Lexicology 5 — Varieties of English Newspaper

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Lexicology 5 - Varieties of English Lexicology 5 — Varieties of English

Newspaper English The vocabulary of newspapers is very special and it requires a high level ofNewspaper English The vocabulary of newspapers is very special and it requires a high level of language command. There are several principles that make newspaper English so typical. They all follow the main idea: economical , condensed and attractive language.

Newspaer headlines Using as few words as possible. Grammar words often left out.  E. g.Newspaer headlines Using as few words as possible. Grammar words often left out. E. g. Turkish Minister Quits in Car Crash Scandal A simple form of the verb is used. E. g. Pepsi To Test New Colours, Cities Seek Restitution The infinitive is used — something is going to happen. E. g. USD 20 Million to Be Invested in Office Centre Words are usually shorter and sound more dramatic than ordinary English words (abbreviations).

Attracting attention Jokes - playing with words,  punning (humorous use of words) or making anagramsAttracting attention Jokes — playing with words, punning (humorous use of words) or making anagrams from the names of famous people (rearranging the letters to spell something else). E. g. Wild Ant, Yes? = Walt Disney (Disney’s new animal theme park opens) James’ Romance = James Cameron (Director of “Titanic” romantic story) New words with vague etymology invented by journalists. E. g. venditation = the act of setting forth ostentatiously

Assignment 1 Explain what the following headlines mean in ordinary English. 1) KEY WITNESS DEATH THREATAssignment 1 Explain what the following headlines mean in ordinary English. 1) KEY WITNESS DEATH THREAT 2) STAR WEDS 3) PM BACKS PEACE PLAN 4) QUEEN’S GEMS RIDDLE 5) POLL PROBES SPENDING HABITS

Stylistically marked & stylistically neutral vocabulary The same idea may be differently expressed by different peopleStylistically marked & stylistically neutral vocabulary The same idea may be differently expressed by different people in different situations. Some words have some stylistic colouring, typical for a particular style of speech or level of formality. These words are stylistically marked , contrasted with words used independently of the sphere of communication – stylistically neutral. E. g. steed (archaic, poetic) = gee-gee (informal, nursery) – horse (neutral), to converse (formal) = to chat (informal) = to talk, speak (neutral)

Formal vocabulary is the part of English vocabulary used only in official situations, talks, documents, literaryFormal vocabulary is the part of English vocabulary used only in official situations, talks, documents, literary works, lectures, scientific works, etc. Formal vocabulary is rather conservative, it also uses words that do not belong to the present-day English vocabulary. E. g. efficacious = effective, donation = gift, summon = send for, whereby, furthermore

Colloquialisms are used in everyday speech and in correspondence to friends. They are emotional, a lotColloquialisms are used in everyday speech and in correspondence to friends. They are emotional, a lot of them jocularly coloured, with figurative meaning. There are sets of colloquialisms specific to particular field of human activity, e. g. in business oral communication. (On the contrary, official correspondence is characterised by highly formal vocabulary. ) E. g. blind alley job = job that has no future, get cracking = work fast, long-winded = using more words than necessary to say something

!!! To use colloquialisms one must have an adequate fluency in English and sufficient familiarity with!!! To use colloquialisms one must have an adequate fluency in English and sufficient familiarity with the language, otherwise one may sound ridiculous, especially if one uses a mixture of British and American colloquialisms, pronounced with a foreign accent.

Slang is a set of new, very informal words used in private conversation language. Slang isSlang is a set of new, very informal words used in private conversation language. Slang is used by a specific social or age group , only later becoming more widely used. These words are expressive, witty, frequently ironical and often impolite, using unpredictable formation. Slang may combine with local colouring. American slang is different form British slang. E. g. yuppie (Young Upwardly Mobile/ Young Urban Professional) = young successful man with a good job, baby kissers = politicians

Assignment 2 Give neutral equivalents to the formal words. formal informal acquiesce dispatch emoluments obtain sustainAssignment 2 Give neutral equivalents to the formal words. formal informal acquiesce dispatch emoluments obtain sustain

Assignment 3 Explain or translate English business colloquialisms. 1) to bring home bacon 2) to beAssignment 3 Explain or translate English business colloquialisms. 1) to bring home bacon 2) to be sold like hot cakes 3) to be going on a song 4) hammer it out 5) sticky business

Standard English & Local dialects Standard English is the official language of Great Britain taught atStandard English & Local dialects Standard English is the official language of Great Britain taught at schools, used by the media, and spoken by educated people. Local dialects are varieties of the English spoken in some districts and having no normalised literary form. Regional varieties possessing a literary form are called variants. In Great Britain there are two variants, Scottish English and Irish English, and five main groups of dialects: Northern, Midland, Eastern, Western , and Southern.

