assess the level of symbolic threats - - - Preliminary results (1) All participants assess the level of symbolic threats as high The strongest symbolic threats: disregard for Latvian societal rules and norms, differences in values and beliefs regarding moral and religious issues (50% rated these items with maximum score) The majority of respondents assess the level of realistic threats as rather high The strongest realistic threats: refugees will get more than they will contribute, refugees will increase tax burden on Latvians The weakest realistic threat: refugees will displace Latvian workers from their jobs Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

- Preliminary results (2) Negative attitudes prevail in the sample Hatred, disdain and superiority - Preliminary results (2) Negative attitudes prevail in the sample Hatred, disdain and superiority are the most typical emotions, which reflect reactions of Latvians to the arrival of refugees Carefulness and impatience are the most typical emotions, which Latvians feel or would have felt when interacting with refugees Regression analysis has detected the variables, which have predictive effect on various components of prejudicial attitudes towards refugees in Latvia Five variables (language of media content, political orientation, level of education, level of loyalty to the state, false consensus) have predictive effect on all the components of the prejudice Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Responding to the Refugee Crisis in Europe: The Case of Latvia Vadims Murasovs, Valerijs Responding to the Refugee Crisis in Europe: The Case of Latvia Vadims Murasovs, Valerijs Dombrovskis, Aleksejs Ruza, Vitalijs Rascevskis Daugavpils University, Latvia Contact: vadims. [email protected] com Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

The Effect of Individual Development Accounts on Life Satisfaction Soyeon Kim (Dept. of Social The Effect of Individual Development Accounts on Life Satisfaction Soyeon Kim (Dept. of Social Welfare, Seoul National University) Seoul, South Korea Background Abstract Purpose: To explore possible impact of IDA on participants' life satisfaction (Satisfaction on basic needs, relationship, self, and social life) Method: Difference-in-difference estimation Result: The average values of the control group showed higher scores in 2011 compared to 2009 for every life satisfaction index. On the other hand, the average life satisfaction score of the test group was lower in 2011 than 2009. Among the categories, ‘satisfaction with relationships’ and ‘satisfaction with the self’ were weakly significant, which can be interpreted as the impact of the IDA program. However, IDA did not have a significant effect on ‘’satisfaction with basic needs’ or ‘satisfaction with social life’. In short, participating in IDA significantly impacted ‘satisfaction with relationships’ and ‘satisfaction with self’ in negative direction. 1) Individual Development Account IDA is a special saving program for low income people, which was proposed in the US in early 90 s; it has main purpose to address poverty through asset accumulation (Sherraden, 1991). Participants are assisted to build asset with 'matched saving': which provide 1: 1 or higher ratio matches to low income family's saving. Along with other supports such as financial education, support groups, case management, IDA helps low income family to accumulate assets, so that they can buy house, pay for education or start a small business (CFED, 2009). Some of positive outcome that can be expected from possessing asset includes household stability, an orientation towards the future, development of other assets, focus and specialization, risk taking, personal efficacy, social influence, political participation, and wellbeing of the household. IDA is implemented in many part of globe, such as Canada, HK, Taiwan, Uganda, Australia, including South Korea. 2) Hope saving program is a IDA for low income family that was implemented in Seoul City, South Korea in 2009. About 45 thousand participants are enrolled in HSP. Figure 1 represents the detail structure of the HPS 1 participants Save $30, $50 or $100 every month 1: 1 matched saving Financial Education 02 Other Supports Support Group 04 3 years of participation $2160, $3600 or $7200 + interest 3) Effect of IDA There is much literature related to IDA and its impact on participants. However, studies on the effects of IDA is highly concentrated on changes in assets, home ownership, or savings (Zhan, Sherraden & Schreiner, 2004; Sanders, 2010; Stegman, Faris & Gonzalez, 2001; Mills et al, 2007; Huang, 2009; Clancy, Grinstein-Weiss, Schreiner, 2001; Rothwell, 2011; Grinstein. Weiss et al. , 2011; Grinstein-Weiss et al. , 2007). Life satisfaction is one of the traits that is significantly related to household well-being, and also proven to have a close relationship with household assets (Schimmack et al. , 2002; Scanlon & Adams, 2009; Gray, 2014, OFNS, 2015). It is a reasonable to expect IDA's impact on participants' life satisfaction. There a few empirical studies on IDA and household wellbeing - such as change in one's future orientation and self-view etc (Shobe & Page-Adams, 2001; Christy-Mc. Mullin, Shobe & Wills, 2009) - but there is no study related on IDA's effect on participants' life satisfaction so far. The purpose of this study if to examine the impact of IDA on participants' different aspects of life satisfaction. Research Question Does participating in IDA program effect one's life satisfaction? Figure 1. Hope Plus Saving Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

