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Lecture 5 b on Chapter 15 Commercial Banking Industry: Structure and Competition Lecture 5 b on Chapter 15 Commercial Banking Industry: Structure and Competition

Chapter Preview • We examine the historical development of the banking system, both in Chapter Preview • We examine the historical development of the banking system, both in the U. S. and abroad. We then examine the role of financial innovation and its impact on competition. Topics include: – Historical Development of the Banking System – Financial Innovation and the Evolution of the Banking Industry – Structure of the U. S. Commercial Banking Industry ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -2

Chapter Preview (cont. ) – Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking – Separation of Banking Chapter Preview (cont. ) – Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking – Separation of Banking and Other Financial Service Industries – International Banking ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -3

Historical Development of the Banking Industry • The modern commercial banking industry began when Historical Development of the Banking Industry • The modern commercial banking industry began when the Bank of North America was chartered in Philadelphia in 1782. • The next slide provides a timeline of important dates in the history of U. S. banking prior to WWII. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -4

Historical Development of the Banking Industry Figure 18. 1 Time Line of the Early Historical Development of the Banking Industry Figure 18. 1 Time Line of the Early History of Commercial Banking in the United States ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -5

Historical Development of the Banking Industry • Outcome: Multiple Regulatory Agencies 1. Federal Reserve Historical Development of the Banking Industry • Outcome: Multiple Regulatory Agencies 1. Federal Reserve 2. FDIC 3. Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 4. State Banking Authorities ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -6

Financial Innovation • Innovation is result of search for profits • Response to Changes Financial Innovation • Innovation is result of search for profits • Response to Changes in Demand Conditions – Major change is huge increase in interest-rate risk starting in 1960 s – Adjustable-Rate Mortgages are an example of the reply to interest-rate volatility – Banks also started using derivates to hedge risk ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -7

Financial Innovation • Response to Changes in Supply Conditions – Major change is improvement Financial Innovation • Response to Changes in Supply Conditions – Major change is improvement in computer technology 1. Increases ability to collect information 2. Lowers transactions costs 3. This lead to many innovations on the supply side, which we will discuss ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -8

Financial Innovation: Credit and Debit Cards • Many store credit cards existed long before Financial Innovation: Credit and Debit Cards • Many store credit cards existed long before WWII. • Improved technology in the late 1960 s reduced transaction costs making nationwide credit card programs profitable. • The success of credit cards led to the development of debit cards for direct access to checkable funds. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -9

Financial Innovation: Electronic Banking • Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) were the first innovation on Financial Innovation: Electronic Banking • Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) were the first innovation on this front. Today, over 250, 000 ATMs service the U. S. alone. • Automated Banking Machines combine ATMs, the internet, and telephone technology to provide “complete” service. • Virtual banks now exist where access is only possible via the internet. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -10

Financial Innovation: Electronic Payments • The development of computer systems and the internet has Financial Innovation: Electronic Payments • The development of computer systems and the internet has made electronic payments of bills a cost-effective method over paper checks or money. • The U. S. is still far behind some European countries in the use of this technology. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -11

Financial Innovation: E-Money • Electronic money, or stored cash, only exists in electronic form. Financial Innovation: E-Money • Electronic money, or stored cash, only exists in electronic form. It is accessed via a storedvalue card or a smart card. • E-cash refers to an account on the internet used to make purchases. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -12

Financial Innovation: Junk Bonds • Prior to 1980, debt was never issued that had Financial Innovation: Junk Bonds • Prior to 1980, debt was never issued that had a junk rating. The only junk debt was bonds that had fallen in credit rating. • Michael Milken of Drexel Burnham assisted firms in issuing original-issue junk debt, and almost single-handedly created the market. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -13

Financial Innovation: Commercial Paper Market • Commercial paper refers to unsecured debt issued by Financial Innovation: Commercial Paper Market • Commercial paper refers to unsecured debt issued by corporations with a short original maturity. • Currently, over $1. 3 billion is outstanding in the market. • The development of money market mutual funds assisted in the growth in this area. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -14

Financial Innovation: Securitization • Securitization refers to the transformation of illiquid assets into marketable Financial Innovation: Securitization • Securitization refers to the transformation of illiquid assets into marketable capital market instruments. • Today, almost any type of private debt can be securitized. This includes home mortgages, credit card debt, student loans, car loans, etc. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -15

Financial Innovation: Avoidance of Existing Regulations • Regulations Behind Financial Innovation 1. Reserve requirements Financial Innovation: Avoidance of Existing Regulations • Regulations Behind Financial Innovation 1. Reserve requirements • Tax on deposits = I r. D 2. Deposit-rate ceilings (Reg Q) • As i , loophole mine to escape reserve requirement tax and deposit-rate ceilings ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -16

