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LIDO Telecommunications Essentials® Part 1 Communications Fundamentals Understanding the Broadband Evolution 1 LIDO Telecommunications Essentials® Part 1 Communications Fundamentals Understanding the Broadband Evolution 1

Summary • • • (from p. 17) Bandwidth Types of Applications (p. 106/107) IGMeeting Summary • • • (from p. 17) Bandwidth Types of Applications (p. 106/107) IGMeeting Demo 2

Measurements of the Digital World • Processing power – Measured in number of transistors Measurements of the Digital World • Processing power – Measured in number of transistors and operations per second • Digital storage – Measured in Bytes (B) • 1 Byte = 8 bits = single character (letter “A”, number “ 2”, etc) • Digital data transmission – Measured in bits per second (bps) LIDO 3

The Power of the Processor • Today’s transistors are about a micrometer in overall The Power of the Processor • Today’s transistors are about a micrometer in overall length: dozens of them could sit on top of a human red blood cell. • This very success is bringing chipmakers to the brink of a new, steep obstacle to further gains in performance. • The problem lies in the tiny metal wires that weave the transistors into integrated circuits. LIDO 4

The Power of the Processor • The Intel 130 -nm Pentium 4 processor has The Power of the Processor • The Intel 130 -nm Pentium 4 processor has – 55 million transistors and – uses roughly 4. 8 km of interconnects to support each square centimeter of its circuitry LIDO 5

The Awful Truth About Moore’s Law • With the introduction of 90 -nm microprocessors The Awful Truth About Moore’s Law • With the introduction of 90 -nm microprocessors the chips will house 110 million transistors and nearly 6. 9 km of interconnects per square centimeter. • The narrower the wire, the longer it takes a signal to propagate along it. • Today’s most advanced ICs, switch up to 10 billion times a second, and their metal interconnects can barely keep up. LIDO 6

The Awful Truth About Moore’s Law • Each new generation of chips only makes The Awful Truth About Moore’s Law • Each new generation of chips only makes the situation worse • The good news is that the industry is working on solutions • Two main approaches are emerging. LIDO 7

The Awful Truth About Moore’s Law • One is designed to change the propagation The Awful Truth About Moore’s Law • One is designed to change the propagation characteristics of those tiny on-chip transmission lines. – low-k dielectric film • The more significant development comes from Intel’s recent reports of the successful demonstration of the first continuous all-silicon laser. – Optical connections can carry thousands of times more data per second than copper wires can 8

Moore’s Law and Telecommunications • On the positive side, thanks to Moore’s Law, network Moore’s Law and Telecommunications • On the positive side, thanks to Moore’s Law, network endpoints today are small, powerful, inexpensive devices. • With such power in the endpoints, the need to embed the functions of a network in the network’s core shrink. • In addition, smart end devices can set up and manage calls far better than a centralized network. LIDO 9

Advanced Applications • • • LIDO Simulation of blood flow in the human body Advanced Applications • • • LIDO Simulation of blood flow in the human body Space weather modeling Virtual tests for therapeutic cancer drugs Global modeling of the Earth’s magnetosphere Simulations of shock waves and eddies in turbulent fluids Large-scale structure of galaxies and galaxy clusters Modeling the interaction of proteins within individual cells Studying instability and turbulence in plasmas Testing models of the formation of cosmological 10 structures

Storage Requirements • 1. 5 KB (12, 000 bits) – One double-spaced typewritten page Storage Requirements • 1. 5 KB (12, 000 bits) – One double-spaced typewritten page • 1 MB (Megabyte) can store – – – One long novel, stored as text One full-page black-and-white image One 3 x 5 inch color picture 2 minutes of telephone-quality sound 7 seconds of CD-quality sound 0. 04 seconds of broadcast-quality video • 4 GB (Gigabyte) – One feature-length film – High-definition movies use 6 x the storage space of traditional movies. LIDO • 1 TB (Terabyte) – 250 full-length films 11

Storage Media • CD-ROM capacity = 650 MB • DVD capacity = 4. 6 Storage Media • CD-ROM capacity = 650 MB • DVD capacity = 4. 6 GB to 17 GB – Transfer rate of 600 Kbps to 1. 3 Mbps • • LIDO Bacterial Protein Memory Holographic Storage Systems Rotaxanes Magnetic Sensors 12