The Effect of Individual Development Accounts on Life Satisfaction Soyeon Kim (Dept. of Social The Effect of Individual Development Accounts on Life Satisfaction Soyeon Kim (Dept. of Social Welfare, Seoul National University) Method Difference-in-difference(DID) is used for the analysis. This is an useful method evaluating the pure causal effect of policy. A DID estimate can be retrieved by differentiating the average of the test and the control groups of two period of time. Preintervention Test Group Postintervention Difference Result In each life satisfaction index, the average value of the control group showed higher scores in 2011 compared to 2009. On the other hand, the average score of the test group was lower in 2011 than 2009 [Table 1] Average value of life satisfaction index u+S+T+E Control Group u u+T T Difference S S+E E Sample The data used for analysis is 'Panel survey for Hope plus saving participants' 2009 and 2011, which was collected by the host agency of the Hope Plus saving program. Among 569 respondents, 391 belonged to the test group (IDA participants) and 178 were in the control group (non-participants)1. Variables Dependent Variable: Life Satisfaction Index Satisfaction of Basic 1) Are you satisfied with the place you live? Needs (Sat_1) 2) Are you satisfied with the food you eat? 3) Are you satisfied with the clothes you wear? Satisfaction with 1) Are you satisfied with your relationship to your family? Relationship (Sat_2) 2) Are you satisfied with your relationship to your friends? Sat_1 T Sat_2 Sat_3 Sat_4 C T C T C 2009 8. 09 7. 71 6. 41 5. 82 6. 02 5. 71 5. 67 4. 94 2011 7. 93 6. 08 5. 93 5. 35 5. 61 5. 07 8. 00 Among the categories, sat_2 (satisfaction with relationships) and sat_3 (satisfaction with the self) were weakly significant, which can be interpreted as the impact of the IDA program. Participating in IDA caused significant 'decrease' in sat 2 and sat 3 for the participants. However, IDA did not have a significant sat_1(effect on satisfaction with basic needs) or sat_4 (satisfaction with social life) [Table 2] DID estimates Satisfaction with 1) Are you satisfied with your work? Social life (Sat_4) 2) Are you satisfied with your social life? Each question is ranked on a of 1 -4, with 1 being not satisfied at all and 4 being very satisfied. The sum of the answers to each question was used as a the dependent variables. Independent Variables: Time (change from 2009 to 2011), Test (difference between test and the control), and Interaction of the two (impact of the policy). 1. Total 803 of people participated in first wave of panel (2009), but only 569 respondents were followed up in 2011. Coef I 0. 214 0. 82 0. 371 1. 60 -0. 457 -1. 80* T 0. 357 1. 77* 0. 671 3. 56*** I -0. 4 -1. 68* T 0. 071 0. 43 G 0. 586 3. 58*** -0. 185 -0. 61 T 0. 129 0. 52 G Sat_4 T G Sat_3 -0. 91 I Sat_2 -0. 3 G Sat_1 T I Satisfaction with Self 1) Do you think you are a valuable person? (Sat_3) 2) Are you satisfied with yourself? Seoul, South Korea 0. 729 3. 21*** F, R^2 0. 445 0. 01 5. 09*** 0. 06 5. 51*** 0. 06 5. 87*** 0. 06 The result is somewhat confusing, but several things can be considered as explanation: non-significance of sat_1 is not a surprise in the sense that participating in IDA would not cause dramatic change in the level of basic needs (cloth, food, or housing). Sat_2 and sat_3 were significantly negative and this might partially explained by the 'time' of the second survey collection, which occurred during the participants' enrollment in the IDA program. Even though saving must be encouraged for low-income families, it cannot be ignored that regularly saving can be a heavy burden for them. 2011 was the second year of enrollment for IDA participants, which means that institutionalized saving had persisted for two years. This could have acted as a type of pressure and stress to the participants that might have led to a decrease in life satisfaction, especially with relationship and the self. However, this is only speculation; in order to find out why this result was arrived at, there should be in-depth interviews with the participants. A qualitative piece must follow for better and richer interpretation. Reference Christy-Mc. Mullin, K. , Shobe, M. A. , & Wills, J. (2008). Arkansas IDA programs: Examining asset retention and perceptions of well-being. Journal of Social Service Research, 35(1), 65 -76. Clancy, M. , Grinstein-Weiss, M. , & Schreiner, M. (2001). Financial education and savings outcomes in individual development accounts. Working Paper 01 -2. St. Louis, MO: Center for Social Development, Washington University. Gray, D. (2014). Financial concerns and overall life satisfaction: a joint modelling approach. Grinstein-Weiss, M. , Curley, J. , & Pajarita, C. (2007). Asset building in rural communities: The experience of Individual Development Accounts. Rural Sociology, 72(1), 25. Grinstein-Weiss, M. , Sherraden, M. W. , Gale, W. G. , Rohe, W. , Schreiner, M. , & Key, C. (2011). The ten-year impacts of Individual Development Accounts on homeownership: Evidence from a randomized experiment. Available at SSRN 1782018. Mills, G. , Gale, W. G. , Patterson, R. , Engelhardt, G. V. , Eriksen, M. D. , & Apostolov, E. (2008). Effects of individual development accounts on asset purchases and saving behavior: Evidence from a controlled experiment. Journal of Public Economics, 92(5), 1509 -1530. OFNS(2012). Relationship between wealth, income and personal well-bing, Office of National Statistics. Rothwell, D. W. (2010). The case for asset-based interventions with Indigenous Peoples: Evidence from Hawai ‘i. International Social Work. Sanders, C. (2010). Saving Outcomes of an IDA program for Survivors of Domestic Violence. CSD Research Report 10(42). Scanlon, E. , & Adams, D. (2008). Do assets affect well-being? Perceptions of youth in a matched savings program. Journal of Social Service Research, 35(1), 33 -46. Schimmack, U. , Radhakrishnan, P. , Oishi, S. , Dzokoto, V. , & Ahadi, S. (2002). Culture, personality, and subjective well-being: integrating process models of life satisfaction. Journal of personality and social psychology, 82(4), 582. Sherraden, M. W. (1991). Assets and the Poor. ME Sharpe. CFED (2009). IDA Fact Sheet. Corporation for Enterprise Development. Shobe, M. , & Page-Adams, D. (2001). Assets, future orientation, and well-being: Exploring and extending Sherraden's framework. J. Soc. & Soc. Welfare, 28, 109. Stegman, M. A. , Faris, R. , & Urdapilleta Gonzalez, O. (2001). The impacts of IDA programs on family savings and asset-holdings. Chapel Hill, NC: Center for Community Capitalism, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Zhan, M. , Sherraden, M. , & Schreiner, M. (2004). Welfare recipiency and savings outcomes in individual development accounts. Social Work Research, 28(3), 165 -181. *** p<0. 001 ** p<0. 05 * p<0. 10 2. The rise of control group's average value can be explained by change in economic situation of Korea. The first survey was in 2009, which is right after impact of economic crisis in 2008, but the second survey (2011) took place where the economy was recovered from the crisis in certain level. Better off in finance might have affected the life satisfaction of the Koreans. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