Financial Innovation: Avoidance of Existing Regulations • Money Market Mutual Funds: allowed investors similar Financial Innovation: Avoidance of Existing Regulations • Money Market Mutual Funds: allowed investors similar access to their funds as a bank savings accounts, but offered higher rates, especially in the late 1970 s. • Sweep Accounts: Funds are “swept” out of checking accounts nightly and invested at overnight rates. Since they are no longer checkable deposits, reserve requirement taxes are avoided. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -17

Financial Innovation and the Decline in Traditional Banking • The traditional role of transforming Financial Innovation and the Decline in Traditional Banking • The traditional role of transforming short-term deposits into long-term loans has been greatly affected by financial innovation. As the next slide shows, the importance of commercial banks as a source of funds to nonfinancial borrowers has shrunk dramatically. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -18

Financial Innovation and the Decline in Traditional Banking Figure 18. 2 Bank Share of Financial Innovation and the Decline in Traditional Banking Figure 18. 2 Bank Share of Nonfinancial borrowings, 1960– 2004 ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -19

Financial Innovation and the Decline in Traditional Banking • Loss of Cost Advantages in Financial Innovation and the Decline in Traditional Banking • Loss of Cost Advantages in Acquiring Funds (Liabilities) – π i then disintermediation because 1. Deposit rate ceilings and regulation Q 2. Money market mutual funds 3. Foreign banks have cheaper source of funds: Japanese banks can tap large savings pool ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -20

Financial Innovation and the Decline in Traditional Banking • Loss of Income Advantages on Financial Innovation and the Decline in Traditional Banking • Loss of Income Advantages on Uses of Funds (Assets) 1. Easier to use securities markets to raise funds: commercial paper, junk bonds, securitization 2. Finance companies more important because easier for them to raise funds ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -21

Banks' Response • Loss of cost advantages in raising funds and income advantages in Banks' Response • Loss of cost advantages in raising funds and income advantages in making loans causes reduction in profitability in traditional banking 1. Expand lending into riskier areas (e. g. , real estate) 2. Expand into off-balance sheet activities 3. Creates problems for U. S. regulatory system • Similar problems for banking industry in other countries ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -22

Decline in Traditional Banking in Other Industrialized Countries • Forces similar to those in Decline in Traditional Banking in Other Industrialized Countries • Forces similar to those in the U. S. have led to a similar decline in other industrialized countries. • For example, deregulation in Japan has led to new financial instruments, leading to disintermediation. • In many countries, as securities markets develop, banks also face competition from the products offered. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -23

Structure of the U. S. Commercial Banking Industry • Around 8, 000 commercial banks Structure of the U. S. Commercial Banking Industry • Around 8, 000 commercial banks currently exist in the U. S. • The tables on the next two slides shows various statistics for these banks as well as the ten largest U. S. banks. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -24

Structure of the Commercial Banking Industry FDIC statistics on banking ACF 104 Financial Institutions Structure of the Commercial Banking Industry FDIC statistics on banking ACF 104 Financial Institutions http: //www. fdic. gov/bank/statistical/index. html 18 -25

Ten Largest U. S. Banks World’s 100 largest banks http: //interactive. wsj. com/public/resources/docu ACF Ten Largest U. S. Banks World’s 100 largest banks http: //interactive. wsj. com/public/resources/docu ACF 104 Financial Institutions ments/wb 00 -100 -fpublic-2000 -09 -25. htm 18 -26

Branching Regulations • Branching Restrictions: Very Anti-competitive • Response to Branching Restrictions 1. Bank Branching Regulations • Branching Restrictions: Very Anti-competitive • Response to Branching Restrictions 1. Bank Holding Companies • Allowed purchases of banks outside state • BHCs allowed wider scope of activities by Fed • BHCs dominant form of corporate structure for banks 2. Automated Teller Machines • Not considered to be branch of bank, so networks allowed ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -27

Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking As the next slide shows, the number of commercial Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking As the next slide shows, the number of commercial banks in the U. S. was very stable from 1934 through the mid-1980 s. After that, the number of commercial banks began to fall dramatically. ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -28

Bank Consolidation and Number of Banks Figure 18. 3 Number of Insured Commercial Banks Bank Consolidation and Number of Banks Figure 18. 3 Number of Insured Commercial Banks in the United States, 1934– 2004 Quarterly banking profile 18 -29 ACF 104 Financial Institutions http: //www 2. fdic. gov/qbp. Select. asp? menu. Item=QBP

Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking • Bank Consolidation: Why? 1. Branching restrictions weakened 2. Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking • Bank Consolidation: Why? 1. Branching restrictions weakened 2. Development of super-regional banks • Riegle-Neal Act of 1994 1. Allows full interstate branching 2. Promotes further consolidation • Future of Industry Structure – Will become more like other countries, but not quite: • Several thousand, not several hundred ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -30

Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking • Are Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking a Good Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking • Are Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking a Good Thing? – Cons 1. Fear of decline of small banks and small business lending 2. Rush to consolidation may increase risk taking – Pros 1. Community banks will survive 2. Increase competition 3. Increased diversification of bank loan portfolios: lessens likelihood of failures ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -31

Separation of Banking and Other Financial Service Industries • Case for Glass-Steagall 1. FDIC Separation of Banking and Other Financial Service Industries • Case for Glass-Steagall 1. FDIC gives unfair advantage to banks 2. Allowing banks into underwriting is dangerous because FDIC promotes too much risk taking 3. Potential conflicts of interest • Case Against Glass-Steagall 1. Decreases competition 2. Unfair to banks 3. Hinders diversification ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -32

Separation of Banking and Other Financial Service Industries • Erosion of Glass-Steagall – Fed, Separation of Banking and Other Financial Service Industries • Erosion of Glass-Steagall – Fed, OCC, FDIC are allowing banks to engage in underwriting activities, under the Section 20 loophole in the act • Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 2002 – Legislation to eliminate Glass-Steagall – States retain insurance regulation, while SEC oversees securities activities – OCC regulates subsidiaries that underwrite securities – Fed still oversees bank holding companies ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -33

Separation of Banking and Other Financial Service Industries • Implications for Financial Consolidation 1. Separation of Banking and Other Financial Service Industries • Implications for Financial Consolidation 1. G-L-B will speed-up consolidation 2. Expect mergers between banks and other financial service providers to become more common 3. U. S. banks likely to become larger and more complex organizations ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -34

Separation of Banking and Other Financial Service Industries • Separation in Other Countries 1. Separation of Banking and Other Financial Service Industries • Separation in Other Countries 1. Universal banking: Germany 2. British-style universal banking 3. U. S. /Japan separation ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -35

International Banking • Why Rapid Growth 1. Rapid growth of international trade 2. Banks International Banking • Why Rapid Growth 1. Rapid growth of international trade 2. Banks abroad can pursue activities not allowed in home country 3. Tap into Eurodollar market • U. S. Banks Overseas 1. Regulators • Federal Reserve (Regulation K) 2. Structure • Edge Act Corporations • International Banking Facilities ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -36

International Banking • Foreign Banks in U. S. 1. Regulators • Same as for International Banking • Foreign Banks in U. S. 1. Regulators • Same as for U. S. domestic banks 2. Structure • 500 offices in U. S. • 20% of total U. S. bank assets ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -37

Largest Banks in the World 1 BNP France 2, 964 12/31/09 2 Royal Bank Largest Banks in the World 1 BNP France 2, 964 12/31/09 2 Royal Bank of Scotland Group United Kingdom 2, 747 12/31/09 3 HSBC Holdings Un ited Kingdom 2, 364 12/31/09 4 Crédit Agricole France 2, 243 12/31/09 5 Barclays United Kingdom 2, 233 12/31/09 6 Bank of America United States 2, 223 12/31/09 7 Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group Japan 2, 196* 3/31/10 8 Deutsche Bank Germany 2, 162 12/31/09 ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -38

Largest Banks in the World 9 JPMorgan Chase United States 2, 032 12/31/09 10 Largest Banks in the World 9 JPMorgan Chase United States 2, 032 12/31/09 10 Citigroup United States 1, 857 12/31/09 11 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) China 1, 726* 12/31/09 18 China Construction Bank China 1, 409* 12/31/09 20 Agricultural Bank of China 1, 301** 12/31/09 22 Bank of China 1, 281* 12/31/09 36 China Development Bank China 665* 12/31/09 ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -39

Chapter Summary • Historical Development of the Banking System: the historical development of the Chapter Summary • Historical Development of the Banking System: the historical development of the U. S. banking system was reviewed, and the resulting agencies (OCC, Fed, SEC, etc. ) discussed • Financial Innovation and the Evolution of the Banking Industry: changes in both demand supply forces, and the response of the banking industry was examined ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -40

Chapter Summary (cont. ) • Structure of the U. S. Commercial Banking Industry: the Chapter Summary (cont. ) • Structure of the U. S. Commercial Banking Industry: the number and size of U. S. commercial banks was reviewed, as well as commercial bank responses to regulatory restrictions • Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking: the forces leading bank consolidation and national banks, and the implications for the future, were outlined ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -41

Chapter Summary (cont. ) • Separation of Banking and Other Financial Service Industries: the Chapter Summary (cont. ) • Separation of Banking and Other Financial Service Industries: the rise and fall of separate banks was discussed, and the implications for the future were examined • International Banking: the branching of U. S. banks out of the U. S. as well as foreign banks operating in the U. S. were reviewed ACF 104 Financial Institutions 18 -42