Storage Developments Cuvette size = 1 x 1 x 3 cm Capacity = Terabytes Storage Developments Cuvette size = 1 x 1 x 3 cm Capacity = Terabytes Library of Congress, (about 10 Tera. Bytes!!) LIDO 13

Storage Developments • Holostore Technology – Full scale optical computing environments require memories with Storage Developments • Holostore Technology – Full scale optical computing environments require memories with rapid access time and large storage capacity. – Holography technology achieves the necessary high storage densities as well as fast access times. – Holographic data storage enables discs the same size as today’s DVDs to store than 1 TB of data. LIDO 14

Storage Developments • Rotaxanes – A memory subsystem that uses molecules to store digital Storage Developments • Rotaxanes – A memory subsystem that uses molecules to store digital bits. – Researchers have made a new molecular device that could store up to 100 gigabits of data per square inch. – Could be used as switchable components for artificial machines. LIDO 15

Storage Developments • Tiny magnetic sensors, microscopic whiskers of nickel only a few atoms Storage Developments • Tiny magnetic sensors, microscopic whiskers of nickel only a few atoms wide are capable of detecting extremely weak magnetic fields. • The high degree of sensitivity means terabits of data -- or trillions of bits -- could be crammed into a square inch of disk space. LIDO 16

Bandwidth Definition • The term itself comes from the radio realm, and the visualization Bandwidth Definition • The term itself comes from the radio realm, and the visualization of the electromagnetic spectrum, where the spectrum is divided into “bands”. • The bands, and the channels within them, have a “width” expressed in Hertz (cycles per second). • The wider the band, the more information it can broadcast. • Information transfer rate is expressed in bits LIDO 17 per second (bps).

Transmission Measurements • Kilo (Kbps) Thousand • Mega (Mbps) Million 1, 000 • Giga Transmission Measurements • Kilo (Kbps) Thousand • Mega (Mbps) Million 1, 000 • Giga (Gbps) Billion 1, 000, 000 • Tera (Tbps) Trillion 1, 000, 000 • Peta (Pbps) • Exa (Ebps) LIDO 1, 000 Trillion 1, 000, 000 1 Billion 1, 000, 000 18

Bandwidth and Transfer Rate • Wider can be faster Download Time Type and size Bandwidth and Transfer Rate • Wider can be faster Download Time Type and size of file 768 Kbps Photo from ski trip (1 MB) Love songs MP 3 (1. 5 MB) Gaming demo (2. 5 MB) Powerpoint presentation for sales meeting (6 MB) LIDO 56 Kbps 4 min. 6 min. 10 min. 25 sec. 40 sec. 60 sec. 25 min. 2 min. 19

Transfer Rate Examples Document 2400 bps 56 Kbps 1. 5 Mbps 1. 7 Gbps Transfer Rate Examples Document 2400 bps 56 Kbps 1. 5 Mbps 1. 7 Gbps Page Report Book 8 sec 4 min 0. 67 hr 0. 34 sec 10. 3 sec 1. 7 min 0. 013 sec 0. 38 sec 3. 84 sec 1. 13 x 10 -5 sec 3. 39 X 10 -4 sec. 0034 sec Dictionary Encyclopedia Local library College library 2. 3 days 5 days 7. 4 yrs 74 yrs 2. 38 hrs 5. 15 hrs 116 days 3. 17 yrs 5. 3 min 11. 6 min 4. 32 days 43. 2 days 0. 28 sec 0. 61 sec 5. 49 min 0. 92 hrs Library of Congress** 1, 900 yrs 81. 5 yrs 3 yrs 23. 5 hrs 20

Transfer Rate Examples Document 10 Gbps 100 Gbps 1 Tbps 1 Pbps 1 Ebps Transfer Rate Examples Document 10 Gbps 100 Gbps 1 Tbps 1 Pbps 1 Ebps Library of Congress** 2. 35 hrs 14. 1 min 1. 41 min 8. 26 sec. 826 sec **Often used as the yardstick for the measure of human knowledge LIDO 21

Bandwidth Hungry Applications Application Online virtual reality 3 -D holography Grid Computing Web agents Bandwidth Hungry Applications Application Online virtual reality 3 -D holography Grid Computing Web agents Backbone Bandwidth (Terabits per second)*** 1, 000 Tbps to 10, 000 Tbps 30, 000 Tbps to 70, 000 Tbps 50, 000 Tbps to 200, 000 Tbps ***1, 000 Terabits per second = 1 Petabit per second LIDO 22