The Effect of Individual Development Accounts on Life Satisfaction Soyeon Kim, School of Social The Effect of Individual Development Accounts on Life Satisfaction Soyeon Kim, School of Social Work, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea Contact: slk [email protected] ac. kr Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Essentialism, Stereotype, and Distortion: On the Orientalist Misunderstanding of the Dynamics of the Islamic Essentialism, Stereotype, and Distortion: On the Orientalist Misunderstanding of the Dynamics of the Islamic Context Mohsen Abbaszadeh Marzbali Ph. D. Political Science, University of Tehran, Iran Farzad Souri Ph. D Student. Political Science, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Introduction, Abstract and background Introduction: The paper addresses that to gain reach knowledge of Introduction, Abstract and background Introduction: The paper addresses that to gain reach knowledge of the Islamic World and Muslim communities the social Science should avoid the historical stereotypes, essentialist representations constructed by a coalition of orientalist academic circles, Neo-Con policy-makers, and radical media. Abstract: The rise of the radical Islamic nonstates actors, like al-Qaida and ISIS, has captured the epicenter of the Middle Eastern Politics and has given a space for the western media to represent the Islamic World as a homogenous totality. This totality has reapproved the main claims of the Orientalisms that had been heavily criticized by Edward Saeed. Reframing the Muslims as irrational, non-democrat, and antimodernity, the revival of Orientalisms would definitely distort the recognition of the “contextual dynamics” and the constitutive diversity within the Islamic World. From this perspective, the present paper aims to analyze the orientalist representations of the East and Muslims critically, Heavily influenced by the “discourse approach” in the sense of Foucault and Derrida`s vision of “deconstruction”, and to highlight the internal developments within the “Shia political jurisprudence” in Iran as a main example of the possibility of the emergence of “democratic Islam”- or as a “contextual possibility” in the process of democratization - which would weaken the stereotypical Orientalist representation of Islamic societies. Thus, the paper addresses the Shia reforms ranging from “the Constitutionalism Movement” in the early 20 th century to current “academic efforts” of the compatibility of Islam and Democracy. Background : This research is at a crossroad with its four sides being related to various fields of study concerning the relationship between Islam and the West, tradition and modernity, religion and democracy, universalism and particularism. Therefore, it relies on the findings of the literature on Orientalism, Islamism, Shia political jurisprudence, and Post-secularism and links them in a scheme of "measuring the correspondence between the static pre-assumptions of orientalism with the dynamic realities of Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social the Islamic context". Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Research question, hypothesis and Methodology Research question: What will be the relationship between classic Research question, hypothesis and Methodology Research question: What will be the relationship between classic Orientalist pre-suppositions with common conception regarding the relationship between Islamic communities and democracy? To what extent does this perception correspond with the fact? hypothesis: This paper hypothesizes that holistic pre-suppositions derived from essentialist stereotypes in classic Orientalist discourse about Islamic communities, in combination with linear theories of development, ultimately lead to consider the Islamic context as democratically sterile and prevent factual knowledge of the diversity of interpretation and internal dynamism of such communities in the path of democratization. In this regard, the inner transformation of Shia political jurisprudence in contemporary Iran toward highlighting the democratic denotations of sharia can be considered as a fact that challenges the above essentialist speculations. Methodology: Since this study considers the root of the above analytical misunderstanding with respect to the dynamism within Muslim communities in the 'closure of discourse' in orientalist attitude toward it, it is founded based on the "critical discourse analysis". Discourse – referring to Foucauldian sense of word – is a cognitive system in which the phenomena are articulated and represented on the basis of its particular interpretation framework. According to Derrida, since the process is founded on "Game of difference" (in the sense of excluding some signifiers as the cohesion requisites for the above- mentioned discourse analysis system), the representation of an object by a subject (or, as Edward Said pointed out, East represented by the orientalism discourse) is naturally along with neglecting some signifiers and facts. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

