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Learning at times and places chosen by the learner: Adapting to study with mobile Learning at times and places chosen by the learner: Adapting to study with mobile digital devices Romina Jamieson-Proctor, Peter Albion, Petrea Redmond, Julie Harris, Trudy Yuginovich, Andrew Maxwell [USQ] Wendy Fasso, Teresa Sander [CQUniversity] Kevin Larkin [Griffith]

Abstract • Project conducted by two Queensland Universities - USQ and CQUniversity • Investigated Abstract • Project conducted by two Queensland Universities - USQ and CQUniversity • Investigated the potential of mobile devices to enhance student learning by increasing time on task at times and locations more convenient for the learner. • Paper describes the conceptual background approaches and reports some initial findings. • The key finding is that the presentation of study materials and learning activities requires adjustment to support effective mobile access. • Support for this project was provided by DEHub, funded by the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR).

Introduction and Background • Increasing numbers of university students are choosing to study all Introduction and Background • Increasing numbers of university students are choosing to study all or part of their degree in distance or online mode • Portable devices, such as laptops, smartphones offer learners new opportunities for learning at more convenient times and locations. • In April 2011, 37% of Australian mobile phone users (themselves 89% of adults) owned a smartphone and between June 2010 and June 2011 there had been a 63% increase in the number of users going online via their mobile phone (ACMA, 2011).

Literature review • m. Learning – “any service or facility that supplies a learner Literature review • m. Learning – “any service or facility that supplies a learner with general electronic information and educational content that aids in acquisition of knowledge regardless of location and time” (Jueming Chen, 2005, p. 1) – progression from behaviourist and cognitivist pedagogies toward connectivism (Siemens, 2004) – Students change from being merely receivers of transmitted knowledge to become co-creators (Blin & Munro, 2008). – key challenge is to provide appropriate learning experiences that maximise the benefits from the available materials, technologies and pedagogies. Photo caption Source: Supplier name goes here

Literature review (cont) • m. Learning (cont) – Cheung and Hew (2009) described as Literature review (cont) • m. Learning (cont) – Cheung and Hew (2009) described as “wireless handheld devices” (WHD) - small devices that can be carried easily in one’s palm and provide computing power – Waycott (2002) found the main benefit of PDAs was their portability and the opportunity for 'anytime, anywhere' access to materials. • