Lectures 2 -3.ppt
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Lecture 2. Phonetic EM and SD Outline 1. Sound instrumentation of the text (звуковая организация текста) 2. Euphony and cacophony (эвфония и какофония) 3. Alliteration 4. Assonance 5. Onomatopoeia (звукоподражание) 6. Rhyme and Rhythm.
Sound instrumentation Euphony Cacophony Alliteration Assonance Onomatopoeia Rhyme and Rhythm
Euphony is a harmony of form and content, an arrangement of sound combinations, producing a pleasant effect.
Euphony: n Those evening bells, those evening bells How many a tale their music tells Of youth and home and that sweet time When last I heard their soothing chime. /Thomas Moore (1779 – 1852) an Irish poet, singer, songwriter/ n The murmuring of innumerable bees.
Cacophony: Cacophony is a disharmony of form and content, an arrangement of sounds, producing an unpleasant effect. E. g. : “the murdering of innumerable beeves”.
Alliteration (L. lit(t)era ‘letter’) a phonetic stylistic device; a repetition of the same consonant at the beginning of neighboring words or accented syllables. n "Deep into the darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing, doubting, dreaming dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before" (E. A. Poe). n Welling waters, winsome words /Algernon Charles Swinburne/
Assonance (L. assonare ‘to respond’) A phonetic stylistic device; agreement of vowel sounds (sometimes combined with likeness in consonants).
Assonance: n It is the hour when from the boughs n The nightingales’ high note is heard; n It is the hour when lovers’ vows n Seem sweet in every whispered word, n And gentle winds and waters near, n Make music to the lonely ear. /George Gordon Byron/
Onomatopoeia (from Greek onoma name + poiein to make) is the choice of sounds capable of suggesting the image of the object by their very sounding, imitating the signified object or action.
Onomatopoeia n The pretty birds do sing - cuckoo, jug -jug, pee-we, to-witta-woo! (D. Thomas) n “We are foot-slog-slogging Foot-foot-foot-slogging over Africa. Boots- boots- boots - moving up and down again. /Rudyard Kipling/.
Rhyme is the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combinations of words.
Rhyme (according to the types of terminal syllables) Full rhyme: might - right n The male rhyme: the stress is on the last syllable of the line: The light in the dust lies dead; n The female rhyme: the stress falls on the last but one syllable: When the lamp is shattered; but one Incomplete rhyme: n Consonant rhyme: worth – forth n Vowel rhyme: flesh - press Eye - rhyme: love – prove, woods - floods
My Heart's In The Highlands by R. Burns My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here, My heart's in the Highlands a-chasing the deer A-chasing the wild deer, and following the roe; My heart's in the Highlands, wherever I go. Farewell to the Highlands, farewell to the North The birth place of Valour, the country of Worth; Wherever I wander, wherever I rove, The hills of the Highlands for ever I love. Farewell to the mountains high cover'd with snow; Farewell to the straths and green valleys below; Farewell to the forrests and wild-hanging woods; Farwell to the torrents and loud-pouring floods.
Types of rhymes (according to the position of rhyming syllables in the stanza ): 1) couplet: aa: reaps keeps 2) triplet: aaa 3) cross rhyme: abab: Loud Song Cloud Long
Types of rhymes: 4) frame (ring): abba: Much have I travell’d in the realms of gold, And many goody states and kingdoms seen; Round many western islands have I been Which bards in fealty(=loyalty)to Apollo hold. (J. Keats) 5) internal rhyme “I dwelt alone in a world of moan, And my soul was a stagnant tide. ” /”Eulalie” by E. Poe/
Rhythm is a flow characterized by regular recurrence of elements in alternation with opposite or different elements (Webster). Rhythm in a language demands oppositions that alternate: longshort, stressed-unstressed, high-low etc.
Metre Academician V. M. Zhirmunsky suggests that the concept of rhythm should be distinguished from that of metre. Metre is any form of periodicity in verse and its kind is determined by the number of syllables in a verse.
A verse consists of n Feet (sg. foot) – units of qualitatively different syllables (stressed and unstressed) n Lines (sg. line) – sequences of feet ( a number of feet in a line rarely exceeds 8) n Stanzas (sg. stanza) – sequences of lines arranged according to rhyming and metrical patterns.
English metrical patterns: 1) iambic metre: -/-/-/: (ямб) n Auld Nature swears, the lovely dears n Her noblest work she classes: n Her prentice han' she try'd on man, n An' then she made the lasses (Robert Burns “Green Grow The Rashes(Rushes)”). Сперва мужской был создан пол, Затем, окончив школу, Творец вселенной перешел К прекраснейшему полу (Растет камыш среди реки, пер С. Маршака).