In contrast, the object (or the excluded Other placed in a subordinate position in In contrast, the object (or the excluded Other placed in a subordinate position in the post-colonial sense of word) lacks the possibility to speak and represent itself. Therefore, along with the "representative" (the West) hegemonic discourse, its representation as the characteristics of the "represented" (i. e. the Islamic communities) becomes common as a "standard definition". The "critical discourse analysis" approach with deconstructing the essentialist pre-assumptions derived from the orientalism discourse (such as assuming the impossibility of democracy in the Islamic context), allows the recognition of "counterdiscourses" or other articulations / representations of the object (e. g. the contextual democratic possibilities). Results Orientalism discourse, in the sense being criticized by Edward Saeed, with the construction of "binary opposites" (on concepts such as West / East, modern / traditional, dynamic / static, peaceful / violent, rational / irrational, and democratic / undemocratic) provides a stereotypical image of non-Western societies (including Muslims) under the general title "East", being characterized by the negative side of this binary. These can be interpreted as "ontological other-making" with their identity-formatting function attracting more attention than their scientific / sociological credibility. In other words, the construction of borders being defined based on the duality of interior/exterior distinction was indispensable for the imaginary societies which were formed through the development of literature and nationalist strategies. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Although the twentieth century has been a Although the twentieth century has been a "transformation era" as a result of changes in the humanities (under headings such as postmodernity, post-positivism, post-colonialism, etc. ), it has also been the century of the retrieval of essentialist stereotypes about Muslims in the form of "Neoorientalism“ which, in its radical form, with generalizing the violent acts performed by terrorist groups (such as al-Qaeda and ISIS), has propagated a kind of "Islamophobia “. This stereotype in combination with the linear theories of development and democratization may lead to a rigidity on the "universal secular liberal democracy" as "the only possible model" and ignore the possibilities driven from "Heritage", " episteme" and " Erlebnis/ lived experience" of Muslim societies as catalyzing factors of shaping a “contextual social contract" in order to deepen the process of democratization. The internal developments of the Shia political jurisprudence in Contemporary Iran can be an example of the democratic possibilities implicit in the Islamic context. The transformation point of such developments can be traced back to the efforts of Naeeni the jurisconsult in the early 20 th century to prove the compatibility between Islam and constitutionalism. Based on Islamic juristic arguments, he provides the equivalents between the religious values (the particular) and the modern norms (the universal). For example: Horriyat as equivalent to freedom, Mosaavaat as equivalent to equality, and so on. More prominently, academic efforts in post-revolutionary era for reading the religious texts using with modern and postmodern methodologies to extract progressive denotations and democratic possibilities of Islamic episteme can be, in turn, regarded as a reflection of the possibility of jurisprudent-based extraction and justification for democracy. These efforts in fact assume a "mutual flexibility"; democracy's flexibility (meaning that as a "procedure" has the possibility to adjust to different contexts) and religion’s flexibility (in the sense that as a "source of religious injunction" has the possibility of interpretation when faced with new issues). Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Conclusion and References Conclusion: - Contemporary Islamic communities politically consist of a variety of Conclusion and References Conclusion: - Contemporary Islamic communities politically consist of a variety of trends (including fundamentalist-violent, traditionalist-conservative, and reformist-democratic) in both theoretical and practical aspects. Therefore, regarding them as a homogeneous totality leads to a distorted understanding of their diversity and internal dynamism. - One of the main epistemological consequences of stereotypes constructed by some orientalist circles is to neglect the perception and analysis of the discourse of “democratic Islam" as "contextual possibility" which can be a challenge to essentialist pre-suppositions about the relationship between Muslims and fundamentalism. - In particular, the above failure prevents a factual analysis from being run with regard to the role of democratic readings of Shia political jurisprudence on the internal developments of Iranian society, readings which have been actively functioning toward democratization. References: - Esposito, John; Voll, John Obert (1996). Islam and Democracy, Oxford University Press. - Lewis, Bernard (2002). What Went Wrong? Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response, London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. - Sadowski, Yahya (1993), “The New Orientalism and the Democracy Debate”, Middle East Report, No. 183, Political Islam. (Jul. - Aug. , 1993), pp. 14 -21+40. - Sayyid, Bobby. S (2003). A Fundamental Fear: Eurocentrism and the Emergence of Islamism, London: Zed Books, 2003, 2 d ed. - Saeed, Edward (1979). Orientalism, pantheon books. - Saeed, Edward (1993). Culture and Imperialism, New York: Vintage Books (Random House). - Tuastad, Dag (2003). " Neo-Orientalism and the New Barbarism Thesis: Aspects of Symbolic Violence in the Middle East Conflict(s)", Third Word Quarterly. Vol: 24, No. 4, - Turner, Brayan. S (2000). "Outline of a Theory of Orientalism", Orientalism: Early Sources, Vol. 1, Reading in Orientalism, Ed: B. S. Turner, Routledge. Persian References: - Firahi, Davood (2011) Jurisprudence and Politics in Contemporary Iran: Political Jurisprudence and Constitutionalist Jurisprudence, Tehran: Ney press. - Naieni, Mirza Mohammad Hosein (2003), Tanbiho L-omma va Tanziho L-mella [An Analysis of the Islamic Social and Political Principles], researched by Sayyed Javad Vare`i, Qom: Bustan-e Ketab-e Qom Press. - Tababayi, Sayyed Javad (2007). A Reflection on Iran; Theory of Rule of Law in Iran: The Foundations of Constitutionalism Theory, Tabriz: Sotodeh press. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Essentialism, Stereotype, and Distortion: On the Orientalist Misunderstanding of the Dynamics of the Islamic Essentialism, Stereotype, and Distortion: On the Orientalist Misunderstanding of the Dynamics of the Islamic Context Mohsen Abbaszadeh Marzbali Ph. D. Political Science, University of Tehran, Iran Farzad Souri Ph. D Student. Political Science, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran Contact: mohsen_abaszadeh [email protected] com Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