Bandwidth Abundance The number of bits per second per lambda doubles every 12 months. Bandwidth Abundance The number of bits per second per lambda doubles every 12 months. The number of lambdas doubles every 12 months per fiber The cost of transmitting a bit of information LIDO drops 50% every 9 months. 23

Main Traffic Types • • Voice Data Image Video 24 Main Traffic Types • • Voice Data Image Video 24

Voice Traffic Characteristics • Low bandwidth • Delay sensitive • Loss sensitive 25 Voice Traffic Characteristics • Low bandwidth • Delay sensitive • Loss sensitive 25

Data Traffic Characteristics • Low to high bandwidth, depending on content – Text-based data Data Traffic Characteristics • Low to high bandwidth, depending on content – Text-based data is low bandwidth, while sessions involving images or video increase the bandwidth requirement • Delay tolerant • Loss tolerant 26

Image Traffic Characteristics • Medium to high bandwidth • Delay tolerant • Loss tolerant Image Traffic Characteristics • Medium to high bandwidth • Delay tolerant • Loss tolerant 27

Video Traffic Characteristics • Medium to very high bandwidth, depending on quality – Resolution Video Traffic Characteristics • Medium to very high bandwidth, depending on quality – Resolution and motion parameters • Delay sensitive • Loss sensitive 28

Backbone Traffic Trends • Increasing amount of data, image and video traffic mean increasing Backbone Traffic Trends • Increasing amount of data, image and video traffic mean increasing amount of backbone traffic. • Advances in broadband access lines also contribute to growing backbone traffic. • When broadband subscriber lines start to support 100 Gbps, the core networks will have to move to Exabit per second (Ebps) capacities. • This will require the power of optical technologies and broadband wireless networks. 29

Application Trends • The changing traffic patterns are ushering in a new genre of Application Trends • The changing traffic patterns are ushering in a new genre of applications requiring next generation networks. – Digital entertainment – 3 D virtual reality – Streaming media – Tele-education – Telemedicine – Customer presentations – E- and M-commerce 30

Embedded Devices • Embedded devices will impact ubiquitous computing in three main areas – Embedded Devices • Embedded devices will impact ubiquitous computing in three main areas – Smart tags – Smart devices – Smart offices LIDO 31

Smart Appliances LIDO 32 Smart Appliances LIDO 32

More Smart Appliances LIDO 33 More Smart Appliances LIDO 33

Smart Sleeping LIDO 34 Smart Sleeping LIDO 34

Smart Bathroom LIDO 35 Smart Bathroom LIDO 35

Smart Mobile Pillbox 36 Smart Mobile Pillbox 36

n. Tag Interactive Name Tag LIDO 37 n. Tag Interactive Name Tag LIDO 37

France Telecom Shirt Cellphone LIDO 38 France Telecom Shirt Cellphone LIDO 38

Digital Wheels Video Monitors LIDO Internet Connections Navigation Systems Entertainment 39 Digital Wheels Video Monitors LIDO Internet Connections Navigation Systems Entertainment 39

Work & Play LIDO 40 Work & Play LIDO 40

Cochlear Implants LIDO 41 Cochlear Implants LIDO 41

Personal Location Device Veri. Chip, Bio Implant, Inc. LIDO 42 Personal Location Device Veri. Chip, Bio Implant, Inc. LIDO 42

RFID Bio Sensor and Antenna LIDO 43 RFID Bio Sensor and Antenna LIDO 43

Tooth. Phone LIDO 44 Tooth. Phone LIDO 44

Spatial Hierarchy of Ubicomp • • • LIDO Smart spaces and aware environments Cooperative Spatial Hierarchy of Ubicomp • • • LIDO Smart spaces and aware environments Cooperative buildings Roomware (software for rooms) and reactive rooms Media spaces Spatially immersive displays Information furniture Networked appliances Handheld/mobile/nomadic/portable/wireless Wearable/intimate computing Computational clothing (smart cloths) 45

Wearable Evolution LIDO http: //www. wearcam. org/ 46 Wearable Evolution LIDO http: //www. wearcam. org/ 46

