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Lecture 1. The problems of stylistic research I. The subject of stylistics II. Lincs of stylistics with other branches of Linguistics III. Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics
I. The subject of stylistics • Stylistics - from "style", which originates from the Latin "stylusstilus" (a small stickwith a pointed end for writing) - is a branch of linguistics, which studies the principles, effect of choice and usage of different language elements in rendering thought and emotion under different conditions of communication.
Style • - "socially recognized and • - "a system of functionally conditioned interrelated internally united totality language means of the ways of using, which serves a selecting and combining definite aim in the means of lingual communication". intercourse in some (I. R. Galperin) national language". (V. V. Vinograsov)
Style • - "specific features of text type (what • Systems of styles is of differentiates a two main classes: group of literary and colloquial. homogeneous texts) (= 3 -5 functional or of a specific text styles). (an individual text) "/ (Y. M. Skrebnev)
Fields of investigation 1. • the aesthetic function of the language (poetry and imaginative prose); • expressive means of the language (poetry, fiction, oratory, informal intercourse); • synonymous ways of rendering one idea (change of wording = change in meaning. Ex: "the old man is dead" - "The gentleman well advanced in years attained the termination of his terrestrial existance" - "the ole bean he kicked the bucket"); • emotional colouring in the language (stylistic effect);
Fields of investigation 2. • stylistic devices (combination of peculiar features); • splitting of the literary language into separate systems - styles (besides functional styles, "substandard" types of speech: slang, barbarisms, vulgarisms, taboo. . . ); • interrelation between language and thought (encoding and decoding stylistics); • individual manner of the author making use of the language means.
II. Lincs of stylistics with other branches of Linguistics (1) • Psycholinguistics • - mechanisms of speech production, process of word choice, structures, intonation • Rhetorics • -correctness, beauty and effectiveness of speech production
Lincs of stylistics with other branches of Linguistics (2) • Lexicology • - words, their meanings and forms • Grammar • - morphological and syntactical transposition as the basis of expressive means and stylistic devices: Ex. : Off we go!, various inversions
Lincs of stylistics with other branches of Linguistics (3) • Phonology • Semasiology - • -pecularities of sound speech organization: rhythm, alliteration, rhyme, nonstandard pronunciation • - theory of sign, meaning.
II. Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics (1) Literary and linguistic stylistics Both study the common ground of: • variability of the literary language; • the idiolect (individual speech) of the writer; • specific laws of poetic speech.
Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics (2) Literary and linguistic stylistics Lingua-stylistics: • functional styles • linguistic nature of expressive means Literary stylistics: • the composition of the work of art; • literary genres; • the writer's outlook.
Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics (3) Decoding stylistics • Each act of speech = a performer / sender + recipient • The author does ENCODING (epoch, historical situation, personal, political views). • The reader DECODES (interpretation).
Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics (4) • Comparative stylistics - contrastive study of more than one language. • Phonostylistics - style-forming phonetic features of the text. • Stylistic grammar - stylistic potential of the specific grammatical forms, syntactic links. . .
Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics (5) • Functional stylistics (the branch of linguastylistics) = deals with functional styles. • Stylistic lexicology - semantic structure of the word and the interplay of connotativa and denotative meaning of the word in context.