Regional varieties of English I Cockney , the regional dialect of London. Cockney vocabulary is livelyRegional varieties of English I Cockney , the regional dialect of London. Cockney vocabulary is lively and witty, imaginative and colourful. Its specific feature is the so-called rhyming slang. E. g. boots are called daisy roots , hat = tit for tat , head = loaf of bread , wife = trouble and strife Scottish English uses a number of special dialect words. E. g. aye = yes, dram = drink (usually whisky), loch = lake, lassie = girl Black English is the term used to refer to the English which originated in the Caribbean islands and has now spread to many parts of the United Kingdom, Canada and the USA. E. g. jam = improvise, rap = street talk, beat = exhausted

Regional varieties of English II Indian English – Indglish. Well-educated, middle-aged Indian people speak English whichRegional varieties of English II Indian English – Indglish. Well-educated, middle-aged Indian people speak English which has retained in everyday usage words that may be found in the classics of 19 th century. Australian English — highly colloquial words and expressions. Australian colloquialisms often involve shortening a word. E. g. smoko (from smoking) = tea or coffee break, beaut (from beautiful) = great Canadian English is influenced both by British and American but it also has some specific features. E. g. shack = a hut, to fathom out = to explain

American English The variety of English spoken in the USA has a literary normalised form calledAmerican English The variety of English spoken in the USA has a literary normalised form called Standard American. It is not a separate language, because it does not posses grammar, phonetic system nor vocabulary of its own. Norms of American national standard are just modified norms of those accepted in Great Britain. American English slightly differs from British English in pronunciation , vocabulary , spelling and grammar. The term Americanism is referred to a word or phrase peculiar to the English language as spoken in the USA.

Examples of Americanisms University degrees: AE       BE instructor = assistantExamples of Americanisms University degrees: AE BE instructor = assistant lecturer assistant = lecturer associate professor = senior lecturer, reader professor = professor

Assignment 4 Translate into British English. American British 1) One-way or round trip? 2) He leftAssignment 4 Translate into British English. American British 1) One-way or round trip? 2) He left the faucet on. 3) We’re leaving in the fall. 4) It’s in the closet. 5) We’ve run out of gas.

Assignment 5 Try to solve these problems.  1) If an American/a British man asks forAssignment 5 Try to solve these problems. 1) If an American/a British man asks for a bill , is he more likely to be in a bank or a café? 2) If an American/a British man says that he works on the second floor , how many flights of stairs do you need to climb?

Assignment 5 cont. 3) Which would surprise you more an American or a British man tellingAssignment 5 cont. 3) Which would surprise you more an American or a British man telling you that he wanted to go and change his pants ? 4) Would an American/a British child get something hot or something cold if he/she asked for some potato chips ? 5) Where would you take an American/a British guest who said they wanted to wash up ?

English in new space The technology of the Internet supports and encourages the use of EnglishEnglish in new space The technology of the Internet supports and encourages the use of English more than other languages, but English itself is changing as a result of its use on the Internet.

New tendencies Internet supports the tendency to simplify the language.  American English has become theNew tendencies Internet supports the tendency to simplify the language. American English has become the number one language in the world of computers -American English spelling is used even in texts written in British English. E. g. TV programme in BE, but computer program – both BE and AE. The economy of language is reflected in the use of new Internet acronyms (netcronyms). The mixture of oral, written and drama genres on Internet results in creation of ‘ smileys ’ (emoticons).

Emoticons : -) Basic smiley : -D User is laughing (at you) : -* User isEmoticons : -) Basic smiley : -D User is laughing (at you) : -* User is drunk : -x A kiss 8: -) User is a little girl : -)-8 User is a big girl : -( User is upset or depressed : -{} User wears lipstick : -~) User has a cold

Netcronyms F 2 F = Face to Face (real meeting) FAQ = Frequently Asked Question BTWNetcronyms F 2 F = Face to Face (real meeting) FAQ = Frequently Asked Question BTW = BY THE WAY IMHO = In My Humble Opinion ROFL = Rolling On the Floor Laughing RTFM = Read The F…… Manual SWAK = Sealed With A Kiss

Everything is on the net… J F G I Everything is on the net… J F G I

Cartoon by Peter Steiner. The New Yorker, July 5,  1993 issue (Vol. 69 (LXIX) no.Cartoon by Peter Steiner. The New Yorker, July 5, 1993 issue (Vol. 69 (LXIX) no. 20) page




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