Wearable Evolution • Business professionals, general consumers, and youths worldwide are carrying an increasing Wearable Evolution • Business professionals, general consumers, and youths worldwide are carrying an increasing number of portable electronic information and communications gadgets • E-textiles are emerging as the more versatile, and elegant alternative. LIDO 47

The Wearable Motherboard Infineon Fabric LIDO 48 The Wearable Motherboard Infineon Fabric LIDO 48

The Wearable Motherboard LIDO 49 The Wearable Motherboard LIDO 49

Smart Garment Applications • • • Military & Defense Rescue Services Healthcare Sports Fashion Smart Garment Applications • • • Military & Defense Rescue Services Healthcare Sports Fashion 50

Battle Gear 2025 Source: Popular Science 7/00 LIDO 51 Battle Gear 2025 Source: Popular Science 7/00 LIDO 51

Digital Fashionistas 52 Digital Fashionistas 52

Smart Sports Adidas 1: The Bionic Running Shoe LIDO 53 Smart Sports Adidas 1: The Bionic Running Shoe LIDO 53

The Wearable Motherboard LIDO 54 The Wearable Motherboard LIDO 54

Future Plans for Wearables • Flexible electronic computer displays that will result in outfits Future Plans for Wearables • Flexible electronic computer displays that will result in outfits that change images, projections, and patterns. • Temperature-sensitive fibers could be woven into mood fabrics • The military is financing research into the ultimate camouflage – “chameleon fabrics” with colors and patterns that would change in response to electrical commands. • Smart cloths will likely be powered by photovoltaic fibers, converting light or heat LIDO 55 into various functions.

Optical Camouflage LIDO 56 Optical Camouflage LIDO 56

Optical Camouflage 57 Optical Camouflage 57

Intelligent Wearables • The importance of intelligent wearables has to do with shifting traffic Intelligent Wearables • The importance of intelligent wearables has to do with shifting traffic patterns. • The projection is that by 2010, 95% of the traffic on networks would come from machine to machine communications. • Embedded devices and intelligent wearables will require access to communications networks in order to be of value to their users. 58

Man-Machine Interactions Applications • The realm of man-machine interactions covers a wide range of Man-Machine Interactions Applications • The realm of man-machine interactions covers a wide range of activities, including – affective computing – brain-computing interfaces – software agents – augmented reality – virtual reality – the growing presence of robots 59

Man-Machine Interactions Communications Channels 5 Direct Input Channels Sight Hearing Touch Smell Taste LIDO Man-Machine Interactions Communications Channels 5 Direct Input Channels Sight Hearing Touch Smell Taste LIDO 2 Direct Output Channels Language Motion Future Indirect Channels Gaze Tracking Brain Waves Thought Emotion 60

Affective Computing • Affective computing – gives computers the capability of recording human responses Affective Computing • Affective computing – gives computers the capability of recording human responses and identifying behavior patterns. • Wearable computers refer to – sensors embedded in clothing to register biological and physiological parameters, and communicate them if appropriate. LIDO 61

Affective Accessories LIDO 62 Affective Accessories LIDO 62

Expression Glasses LIDO 63 Expression Glasses LIDO 63

Brain-Computer Interface LIDO 64 Brain-Computer Interface LIDO 64

Cyber. Kinetics Brain. Gate System Microelectrode Array LIDO http: //www. cyberkineticsinc. com/braingate. htm 65 Cyber. Kinetics Brain. Gate System Microelectrode Array LIDO http: //www. cyberkineticsinc. com/braingate. htm 65

Mind Balance Brain-Controlled Video Game LIDO http: //news. bbc. co. uk/cbbcnews/hi/sci_tech/newsid_3525000/3525487. stm 66 Mind Balance Brain-Controlled Video Game LIDO http: //news. bbc. co. uk/cbbcnews/hi/sci_tech/newsid_3525000/3525487. stm 66

Software Agents • Software agents will perform routine tasks and act proactively. • These Software Agents • Software agents will perform routine tasks and act proactively. • These advanced software agents will be – Configured with a profile made of the user’s wishes – Automatically activated – Able to make decisions independently LIDO 67

Anatomy of Software Agents • There are various digital assistants that operate in a Anatomy of Software Agents • There are various digital assistants that operate in a personalized agent system – Intelligent agents – User agents – Cooperative agents – Functional agents LIDO 68