The Politics of Myth under the Banner of Religion: On the Islamic Fundamentalist Thinking The Politics of Myth under the Banner of Religion: On the Islamic Fundamentalist Thinking Mohsen Abbaszadeh Marzbali Ph. D. Political Science, University of Tehran, Iran Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Introduction, Abstract and background Introduction: It seems that the recent Islamic fundamentalists` political crimes Introduction, Abstract and background Introduction: It seems that the recent Islamic fundamentalists` political crimes might be traced back to a certain mode of thinking, the “Mythical” one, which potentially may emanate from any religion or Ideology rather than being rooted in Islam as such. Abstract: Of the many specters that have haunted western civilization from time to time, none is so perplexing strange as the Islamic Fundamentalism. Attracting many eyes and thoughts, the rise of Islamic fundamentalism has been referred to either sociologicalreligious issues or international global politics. Though significant, the present research aims to shed light on the rise of fundamentalism with a focus on a certain mode of thinking, called as “Mythical Thinking” that manifests in a specific “character structure” and, in following, a specific political action. Such a significant mythical thinking reaches its zenith on "criminalizing of the politics". From this perspective, the paper argues that Islamic terrorists radical actions are less derived from Islam than a specific narrative of Truth that can be also viewed in other modern ideologies, like Communism and Fascism. In this vein, and to explore the roots of Islamists' political violence, the present research addresses the mythical encountering with the religion that culminates in mass slaughtering. Heavily built on Roland Barthes's theoretical framework, the paper analyzes Fundamentalists' specific interpretation of religious texts and argues that the floating signifiers of the discourse of Islamic radicalism is framed around Jihad as the central signifier to frame violence as an example of the sacred. Relevance: The phenomenon of Islamic terrorism in the Middle East has been analyzed based on a variety of approaches, such as Islamic studies, sociology, development studies, geopolitics theories, and foreign policy. The present paper seeks to investigate the intellectual framework dominating the phenomenon, and focuses on the “mode of thinking” of the trend and its relation with violence. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Research question, hypothesis and Methodology Research question: Is there a relation between Islamists' political Research question, hypothesis and Methodology Research question: Is there a relation between Islamists' political violence and their way of encountering with the religion? Hypothesis: The violence of Islamic fundamentalism might be traced back to a certain mode of thinking, i. e. “Mythical Thinking”, which manifests in a specific “character structure” and, in following, a specific political action. Therefore Islamic terrorists’ radicalism seems less derived from Islam than a “specific narrative of Truth” that can be also viewed in other modern ideologies, like Communism and Fascism. Methodology: According to Roland Barthes’ mythological analysis, the myth is a “type of speech”, “form” or “way of denotation. ” So, any subject or content (including religious ones) becomes a myth when fits into its form; in other words, a myth is distinguished not by “the message”, but through the “way of expression” of the message; a way that consists of “fixing the meaning” or purging the meaning of its “historic concreteness; ” that is, a myth separates the thing from its context related to a certain time and place, and makes it eternal. In this sense, a myth is a “fictional speech” that claims to relate to the truth at the same time: it both demonstrates and informs, both convinces and imposes. ” It is intuitive truth that does not tolerate deliberation and logical argument. However, the mystery of its attraction to its believers lies in the very property, since the user of a myth regards its message as truth, not because it is in line with his reasoning, but because it responds to his “feeling of need” for that truth (See: Barthes, 1984). Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Results As Roland Robertson puts it, the emergence of fundamentalism can be considered as Results As Roland Robertson puts it, the emergence of fundamentalism can be considered as the radical uprising of “particularism” against the “threat” felt from the “universalizing” processes of modernity, where, as a reaction, retrieval of identity and preservation of cultural integrity is nostalgically regarded as depending on “return to foundations. ” Accordingly, return to the -so called- “primeval Islam” is promoted by Islamic fundamentalists; the pure /authentic Islam which has not been perverted by philosophical, juristic, and mystical exegeses. This type of encountering with religion hits Bart’s definition of myth to one`s mind, that is, a way of denotation that freezes (fixes) meaning; instead of dealing with “complexity and logical reasoning” to explore the referent of injunctions (the signified), they turn to “simplicity and belief-driven practice” based on the appearance of the injunctions (the signifier). Therefore, they regard historical / concrete issues from the perspective of the super-historical / abstract. In other words, instead of focusing on the purpose or contemporary referents of the sharia`s injunction, they practice rigidity with regard to the “form” (appearance of injunctions) - as the only correct form of “religiousness, ” and thus, they reduce it into just obeying the rituals. Furthermore, they regard an exegesis common in a specific era in history (the period of primeval Islam or righteous predecessors) as a criteria and absolute truth that must be followed in all subsequent eras as well without modification. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Focal point: An instance of mythical reduction can be observed in the fundamentalist conception Focal point: An instance of mythical reduction can be observed in the fundamentalist conception of “Jihad, ” eventually resulting in “legitimization of the terror” (while the terror is condemned in many Islamic sects, and as for Jihad, the Sunnite and Shiite political jurisprudences have subjected it to conditions). By considering the status qua as “decadent” as well as by excommunicating the conventional mechanisms organizing it (jurisprudence systems), fundamentalists regard realization of the “obligation” of “revitalizing” sharia as depending upon a decisive “determination”, which will result from faith in myth (which is actually their own perception of sharia): “Jihad. ” In this discourse, politics is regarded as a scene for stabilization and realization of the principles rather than one for prioritization, consensus, and relations (or, in the words of the jurisprudence, deals), where it can be negotiated or discussed. Therefore, it introduces only one way: “judging issues and people and then practicing Jihad based on the judgment”. Sayyid Qutb’s political thought, in Ma’alim fi al-Tariq (Milestones) (1964) can be regarded as an instance of the above “mode of thinking, ” which summarizes faith in Islam as Jihad and fight by rejecting dialogue and compromise, and promotes the terror by addressing other communities as ignorant. Actually, violence is one of unavoidable consequence of such “mode of thinking. ” The mythical truth resulting from fundamentalist perception of religion leads to training of a particular “character” holding that he commits acts of violence according to the “sublime right” as the agent of that truth (say, “Islamic Caliphate” for the ISIS and “the superior race” for Nazism). Here, slaughter is not an exception, but something ordinary rooted in the heart of the mythical truth. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Conclusion and References • Nostalgia (resulting from the feeling of decadence), mythmaking (imagination of Conclusion and References • Nostalgia (resulting from the feeling of decadence), mythmaking (imagination of the past as ideal), and Jihad as sacred violence (in order to transition to the mythical sublime destination) are three relevant concepts that can prove effective in understanding the worldview of the radical fundamentalism. • Yet, from a more political perspective, It seems to depend more on critical analysis of “a particular mode of thinking” (mythical thinking) and the “character” resulting from it than on emphasizing their claim of “return to the pure Islam” to obtain an understanding of the “criminalizing of the politics” by the ISIS. • Actually, sanctifying the past, seems more like an “strategy of hegemony” aiming at constructing of an Ideology out of “political religion” to com on power than an attempt to “purify religion of superstitions. ” For this purpose, they vitalize the historical experiences of the primeval Islam and Quranic concepts in a mythical form to plot a society beyond man’s imagination deserving its followers’ sacrifice. • This method of analysis cuts off the direct, Presupposed stereotypical link between Islam and terrorism (as if there is an “anthropological species” known as “homo-Islamicus” that is violent), and, instead, regards the issue as resulting from a “type of violence” likely to emerge -potentially-in any society rife with “radical other-making. ” The bloody game of the opponent political strategies and the conflict between sectarian religious exegeses has given today’s Middle East the potential to let it show off. References: - Barthes, Roland (1984). “Myth Today”, Mythology, trans. Annette Lavers, New York: Hill and Wang. - Cavanaugh, William. T (2009). The Myth of Religious Violence: Secular Ideology and the Roots of Modern Conflict. Oxford university press. - Neocleous, Mark (1997). Fascism, Perseus Publishing. - Robertson, Roland (1992). Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture, London: Sage. - Theweleit, Klaus (2015). Das Lachen der Tater: Breivik u. a; Psychogramm der Torungslust, Residenz Verlag. Persian Refrences: - Ali, Bakhtiar (2015). ISIS: the Eastern Violence and Criticizing Fascist Rationality, trans. Sardar Mohamadi, Tehran: Markaz press. - Rajaee, Farhang (2002). The Contemporary Political Thought in Arab World, Tehran: Center for Scientific Researches and Middle East Strategic Studies. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

