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Librarian-Scholars and the Boyer Model David Fox & Linda Fritz November 10, 2001 Librarian-Scholars and the Boyer Model David Fox & Linda Fritz November 10, 2001

Librarians and the Scholarship of Integration/Application David Fox November 10, 2001 Librarians and the Scholarship of Integration/Application David Fox November 10, 2001

The discipline of librarianship A distinct body of knowledge: – – – classification of The discipline of librarianship A distinct body of knowledge: – – – classification of information collection management guidance and instruction of users

The role of librarians “The role of librarians is to add value to information The role of librarians “The role of librarians is to add value to information resources by selecting, organizing, and assisting patrons in their use. This continues to be true regardless of the format or location of the information. Hence, the role of librarians in the future will not change, although the tools and technologies are constantly evolving. ” D. Fox, 1997

Education for librarians l l l practitioners degree is MLS Ph. D – not Education for librarians l l l practitioners degree is MLS Ph. D – not normally required to practice many academic library positions require a second advanced degree - subject masters - professional degree

Workload for librarians l l 40 hour week; 52 weeks/year like clinicians, extension specialists, Workload for librarians l l 40 hour week; 52 weeks/year like clinicians, extension specialists, administrators Considerable variation in assigned duties Some librarians have little time for scholarly work during normal work week

The Living Job Description l would be a big benefit to librarians! – – The Living Job Description l would be a big benefit to librarians! – – – Acknowledge the heavy component of assigned duties Allow for wide variations in assigned duties facilitate assessment for permanent status, promotion, merit

Scholarly communication in librarianship l l 120+ peer reviewed journals 300+ listservs and discussion Scholarly communication in librarianship l l 120+ peer reviewed journals 300+ listservs and discussion forums local, regional, national, international associations annual conferences provide continuing education

Expectations of scholarly work for librarians at the Uof. S 1992 Standards: l 3) Expectations of scholarly work for librarians at the Uof. S 1992 Standards: l 3) “Practice of Professional Skills” – – l 3(b) scholarship exemplified by publications, presentations at meetings, etc. One of 13 factors 4) “Research and Scholarly Work” – requirement for promotion/perm status for Librarian IV

Scholarly Expectations, continued 2001 Revised Draft Standards: 5. 2 Scholarly Work Scholarly work is Scholarly Expectations, continued 2001 Revised Draft Standards: 5. 2 Scholarly Work Scholarly work is expected of all librarians. Unlike traditional faculty research, a librarian’s scholarly work usually derives from professional practice. Candidates for permanent status or promotion will engage in scholarly work appropriate to academic librarianship with the fundamental expectation that the results of scholarly work will be shared with other members of the profession and the academic community. A librarian’s scholarly work may be in one or more but not necessarily all of the following areas:

Forms of scholarship a) applied scholarship: investigations of the practice within the library environment. Forms of scholarship a) applied scholarship: investigations of the practice within the library environment. Covers such areas as library organization and management practices, application of new technology, development of information delivery methods and services, application of teaching methods, development of standards for cataloguing and classification practices.

Forms of scholarship, continued b) subject scholarship: research in the literature of specific disciplines Forms of scholarship, continued b) subject scholarship: research in the literature of specific disciplines resulting in the publication of bibliographies, resource lists, internet site evaluations, translations, books, articles, etc.

Forms of scholarship, continued c) theoretical/policy scholarship: exploration of issues leading to the development Forms of scholarship, continued c) theoretical/policy scholarship: exploration of issues leading to the development of theory, policy and standards of practice for the library community. For example: copyright for digital resources, electronic licensing agreements, equity and sustainability of information access.

Forms of scholarship, continued For the purposes of this document scholarly work means work Forms of scholarship, continued For the purposes of this document scholarly work means work which has been subjected to external peer review. This is the primary evidence in this category.

The Boyer model of scholarship The Boyer model of scholarship

Academic librarians and the Boyer model l no mention of librarians in Scholarship Reconsidered Academic librarians and the Boyer model l no mention of librarians in Scholarship Reconsidered ! can we imagine scholarship without libraries and librarians? academic librarianship provides an excellent example of the scholarship of application: – the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge through practice.

