Lecture 1 Earthquakes global tectonics and man

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Lecture 1 Earthquakes, global tectonics and man Lecture 1 Earthquakes, global tectonics and man

Motivations for studying earthquakes It is the legitimate ambition of every properly constituted geologist Motivations for studying earthquakes It is the legitimate ambition of every properly constituted geologist to see a glacier, witness an eruption and feel an earthquake. G. K. Gilbert, in D. S. Jordan (ed. ), The Investigation of the California Earthquake of 1906, 1907

The glacier is always ready, awaiting his visit; the eruption has a course to The glacier is always ready, awaiting his visit; the eruption has a course to run, and alacrity only is needed to catch its more important phases; but the earthquake, unheralded and brief, may elude him through his entire lifetime.

It had been my fortune to experience only a single weak tremor, and I It had been my fortune to experience only a single weak tremor, and I had, moreover, been tantalized by narrowly missing the great Inyo earthquake of 1872 and the Alaska earthquake of 1899. When, therefore, I was awakened in Berkeley on the eighteenth of April last by a tumult of motions and noises, it was with unalloyed pleasure that I became aware that a vigorous earthquake was in progress. …

Bam 2003 (Mw 6. 8) Another motivation 100, 000 population 40, 000 dead Courtesy Bam 2003 (Mw 6. 8) Another motivation 100, 000 population 40, 000 dead Courtesy of James Jackson

Location date magnitude deaths Tabas, Iran 1978 7. 2 11, 000 v. rural Rudbar, Location date magnitude deaths Tabas, Iran 1978 7. 2 11, 000 v. rural Rudbar, Iran 1990 7. 3 40, 000 rural Zirkuh, Iran 1995 7. 2 1, 600 Bam, Iran 2003 6. 5 50, 000 v. rural town Loma Prieta, Ca 1989 6. 9 62 urban Northridge, Ca 1994 6. 7 51 urban

number if earthquakes per century killing > 10, 000 people Courtesy of James Jackson number if earthquakes per century killing > 10, 000 people Courtesy of James Jackson

Sweden Norway Canada Denmark USA Ireland UK Israel Netherlands Germany Turkey Taiwan Belgium China Sweden Norway Canada Denmark USA Ireland UK Israel Netherlands Germany Turkey Taiwan Belgium China Hong Kong Luxembourg Hong Kong Switzerland France Jamaica Puerto Rico Mexico Guatemala Colombia Spain Venezuela Greece Turkey Israel Taiwan Philippines Italy Portugal Ecuador Peru Africa Chile Indonesia South Africa Australia New Zealand Areas of the World scaled according to Property Insurance Premium Income The world seen economically… RMS Ltd

Turkey 1999 Iran 2003 Pakistan 2005 Taiwan 1999 India 2001 Indonesia 2004 Turkey 1999 Iran 2003 Pakistan 2005 Taiwan 1999 India 2001 Indonesia 2004

Cities with more than 500, 000 inhabitants Within 100 km of an active fault Cities with more than 500, 000 inhabitants Within 100 km of an active fault system Not within 100 km of a major active fault system

Some examples of large potential seismic disasters Istanbul 100, 000 s Himalayan front millions Some examples of large potential seismic disasters Istanbul 100, 000 s Himalayan front millions Tehran millions West Sumatra 500, 000

TEHRAN Destroyed in: 4 th century BC 855 AD 958 1177 1830 population: 10 TEHRAN Destroyed in: 4 th century BC 855 AD 958 1177 1830 population: 10 -12 million

fold Tehran J. Hollingsworth & M. J. Bolourchi fold Tehran J. Hollingsworth & M. J. Bolourchi

North Tehran Fault Tehran J. Hollingsworth & M. J. Bolourchi North Tehran Fault Tehran J. Hollingsworth & M. J. Bolourchi

Some examples of large potential seismic disasters Himalayan front millions Some examples of large potential seismic disasters Himalayan front millions

2005; 54, 000 dead Islamabad 2005; 54, 000 dead Islamabad

The biggest natural disaster ever? Earthquakes: 1556 1920 1923 1976 Shensi, China Haiyuan, China The biggest natural disaster ever? Earthquakes: 1556 1920 1923 1976 Shensi, China Haiyuan, China Tokyo, Japan Tangshan, China dead 830, 000 235, 000 143, 000 >243, 000 Coastal cyclones and windstorms 1737 1876 1881 1970 Calcutta Bangladesh Haifeng, China Bangladesh 300, 000 215, 000 300, 000 1642 1887 1931 1938 1959 China (dam burst) 900, 000 China (Huang Ho) 900, 000 China (Yangtze Kiang) 1, 400, 000 China (dam demolition) 500, 000 N. China 2, 000 Floods Data from Munich Re

Differences between the geologic and seismographic realms Differences between the geologic and seismographic realms

The multi-disciplinary nature of earthquake science The multi-disciplinary nature of earthquake science

Charles Darwin -- the father of neotectonics! Charles Darwin -- the father of neotectonics!

Two aspects of earthquake geology ü Neotectonics üPaleoseismology Two aspects of earthquake geology ü Neotectonics üPaleoseismology

Neotectonic “domains” of Taiwan (Shyu et al. , 2005, JGR) Neotectonic “domains” of Taiwan (Shyu et al. , 2005, JGR)

Paleoseismology T. Rockwell Paleoseismology T. Rockwell

Summary of Offsets Summary of Offsets




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