The Politics of Myth under the Banner of Religion: On the Islamic Fundamentalist Thinking The Politics of Myth under the Banner of Religion: On the Islamic Fundamentalist Thinking Mohsen Abbaszadeh Marzbali Ph. D. Political Science, University of Tehran, Iran Contact: mohsen_abaszadeh [email protected] com Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

The Covert Governance of Dissent: Undercover Police Infiltration of Canadian Political Activism By Mariful The Covert Governance of Dissent: Undercover Police Infiltration of Canadian Political Activism By Mariful Alam Ph. D Candidate, Department of Social Sciences, Socio -Legal Studies, York University (Toronto, Canada) Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

CONTEXT Infiltration: an undercover police operative that creates a false identity and/or disguises as CONTEXT Infiltration: an undercover police operative that creates a false identity and/or disguises as a member of a targeted organization, which allows the agent to gain the trust of other members, and gather evidence for prosecution. Two types of undercover operations: (1) The encouragement of an an offence to see who will take the ‘bait’ in committing a crime because an organization is suspected of carrying out a crime, but cannot identify specific persons (Loftus & Goold, 2011: 277). (2) An identified person is believed to be carrying out, or plans to carry out an offense. An operation is mounted to see if the envisaged evidence can be gathered (Loftus & Goold, 2011: 277). Undercover operations may also involve informers. Two types of informers: (1) An informant is a civilian that provides information in exchange for financial rewards, and has immunity from prosecution (Brodeur, 1992: 223). (2) A delator is or was a member of the organization surveilled. They may be coerced by the police and offered a plea bargain in exchange for providing information, or they may voluntary come forward because they believe their associates pose a risk (Brodeur, 1992: 223). The Role of Criminal Law in Canada: Ø Law enforcement must seek judicial warrants if undercover surveillance is electronically recorded or monitored. They must present an affidavit to a judge explaining “the reasons for interception, its instruments and its target(s)” (Bourideu, 2003). Ø The judge must be satisfied that the authorization would be “in the best interests of justice”, and “where persuaded that the intercept is the last, best investigate tool available to police” (Forcese & Roach, 2015: 124). Ø Section 184. 2 of the Criminal Code allows for the interception of communications by consent of one party (the police informant). Political surveillance: Ø Is not always based on the goals of the criminal justice system, and can include keeping “tabs” on potentially risky subjects or social movements defined as “radical”, “extremist”, or potentially “violent” (Greer, 1995: 514; see also Walby & Monaghan, 2012 a). Ø Can serve as an “efficient weapon for damaging the interests of said targets by creating suspicion or paranoia” (Hewit, 2010: 7 -8). However, modern political surveillance operations are increasingly used for gathering “information necessary to charge social movement organizers with [criminal] conspiracy” (Wood, 2014). Ø It can also lead officers to engage in “illegal” behaviour by acting as agent provocateurs, and “entrapping the unsuspected target” to discredit the social movement, while providing law enforcement ”with an excuse for cracking down on those targeted” (Hewitt, 2010: 8 -9). Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

CONTEXT & RESEARCH QUESTIONS Undercover surveillance of political activists deemed threats to Canadian national CONTEXT & RESEARCH QUESTIONS Undercover surveillance of political activists deemed threats to Canadian national security is not a new phenomenon. However, the reconstitution of activism as a criminal threat to public safety, and the infiltration of social justice, environmentalist, and indigenous-rights groups, justified by the alleged risk of domestic terrorism, are recent developments that merit serious consideration. Today, national security threats posed by political activists are increasingly governed through discourses of risk, criminality and domestic terrorism. The Governance of dissent has become ‘systematically pre-emptive in its orientation. intelligence-led policing (ILP) “seeks to be proactive, preventative, scientific and analytic. Such an approach uses intelligence to identify, prioritize, and intervene with protests (and others), in order to minimize [criminal] risk” (Wood, 2014: 127 -128). ILP includes Infiltration, often conducted through jointsurveillance operations between CSIS, the RCMP, and local police forces through Integrated Security Units (ISUs). Academic scholarship on infiltration remains “profoundly underdeveloped” (Loftus & Goold, 2011: 276) Ø Most studies on surveillance focuses on digital technology and/or privacy rights. However, Technological surveillances generates an abundance of information, making it difficult for governing agencies to sort through data. An informer, can provide more “accurate” information (Hewitt, 2010: 18). Ø Surprisingly no empirically-based study that exclusively focuses on the use of on-the-ground infiltration targeting Canadian political activists Ø The little discussion on political infiltration limited to historical inquires or mega-event protests. Ø Significant gaps on the role of law and legal innovations. Ø Too narrowly focused on civil liberties and charter rights Ø No study complicating the role of law and legal knowledges. Research Questions in Progress: (1) How do law enforcement agencies categorize political activists as criminal/security threats in need of close monitoring? (2) What are the various governing techniques - including hard digital technologies and legal innovations - that shape the parameters of an undercover police operation? (3) To what extent are the choices made by infiltrators based on their knowledge of relevant law and social policy, and how does this contribute to the negotiation of operational boundaries? (4) How is the data obtained by infiltrators presented during courtroom proceedings, and how does it contribute to the criminalization of political activists? (5) How do political activists resist undercover surveillance techniques? Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