2) trochaic metre: /-/-: (хорей) Peter, pumpkin-eater, Had a wife and couldn’t keep her. Water, water, every where, And all the boards did shrink; Water, water, every where, Not a drop to drink. (S. T. Coleridge “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”)
English metrical patterns: 3) dactylic metre: /--: (дактиль) Why do you cry, Willie? Why do you cry? Why, Willie, why, Willie, Why? 4) amphibrachic metre: - /-: (амфибрахий) A diller, a dollar, a ten o’clock scholar… 5) anapaestic metre: -- /: (анапест) Said the flee, “Let us fly, Said the fly, “Let us flee”, So they flew through a flaw in the flue
Eulalie By Edgar Allan Poe (1809 -1849) n. . iamb. . |. . . iamb I DWELT| a. LONE n. . anapest. . . |. . . iamb In a WORLD | of MOAN n . . . anapest. . . |. . iamb And my SOUL| was a STAG | nant TIDE n . . . anapest. . |. . iamb. . . | Till the FAIR| and GEN | tle EU | la LIE | be CAME | n. . . iamb. . . |. . . iamb my BLUSH | ing BRIDE
Lecture 3. Graphic and Morphemic EM Outline 1. Graphic EM a) Italics; b) Capitalization; c) Spacing; d) Hyphenation; e) Steps; f) Multiplication. 2. Graphon 3. Stylistic functions of graphon and graphic EM. 4. Morphemic Level of Stylistic analysis a) Repetition of a morpheme; b) Extension of morphemic valency.
1. Graphic EM. Examples Italics "Now listen, Ed, stop that, now. I'm desperate. I am desperate, Ed, do you hear? " (T. Dreiser) Capitalization: “ Help, HELP” (A. Huxley) Spacing He missed our father very much. He was s l a i n in North Africa. (J. Salinger) Multiplication: “Allll aboarrrd! ”, cried Babbit (Sinclair Lewis)
Examples Hyphenation: Kiddies and grown-ups too-oo-oo, We haven’t enough to do-oo-oo (R. Kipling). Steps: Piglet, sitting in the running Kanga's pocket, substituting the kidnapped Roo, thinks: this shall take "If is I never to flying really it. " (A. Milne)
n According to the frequency of usage, the first place among graphical means of foregrounding is occupied by italics. n Intensity of speech (often in commands) is transmitted through the multiplication of a grapheme or capitalization of the word. n Hyphenation of a word suggests the rhymed or clipped manner in which it is uttered.
2. Graphon n GRAPHON is the intentional violation of the graphic shape of a word or (word combination) used to reflect its authentic pronunciation.
3. Stylistic functions of graphon and graphic EM. n Graphon indicates irregularities or carelessness of pronunciation, supplies information about the speaker’s origin, social & educational background, physical or emotional condition. n It also individualizes the character’s speech, adds plausibility, vividness, memorability.
Examples n “The b-b-b-ast-ud seen me c-c-coming” (stuttering). n “You don’t mean to thay that thith your firth time” (lisping). n ”Ah like ma droap o’Scatch, d’ye ken” (Scotch accent). - I like my drop of Scotch. n “Hish mishish, it ish hish mishish. Yesh”.
Graphon is used in n Contemporary prose dialogical clichés: gimme, lemme, gonna, gotta, coupla, mighta, willya”. n Newspaper posters & TV advertising: “Pik-kwik Shop”, “Follo me”, “Best Jeans for this Jeaneration”.
4. Morphemic level of stylistic analysis n Morphemic foregrounding is meant to add logical, emotive & expressive connotations. n One important way of promoting a morpheme is REPETITION of root or affixational morphemes.
a) Repetition of a morpheme; REPETITION of root or affix morphemes E. g. “I’ll disown you, I’ll disinherit you, I’ll unget you. ” (R. Sheridan) “She unchained, unbolted, unlocked the door”. (A. Bennett)
n emotive & evaluative meanings in degrees of comparison: E. g. : New scum, of course, has risen to take the place of the old, but the oldest scum (негодяй), the thickest scum, and the scummiest scum has come from across the ocean. (E. Hemingway)
b) Extension of morphemic valency. n Extension of the morphemic valency causes the appearance of occasional words (fresh, original). E. g. “I am not just talented. I am geniused. ” (Sh. Delaney) “I love you mucher! Plenty mucher? Me toer!” (J. Braine)
Enumerate n Phonetic EM n Graphic EM n Define “graphon” n Name 2 main means of morphemic foregrounding
WILLIAM WORDSWORTH THE DAFFODILS Analyse the rhythmical arrangement and rhymes of the poem. n I wandered lonely as a cloud n That floats on high o'er vales and hills, n When all at once I saw a crowd, n A host, of golden daffodils. n Beside the lake, beneath the trees, n Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.
The Cataract of Lodore by Robert Southey Identify the means of sound instrumentation and morphemic expressiveness of the extract Recoiling, turmoiling and toiling and boiling, And gleaming and streaming and steaming and beaming, And rushing and flushing and brushing and gushing, And flapping and rapping and clapping and slapping, And curling and whirling and purling and twirling, And thumping and plumping and bumping and jumping, And dashing and flashing and splashing and clashing; And so never ending, but always descending, Sounds and motions for ever and ever are blending All at once and all o'er, with a mighty uproar, And this way the water comes down at Lodore.