Academic librarians and the Boyer model, continued l Academic Librarianship and the Redefining Scholarship Academic librarians and the Boyer model, continued l Academic Librarianship and the Redefining Scholarship Project, ACRL, 1998

Scholarship of application: a case study Uof. S Library EJournal Management System: l Integration Scholarship of application: a case study Uof. S Library EJournal Management System: l Integration of the EJournal Database and the Catalogue l Over 5000 full text titles l Developed over a six month period l Active collaboration by a team of librarians, library staff, computer programmer l expertise required: license administration, cataloguing, user education, system design, programming

Ejournal management system: features l l l Ejournals approachable through the Catalogue, EJDB Searchable Ejournal management system: features l l l Ejournals approachable through the Catalogue, EJDB Searchable via title, subject, collection, vendor, publisher Alternate sources listed Online linking Link validation Status messages

Scholarship of application: a case study, continued l Described in two presentations at national Scholarship of application: a case study, continued l Described in two presentations at national conferences in 2001 l l l CLA presentation , June 2001 (D. Fox) Access 2001 presentation, Sept 2001 (D. Friesen) Peer reviewed l l Mary Curran, U. of Ottawa Todd Mundle, SFU

Conference presentations vs. publication as a method of scholarly communication Conference presentation: l reaches Conference presentations vs. publication as a method of scholarly communication Conference presentation: l reaches desired audience quickly l l M. Jordan, Netspeed 2001 presentations are archived on conference website no copyright issues can be peer reviewed!

Ejournal management system: features l l l Intuitive, user friendly Enormous amount of thought, Ejournal management system: features l l l Intuitive, user friendly Enormous amount of thought, design, technical expertise, license administration, ongoing maintenance involved in making ejournal access easy and transparent Many faculty may be enjoying online access to ejournals without realizing the Library’s role in making those ejournals available.

Ejournal management system: Is it scholarship? l l a comprehensive resource discovery tool integrates Ejournal management system: Is it scholarship? l l a comprehensive resource discovery tool integrates and applies knowledge of several subdisciplines of librarianship and computer science shared with other members of the profession and the library community subjected to external peer review

Ejournal management system: Is it scholarship? l Meets the test of the Boyer model Ejournal management system: Is it scholarship? l Meets the test of the Boyer model – – l Meets the test of the revised draft Uof. S Library Standards – – – l scholarship of application scholarship of integration derived from professional practice shared with colleagues and the academic community subjected to external peer review Meets the OSU “litmus test” – creative intellectual work, validated by peers and communicated

Thank You ! Thank You !

Librarians and the Scholarship of Integration: The Catalogue Linda Fritz Librarians and the Scholarship of Integration: The Catalogue Linda Fritz

Introduction l “The library is a neglected resource little used by faculty and teachers Introduction l “The library is a neglected resource little used by faculty and teachers alike. ” Ernest M. Boyer. College: the undergraduate experience in America. New York: Harper and Row, 1987.

Introduction l “The library is of central importance to the institution. It is an Introduction l “The library is of central importance to the institution. It is an organic combination of people, collections and buildings, whose purpose is to assist users in the process of transforming information into knowledge. ”

Introduction l “Information and knowledge are central to the attainment of any university’s goals. Introduction l “Information and knowledge are central to the attainment of any university’s goals. The ways in which information is collected, stored, and distributed within the institution, will, in large measure, determine the level of success of scholarship and research. ” Association of College and Research Libraries. “Standards for university libraries: evaluation of performance. ” College and Research Library News, v. 30, September 1989.

Introduction l Question: If libraries are central to the university’s mission, why are they Introduction l Question: If libraries are central to the university’s mission, why are they so little used?

Introduction l Answer: The transparency of librarians’ work Introduction l Answer: The transparency of librarians’ work

History l In the beginning was the book – l l Focus of the History l In the beginning was the book – l l Focus of the work of early librarians Later came housing for the book Even later came the provision of access to the books in the collection

History l 1980 s – Libraries and librarians began to bridge the gap between History l 1980 s – Libraries and librarians began to bridge the gap between electronic information and the user. – Movement from role of custodian to role of translator

History l 1990 s – Library user moves from seeking knowledge to seeking information History l 1990 s – Library user moves from seeking knowledge to seeking information

History l l 2000 – 2001 “Academic librarians coordinate the evaluation and selection of History l l 2000 – 2001 “Academic librarians coordinate the evaluation and selection of intellectual resources for programs and services; organize and maintain collections and many points of access to information; and provide instruction to students and faculty who seek information”.

History l ACRL Task Force on Information Literacy Competency Standards, “Information Literacy Competency Standards History l ACRL Task Force on Information Literacy Competency Standards, “Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education” available at http: //www. ala. org/acrl/ilintro. html

The Catalogue l Question: Who is the author of those classic American books The The Catalogue l Question: Who is the author of those classic American books The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn?

The Catalogue l Answer: Samuel Clemens or Mark Twain The Catalogue l Answer: Samuel Clemens or Mark Twain

The Catalogue l l The library catalogue lets you use either name, with appropriate The Catalogue l l The library catalogue lets you use either name, with appropriate cross references. Cataloguers also research authors birth and death dates

The Catalogue l They establish uniform titles – l Bible. O. T. They establish The Catalogue l They establish uniform titles – l Bible. O. T. They establish series – New Canadian Library

The Catalogue Question: Where would you find The Toronto Stock Exchange in the telephone The Catalogue Question: Where would you find The Toronto Stock Exchange in the telephone directory?