CONCEPTUAL TOOLKIT The study will be guided by a number of theoretical and “methodological” CONCEPTUAL TOOLKIT The study will be guided by a number of theoretical and “methodological” insights that derive from Michel Foucault’s inquiry on power: Ø Power as a decentralized force that runs through multiple sites, institutions and bodies. Ø Power not only repressive, but also productive, technical, and creative Ø Power operates through various knowledges and discursive formations Disciplinary power: offers one analytical tool to investigate how activists internalize norms and self-regulation. Risk of infiltration may compel some activists to become vigilante of their organizing tactics. Others may adhere to existing rules and boundaries, or even condemn others who choose to violate them, not because of the potential adverse consequences, but because they may sincerely believe it is the moral thing to do. Infiltration as Political Suppression: Repression is directly violent, while suppression is a broader term that encompasses both violence and subtler modes of silencing dissent (see Boykoff, 2007). Governance of dissent is not only a coercive procedure, but also a “process through which the preconditions for dissent action, mobilization, and collective organization are inhibited by either raising their costs or minimizing their benefits [authors emphasis]” (Boykoff, 2007: 12). A useful theoretical distinction that can help guide this study. Governmentality and Bio-power: Governmentality is the management, rule, conduct and security of the population, to ensure its preservation and those who govern it. Bio-political power that underpins governmentality is “[a] set of mechanisms through which the basic biological features of the human species become the object of a political strategy” (Foucault, 2007: 1), which “seeks to foster and enhance social solidarity through a wide variety of programs and objectives” (Pratt, 2006: 17). Infiltration as Risk Management: Governance is preoccupied with risk management strategies. Crime and punishment prominent themes “in the promotion and justifications of a broad range of law and social policy” (Pratt, 2006: 19), often reserved for those regarded as ungovernable or “unwilling to enterprise their lives or manage their own risk” (Pratt, 2006: 19). Crime-Security Nexus: National Security has been radically reconfigured to include a broad range of crimes not traditionally understood as security threats (Pratt, 2014: 297). Pratt’s concept of the crime-security is offers a conceptual tool to understand how protest tactics traditionally understood as criminal– such as property sabotage and arson – have become rearticulated as national security threats. Law as Governance: Rather than simply asking what the laws are and whether they breach civil liberties or charter rights, this study draws a concept of law as governance to explore how ‘a certain set of legal knowledges and powers operate, what they do, how they work, and how they are utilized’ (Valverde, 2003: 11) in the context of infiltration. Infiltration operates in ‘the shadow of law’. ex: discourses of liberal legality construct “good” vs. “bad” and “peaceful” vs “violent” protestors. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

METHODS The study will engage with Institutional Ethnography (IE). This includes: (1) A critical METHODS The study will engage with Institutional Ethnography (IE). This includes: (1) A critical analysis of security and legal texts through Access to Information Requests (ATI) and already-publically available documents, including relevant: (a intelligence and risk/threat assessment reports; (b) operation manuals developed by the RCMP, CSIS, and local police forces; (c) court transcripts; (d) and press releases and media clippings. ØThis approach offers the ability to “explicate how texts coordinate surveillance practices in organizations” (Walby & Anais, 2015: 214). These texts are not neutral, as they are “activated” by governing actors: they are ‘written, read, and used by people and are integral to the social organization of undercover police operations’ (Kinsmen & Gentile, 2010: 32). Ex: RCMP and CSIS conduct threat/risk assessments by classifying the high from low risk political activists. This provides an ‘organizing rubric’ for governing agencies to identify their targets prior to undercover surveillance operations (see Walby & Monaghan (2012 a). (2) Open-ended, semi-structured interviews with four groups of key actors: (a) political activists targeted by surveillance; (b) law enforcement and security officers; (c) government policy officials; (d) legal advocates and civil libertarians. ØInterviews with political activists that were spied upon will document the disjuncture between activist experiences and crime/security narratives. Activist narratives are a form of resistance that “makes visible the social knowledge that…security texts actively [suppress]” (Kinsman & Gentile, 2010: 13). Interviews with law enforcement and security officers will shed light on understanding how security texts organize the parameters of an undercover surveillance operation. Potential Limitations: ØDelays in ATI and court transcript requests due to bureaucracy. ØInability to access documents classified as top secret and unavailable to the public. ØReluctance by law enforcement and security actors to talk to an academic. ØReluctance by political activists to talk to an academic. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

The Covert Governance of Dissent: Undercover Police Infiltration of Canadian Political Activism By Mariful The Covert Governance of Dissent: Undercover Police Infiltration of Canadian Political Activism By Mariful Alam Ph. D Candidate, Department of Social Sciences, Socio -Legal Studies, York University (Toronto, Canada) Contact: [email protected] ca Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

