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Lecture 8 Process Approach & Improvement Total Quality Management Haroon Bakari
Subburaj’s 6 S Model for Process Improvement • The Author Subburaj, as headed ETDC, Chennai, declared the year 1993 as a TQM year for the Strengthen organisation. • As part of this journey, developed and practiced 6 S model for process improvement. As Synergize – – – Study Streamline Simplify Standardize Synergize Strengthen Study Process Improvement Standardize Streamline Simplify
Subburaj’s 6 S Model for Process Improvement • Study – The current performance level triggers improvement, and is important to study the process and document the measured performance level. • Streamline – Meant for process movement with least resistance in the organisation – It is important here to first document the current sequence of events and then eliminate unnecessary or non-value adding processes. • Simplify – It involves the identification of essential processes and simplifying procedure for carrying out the task without increasing the cost and compromising on quality.
Subburaj’s 6 S Model for Process Improvement • Standardize – Standardization essentially permits performing the process in the same way by every employee at all times, i. e. documented procedure. • Synergize – A process is synergized with at least two other processes- customer and supplier processes and is important to check the effect of revision to other processes. – This may call for modification in other processes also. • Strengthen – A number of activities are required in this phase • Educating & convincing the process owners, their customer & suppliers • Periodic counseling and assuring that the new process will perform better than the older one • Monitoring the results and confirming that process transition has occurred, employees are confident and that the process is practiced as documented.
Supply Chain Management (SCM) • Supply Chain – A supply chain is series of links and shared processes that exist between the external suppliers and external customers. – It is the customer supplier chain, where the customer can be a supplier to another customer – Hence the total chain can have a number of customer supplier relationships.
Supply Chain Management (SCM) • Supply chain management is a task of optimizing all activities throughout the supply chain, so that the products and services are supplied; – In right quantity – In right quality – To right customer – At right time – At the optimal cost
Supply Chain Management (SCM) • SCM involves following activities – Demand planning • Involves the accurate forecasts of demand of products & services to improve customer service while decreasing cost by reducing demand uncertainty. – Manufacturing planning and scheduling • Planning process that optimally schedules manufacturing orders with production capacity by combining Material Requirement Planning (MRP) and Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP) to create optimized and constrained production plan – Supply planning • To meet customer demand based on available inventory and transportation resources. Also include Distribution Requirements planning (DRP), determining the needs to replenish the inventory – Transportation planning • To optimally schedule, load, and deliver shipments to customers while considering delivery date, mode of transportation, carrier, etc.
Just-In-Time (JIT) Manufacturing • JIT emphasizes the time requirement for manufacturing • Production should be made on demand material should also arrive just in time, before the manufacturing starts • Thus, no need to stock the material and products. • Although it is difficult to foresee the demand, so as to deliver the product just in time as ordered, because customer cannot wait for actual work. • Toyota in Japan has been the pioneer in Just-In-Time manufacturing.
Just-In-Time (JIT) Manufacturing • It is defined as “a philosophy that focused attention on eliminating waste by purchasing or manufacturing just enough of the right items Just-in-Time”. • A synonym for zero inventory program. • It is a break through in TQM environment • Requires a perfect work culture with zero defects and excellent suppliers, machinery and infrastructure • Based on two principles – Production and supply of required number of parts when needed – JI DOKA (self-actualization) means utilizing the full potential of workforce.
Just-In-Time (JIT) Manufacturing • Objectives – Development of optimal process and competitive – Streamlining of operations and eliminating unwanted processes – Reducing the levels of wasted materials, time and efforts – Increasing efficiency of production process.
Lean Manufacturing • It is an umbrella concept enables JIT manufacturing. • Lean manufacturing is a whole systems approach that creates a culture in which everyone in the organisation continuously improves process and production. • It is an application of more efficient methods that greatly minimize delays, reduce costs and improve quality.
Lean Manufacturing • International Motor Vehicle Program (IMVP) researcher John Krafcik, USA commented that the Toyota system was lean because of the following reason: • “Half the human effort in the factory, half the manufacturing space, half the investment in tools, half the engineering hours to develop a new product in half the time. Also, it requires keeping far less than half the needed inventory on site, results in fewer defects, and produces a greater and ever growing variety of products”.
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