The Catalogue l Answer: Until recently: under “The” In the catalogue, it will be The Catalogue l Answer: Until recently: under “The” In the catalogue, it will be under “Toronto” What makes more sense?

The Catalogue l The taxonomy of a call number PR - English literature 4034 The Catalogue l The taxonomy of a call number PR - English literature 4034 - Jane Austen. E 54 – Emma 1908 – Published in 1908

Librarians and the Scholarship of engagement Scholarship of teaching Information Literacy Librarians and the Scholarship of engagement Scholarship of teaching Information Literacy

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION 1989 l To be information literate, a person must be able AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION 1989 l To be information literate, a person must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively the needed information. Ultimately, information literate people are those who have learned how to learn.

American Library Association Information literate people know l how knowledge is organized l how American Library Association Information literate people know l how knowledge is organized l how to find information l how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them Information literate people are prepared for lifelong learning because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand.

Information Literacy l Scholarship of Engagement – Reference desk Information Literacy l Scholarship of Engagement – Reference desk

Information Literacy l Question: Where are the books about Shakespeare? Information Literacy l Question: Where are the books about Shakespeare?

Information Literacy l Quick answer: l In the stacks in the north wing Information Literacy l Quick answer: l In the stacks in the north wing

Information Literacy l More likely: – – – Are you studying a play or Information Literacy l More likely: – – – Are you studying a play or a poem? Which one? Are you going to write an essay? How long is it? When is it due? Did your professor ask you to use peer reviewed journals?

Information Literacy – – l Do you know what s/he means? Have you used Information Literacy – – l Do you know what s/he means? Have you used an index? Result: student goes away with a search strategy, but doesn’t really understand the role the librarian has played.

Information Literacy l l Note: librarians bemoan the fact that they have a “correct” Information Literacy l l Note: librarians bemoan the fact that they have a “correct” answer rate of approximately 55%. These numbers often don’t account for the fact that the original question can change quite dramatically during the reference interview.

Information Literacy l Scholarship of Teaching Information Literacy l Scholarship of Teaching

Information Literacy l “It is not enough that the books are cared for properly, Information Literacy l “It is not enough that the books are cared for properly, are well arranged, are never lost. It is not enough if the librarian can readily produce any book asked for. It is not enough that he can, when asked, give advice as to the best books in his collection on any given subject…He must put every facility in the way of the readers, so that they shall be led on from good to better.

Information Literacy University of Saskatchewan Library Standards for promotion and permanent status, June 2001: Information Literacy University of Saskatchewan Library Standards for promotion and permanent status, June 2001: A librarian’s teaching responsibilities and duties may be in one or more but not necessarily all of the following areas:

Information Literacy l a) Individual instruction: Teaching that occurs at point of need for Information Literacy l a) Individual instruction: Teaching that occurs at point of need for students/faculty; offered in support of course assignments and/or research needs; may involve face-to-face instruction, instruction to learners via phone/email/web.

Information Literacy l b) Single session class instruction: teaching that occurs in response to Information Literacy l b) Single session class instruction: teaching that occurs in response to faculty or student request; usually offered in a classroom or computer lab setting; may be “generic” instruction in information research methods or may involve instruction tailored to specific curricular areas or specific classes; offered both on and off campus.

Information Literacy l c) Library instruction: teaching that is provided through a library program Information Literacy l c) Library instruction: teaching that is provided through a library program of instruction; involves teaching a number of sequenced sessions to develop the information literacy skills of students; sessions may be taught as stand alone sessions or as part of a total program delivery; the librarian is responsible for the design, development, content, delivery and evaluation of program sessions.

Information Literacy l d) Integrated course instruction: teaching that occurs as a library component Information Literacy l d) Integrated course instruction: teaching that occurs as a library component of a course; the librarian is responsible for content and delivery of the library component; number of class sessions and time allocation may vary subject to consultation between faculty and librarians involved.

Information Literacy l e) Course instruction: teaching a course for which the librarian has Information Literacy l e) Course instruction: teaching a course for which the librarian has full responsibility for course design and development, content, delivery, marking and assessment; may be a required course to complete degree requirements.

Information Literacy But… 1998 -2001 Collective Agreement between the University of Saskatchewan and the Information Literacy But… 1998 -2001 Collective Agreement between the University of Saskatchewan and the University of Saskatchewan Faculty Association

Information Literacy 18. 4. 6 Information on Candidates for Promotion. (i) teaching shall not Information Literacy 18. 4. 6 Information on Candidates for Promotion. (i) teaching shall not normally be a criterion for promotion of librarians

Information Literacy l He must teach them how, after studying their own wants, they Information Literacy l He must teach them how, after studying their own wants, they may themselves select their reading wisely. ” Melvil Dewey, a librarian with an interest in simplified spelling Melvil Dewey. “The profession”. American Library Journal, v. 1, September 30, 1876.

Conclusion Perhaps we are too transparent! Conclusion Perhaps we are too transparent!