The Memory in the Celebration of Organizational Identity Sandro Serpa Eleventh International Conference on The Memory in the Celebration of Organizational Identity Sandro Serpa Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Background Legitimacy is essential for the perpetuation of an organization. This legitimization process can Background Legitimacy is essential for the perpetuation of an organization. This legitimization process can be achieved through the building of an organizational identity as expression of a collective destiny (Whetten, 2006). The identity of an organization is never guaranteed, requiring it to be cultivated, especially on the part of its leadership (Perrenoud, 1994; Pettigrew, 1985; Pettigrew, 1987; Pettigrew, Woodman, & Cameron, 2001; Prados, 2010; Tavares, 2004) through the management of memories (Halbwachs, 1990) selectively shaping what is memorable (Zerubavel, 2003) even in situations of (self)celebration (Mejía, & Álvarez, 2005; Serpa, 2015, 2016). Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Research question What is the relevance ascribed to the mobilization of memory by the Research question What is the relevance ascribed to the mobilization of memory by the leadership in the (self)celebration of organizational identity by the centenary of Asilo de Infância Desvalida da Horta? Methods: - organizational case study (Yin, 2009) of a boarding school for disadvantaged young girls with a lay Board of Directors and managed by Religious Sisters; - focuses on the celebration of the centenary: from December 25 to 28, 1958; - inductive qualitative document analysis (formal and informal documents of / on the organization and publications in a local newspaper) (Bardin, 1995). Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Preliminary results: a) record for posterity a) a manuscript with written and photographic records, Preliminary results: a) record for posterity a) a manuscript with written and photographic records, in which the author, the President of the Asylum’s Board of Directors, “condensed the secular history of the Institution in countless details” (O Telégrafo, 1958). b) conveyance of a positive external image c) legitimation of the leadership’s action d) promotion of internal cohesion b) delivery of the program of these celebrations to the visitors, which includes photographs that highlight the improvement of the facilities; - “Symbolizing the 326 children who have lived in the Asylum since its establishment and, by intention of the founders, patrons and brothers of the same Asylum, 326 alms [bread and meat] will be distributed, after dinner” (Asilo de Infância Desvalida da Horta, 1958). c) parallelism of memory, “similarly to what was done in 1858, when this Asylum was established, the President of the Administrative Board shall be accompanied by six children to be admitted in this day” (Asilo de Infância Desvalida da Horta, 1958). d) Resolution of the Board of Directors to associate the celebration of the 25 years of presence of the Religious sisters in the Asylum with the celebrations of the centenary, “One of the first Sisters who served in this institution will unveil the portrait of the Rev. Mother General of the Congregation of the Portuguese Hospitaller Franciscan Sisters” (Asilo de Infância Desvalida, 1958). Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

Conclusion This mobilization of memory by the leadership has several goals: - leave a Conclusion This mobilization of memory by the leadership has several goals: - leave a record for posterity; - convey a positive image to the exterior; - legitimize its action in this organization; - foster internal cohesion. This commemoration was a celebration of the success of this organization, embodied in its corporate identity, assuming the memory mobilization by leadership as a key resource in this process of legitimation. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

References Asilo de Infância Desvalida da Horta. Festas comemorativas do primeiro centenário da sua References Asilo de Infância Desvalida da Horta. Festas comemorativas do primeiro centenário da sua fundação [Commemorative celebrations of the first centenary of its establishment]. December 28, 1958 [Programme]. Bardin, L. (1995). Análise de conteúdo [Content analysis]. Lisboa: Edições 70. Halbwachs, M. (1990). A memória coletiva [The collective memory]. São Paulo: Edições Vértice e Editora Revista dos Tribunais, Ltda. Lemos, R. R. G. de (1958). Asilo de Infância Desvalida da Horta. 1858 -1958. . Mejía, O. M. A. , & Álvarez, M. X. Q. (2005). Memoria colectiva y organizaciones [CManuscript work to celebrate one century of existenceollective memory and organizations]. Univ. Psychol. Bogotá (Colombia), 4(3), 285 -296. O Telégrafo (1958). Ano 66, November 30, 1958, no. 17706, p. 6. Perrenoud, P. (1994). A organização, a eficácia e a mudança, realidades construídas pelos atores [The organization, effectiveness and change, realities constructed by the actors]. In M. G. Thurler, & P. Perrenoud (Eds. ). A escola e a mudança. Contributos sociológicos [School and change. Sociological contributions] (pp. 133 -159). Lisboa: Escolar Editora. Pettigrew, A. M. (1985). Examining change in the long-term context of culture and politics. In J. M. Pennings et al. (Eds. ). Organizational strategy and change (pp. 269 -318). S. Francisco: Jossey Bass. Pettigrew, A. M. (1987). Context and action in the transformation of the firm. Journal of Management Studies, 24(6), 649 -70. Pettigrew, A. M. , Woodman, R. W. , & Cameron, K. (2001). Studying organizational change and development: Challenges for future research. Academy of Management Journal, 44(4), 697 -712. Prados, I. de la T. (2010). Identidad institucional de las organizaciones del tercer sector [Institutional identity of the third sector organizations]. Revista Internacional de Organizaciones (RIO), 5, 7 -29. Serpa, S. (2016). A sociological approach to institutional communication: The public image in organizational administration in education. International Education Studies, 9(1), 79 -90. doi: 10. 5539/ies. v 9 n 1 p 79. Serpa, S. (2015). Regulação e autonomia na procura de legitimidade na fundação do Asilo de Infância Desvalida da Horta [Regulation and autonomy in the search for legitimacy in the establishment of Asilo de Infância Desvalida da Horta]. In A. P. Almeida, L. L. Dinis, & G. R. da Silva (Eds. ), Actas do IV Congresso Ibero-Americano de Políticas e Administração da Educação – 2014 Políticas e Práticas de Administração e Avaliação na Educação Ibero-Americana [Proceedings of the IV Iberan-American Congress of Educational Policies and Administration – 2014 Administration and Evaluation Policies and Practices in Iberan-American Education]. Lisboa: Fórum Português de Administração Educacional. Tavares, S. (2004). Vinculação dos indivíduos às organizações [Individuals’ binding to organizations]. In J. M. C. Ferreira, J. Neves, & A. Caetano (Eds. ). (2004), Manual de psicossociologia das organizações [Handbook of psichology of the organizations] (pp. 307 -333). Lisboa: Mc. Graw-Hill. Zerubavel, E. (2003). Time maps: Collective memory and the social shape of the past. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods. (4 th ed. ). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications. Whetten, D. A. (2006). Albert and Whetten revisited strengthening the concept of organizational identity. Journal of Management Inquiry, 15(3), 219 -234. doi: 10. 1177/1056492606291200. Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16

The Memory in the Celebration of Organizational Identity Sandro Serpa Contact: sandro. nf. serpa@uac. The Memory in the Celebration of Organizational Identity Sandro Serpa Contact: sandro. nf. [email protected] pt Eleventh International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Imperial College London | London, UK 2 -5 August 2016 | Twitter: #ICISS 16