Man-Machine Interactions Agent Networks • These various software agents must be capable of interworking, Man-Machine Interactions Agent Networks • These various software agents must be capable of interworking, as well as delegating subfunctions. • A new, more “intelligent” Internet is a key requirement for communications between software agents. • This new network will not only transport the signals, it will also understand the meaning. • This new network is known as the Semantic Web LIDO 69

Augmented Reality • Augmented Reality is the field of superimposing computer data on real Augmented Reality • Augmented Reality is the field of superimposing computer data on real images. • With this approach, hidden information about all types of objects can be made visible. • Applications exist in numerous areas, including – architecture – building engineering – maintenance operations – surgical procedures LIDO – warfare 70

Smart Eyewear by Micro. Optical LIDO 71 Smart Eyewear by Micro. Optical LIDO 71

Motion Research Heads Up LIDO 72 Motion Research Heads Up LIDO 72

Battle Gear 2025 LIDO Source: Popular Science 7/00 73 Battle Gear 2025 LIDO Source: Popular Science 7/00 73

VR Airport Planner LIDO 74 VR Airport Planner LIDO 74

Shared Virtual Environments LIDO 75 Shared Virtual Environments LIDO 75

VR Football Trainer LIDO 76 VR Football Trainer LIDO 76

Input Devices and Sensual Technologies LIDO 77 Input Devices and Sensual Technologies LIDO 77

Virtual Clay LIDO 78 Virtual Clay LIDO 78

Virtual Medical Examination LIDO 79 Virtual Medical Examination LIDO 79

Tele-immersion Applications • Tele-immersion – the combination of real and virtual environments for purposes Tele-immersion Applications • Tele-immersion – the combination of real and virtual environments for purposes of display or interaction. – Tele-meetings – Tele-training – Collaborative engineering and design – Medical applications – Entertainment services LIDO 80

Tele-Immersion Tele-Meeting LIDO 81 Tele-Immersion Tele-Meeting LIDO 81

Tele-Immersion Collaborative Engineering and Design LIDO 82 Tele-Immersion Collaborative Engineering and Design LIDO 82

Tele-Immersion Medical Consultation LIDO 83 Tele-Immersion Medical Consultation LIDO 83

Tele-immersion E-Book Surgical Training LIDO http: //www. cs. brown. edu/research/graphics/research/telei/tele. Immersion. Applications. html 84 Tele-immersion E-Book Surgical Training LIDO http: //www. cs. brown. edu/research/graphics/research/telei/tele. Immersion. Applications. html 84

Tele-immersion Demo View Tele-immersion Demo www. atlantiscyberspace. com Click on IGS Overview (Immersive Group Tele-immersion Demo View Tele-immersion Demo www. atlantiscyberspace. com Click on IGS Overview (Immersive Group Simulation) 85

Robots – The Next Frontier • Intelligent robot squads –self-organizing groups of robots –under Robots – The Next Frontier • Intelligent robot squads –self-organizing groups of robots –under the control of neural networks –eliminating the need for humans LIDO 86

Bomb Squad Robots • Meet Andros-Wolverine - he is a six-wheeled, one-armed robotic vehicle Bomb Squad Robots • Meet Andros-Wolverine - he is a six-wheeled, one-armed robotic vehicle responsible for assisting bomb squads in defusing of all types of explosive devices. • Today, he can only defuse simple pipe and letter bombs, but Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center (ISRC) hopes to extend these capabilities to car bombs and, one day, even nuclear devices. LIDO 87

Robot Farmers LIDO 88 Robot Farmers LIDO 88

Hospital Courier Robots LIDO 89 Hospital Courier Robots LIDO 89

Factory Robots LIDO 90 Factory Robots LIDO 90

Man-Machine Interactions NASA Robonauts LIDO 91 Man-Machine Interactions NASA Robonauts LIDO 91

Micromechanical Flying Insect …. . Our country is at war in an unfamiliar territory, Micromechanical Flying Insect …. . Our country is at war in an unfamiliar territory, and a battle is about to begin. . . However, the enemy doesn't know that its every move is being monitored by robotic insects equipped with tiny cameras, flying overhead. . . called micro air vehicles (MAVs). . . dime-sized flying robots. . LIDO 92

