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Lecture 21 • Poststructural Institutions Feminist Genealogies What is genealogy? How does gender matter Lecture 21 • Poststructural Institutions Feminist Genealogies What is genealogy? How does gender matter in its construction? What literatures, themes & concerns? Case Studies: Technologically Assisted Family Building and Persistent Irishness (Ethnicity)

Genealogy: defn • Literally combines Genea ‘race, generation’ + Logia study • Biological ordering Genealogy: defn • Literally combines Genea ‘race, generation’ + Logia study • Biological ordering by genetic or DNA lines, now by law, customs, habits, advanced measures • Multi-temporal – connects past & future

Why geneaology in SOC 364? Institution & institutionalization Points to value beyond task, function Why geneaology in SOC 364? Institution & institutionalization Points to value beyond task, function • Biology is neutral fact, objective evidence • Technologically reliant • Archive • Spatial: local - global • Repeatable • Recursive • Reflexive Reification of Symbolic Meaning Generation & Reproduction Kin, Clan Family Narrates space/time between fact events Bounded Social System

ART: a shortcut term • ICSI, intracytoplasmic sperm injection of eggs, IVF, • Information ART: a shortcut term • ICSI, intracytoplasmic sperm injection of eggs, IVF, • Information – CDC, ESHRE, Human Reproduction, NASS (National ART Surveillance, US) , ICMART, national fertility data • Prereqs – Knowledge: Information & Decision making – Transportation – Economics: Financial Transfers, Financing, Extended/repeated visits – Communication

Assisted Reproductive Technologies 1978 – Louise Brown first ‘test tube baby’ UK, 1981 in Assisted Reproductive Technologies 1978 – Louise Brown first ‘test tube baby’ UK, 1981 in US

Snapshot: Tech-assisted family building Population Infertility • Postponement – career, delayed independent residence, economic, Snapshot: Tech-assisted family building Population Infertility • Postponement – career, delayed independent residence, economic, marital status • Global market & hubs – Israel, India, UAE, Thailand, Belgium • Populations • Advanced age 40 -45 up to 50 or older • Lifestyle, behavioural (stress, obesity) • Extended hormonal contraceptive use (O’Connor) • Impaired fecundity (genetic) • Toxicity, Cancer survivor rates elevated • Average cost of an IUI cycle: $865; Median Cost: $350 (RESOLVE) 440 US clinics surveilled (since 2002) NASS, SMART (States Monitoring of Assisted Reproductive Technologies) • Patient demographics. • Patient obstetrical and medical history. • Parental infertility diagnosis. • Clinical parameters of the ART procedure. • Information regarding resultant pregnancies and births

Rapp: Modern family technologies & Markets • Child Surrogacy Arrangements • In re Baby Rapp: Modern family technologies & Markets • Child Surrogacy Arrangements • In re Baby M (537 A. 2 d 1227) • not banned; but contracts unenforceable or not recognized • Surrogate markets in developing areas, Postcolonial critiques – reproduction of imperialism? ? ? • Also Intercountry Child Adoptions • Child selection, information gathering, agency selection, filing • Economics: financing process, specialized adoption medicine • Continued communications post-placement Now trending … • Gamete Banking • Embryo Adoptions • Ovary cryopreservation (+7 yrs) & transfer (2012)

ART Standards • De-regulated market in US (Epstein & Landes, 1977) • No harmonization ART Standards • De-regulated market in US (Epstein & Landes, 1977) • No harmonization of across scales, only medical ethics boards FIGO, ASRM, ESHRE, UN, SART, ASRM, HFEA, RESOLVE (US) • Access for same-sex couples non-universal • Cross-border ART contracting is ‘entrenched’ since 2006 (Shenfield et al. , 2010) • Some EU countries, Japan dependent upon ART • EU highest density of ART providers(ESHRE); est. 5 -7% child population in DK • EU law - migration, travel, health care travel OK

Feminist concerns about Dystopic futures A Brave New World, Adolus Huxley published 1932 about Feminist concerns about Dystopic futures A Brave New World, Adolus Huxley published 1932 about 2540 AD) Vivana Zelizer, social economist Pricing the Priceless Child Janet Dolgin, bioethics & law Defining the family : law, technology, and reproduction an uneasy age Anna Mastroianni, UW Law, feminist & reproductive ethics Sarah Franklin & Hélene Ragone Reproducing Reproduction: kinship, power and technological innovation Susan Mc. Kinnon & Sydel Silverman Complexities : beyond nature & nurture Donna Haraway ‘fundamentalist hereditarian & genetic discourse’ (1997) Nadya Suleman, ‘Octomom’

Nash: Feminist approaches to geneaologies of cultural belonging • Geographer (landscape), Belfast • Ancestral Nash: Feminist approaches to geneaologies of cultural belonging • Geographer (landscape), Belfast • Ancestral research, ‘Irishness’, diaspora • Technologies used for community connections and sustenance of ‘collective consciousness’ • Autoethnographic research: Contributed DNA to Human Genome Project is the World Family Tree Project • Effects • • • Rootedness, indigenaety, fixed flows, diasporatic identities Legitimacy (authenticity) & proof on finer scales Intimate identity of self is now public, multi-scaled ‘Origin’ is now metaphorc & symbolic Product of economics and politics access, risk