MVA Urban Operation LIDO 93 MVA Urban Operation LIDO 93

Man-Machine Interactions Home Robots LIDO 94 Man-Machine Interactions Home Robots LIDO 94

Man-Machine Interactions Meet Valerie – Domestic Android Valerie sells for US$59, 000 with a Man-Machine Interactions Meet Valerie – Domestic Android Valerie sells for US$59, 000 with a one year warranty LIDO http: //www. androidworld. com/prod 19. htm 95

Grid Computing • While not a new concept, by moving into commercial markets, grid Grid Computing • While not a new concept, by moving into commercial markets, grid computing is becoming the key to the future of e-business, representing the next step in the development of the Internet as a real-time computing platform. • Some 80% – 90% of processing capacity is unused, regardless of whether it is a PC, workstation or mainframe. LIDO 96

Visualizing Grid Computing 97 Visualizing Grid Computing 97

Grid Computing Categories • Grid computing has three main application areas –On-demand computing grids Grid Computing Categories • Grid computing has three main application areas –On-demand computing grids –Data storage grids –Collaboration grids LIDO 98

Grid Computing Markets • • • Life sciences Energy Manufacturing Financial Government Research and Grid Computing Markets • • • Life sciences Energy Manufacturing Financial Government Research and Development 99

Grid Computing Example • Europe’s CERN nuclear research center is planning to start testing Grid Computing Example • Europe’s CERN nuclear research center is planning to start testing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007. CERN is building a data grid to accomplish this. – This experiment involves 40 TB (terabytes) of data per second – Even with a reduction of data, via compression and such, it will still generate 8 PB (petabytes) of data per year. – In addition to CERN, over 1, 000 institutions plan to provide storage capacity. LIDO 100

Grid Computing and the Network 1990 – 1999 The Network Is The Computer 2000 Grid Computing and the Network 1990 – 1999 The Network Is The Computer 2000 -2010 The Network Is Computing LIDO 101

Realtime Communications • Realtime communications will generate added value by reengineering and differentiating business Realtime Communications • Realtime communications will generate added value by reengineering and differentiating business processes. • Realtime communications will affect business processes by substantially increasing the – speed – efficiency – security LIDO 102

Realtime Communications 1 st and 2 nd Generations • The core element of realtime Realtime Communications 1 st and 2 nd Generations • The core element of realtime communications is the convergence of voice and data communications based on IP (Internet Protocol). • The first IP communication generation (1 g. IP) is focused on using existing network infrastructure for converged applications in order to cut costs. • The second IP communication generation (2 g. IP) will be primarily focused on reengineering and differentiating business processes. LIDO 103

Realtime Communications Applications • By integrating realtime communications into IT, enterprises will enable their Realtime Communications Applications • By integrating realtime communications into IT, enterprises will enable their business processes, creating the possibility of realtime business. • New productivity gains are expected from two key applications – Process-supporting communications – Ad-hoc communications LIDO 104

Realtime Communications Benefits • Productivity gains of these magnitudes translate into substantial top-line revenue Realtime Communications Benefits • Productivity gains of these magnitudes translate into substantial top-line revenue enhancements • At the same time, gains in responsiveness can help raise brand awareness and loyalty, reduce customer churn and extend market reach. 105

The New Public Network • End-to-end digitalization • End-to-end optical networking • Intelligent, programmable The New Public Network • End-to-end digitalization • End-to-end optical networking • Intelligent, programmable networks – PSTN • distributed logic and databases • high-speed common channel signaling • open application program interfaces (APIs) – IP networks LIDO • IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 106

The New Public Network • Broadband infrastructure – high bandwidth, multichannel transmission lines – The New Public Network • Broadband infrastructure – high bandwidth, multichannel transmission lines – high-speed fiber and broadband wireless media – low latencies – multiservice agnostic platforms – next generation telephony – quality of service guarantees – encryption and security services LIDO 107

LIDO Telecommunications Essentials® Understanding the Broadband Evolution Lili Goleniewski The LIDO Organization, Inc. www. LIDO Telecommunications Essentials® Understanding the Broadband Evolution Lili Goleniewski The LIDO Organization, Inc. www. telecomessentials. com +1 -415 -457 -1800 [email protected] com Skypes ID: lili. goleniewski Telecom Essentials Learning Center www. telecomessentials. com Copyright © 2007 - The LIDO Organization, Inc. All Rights Reserved 108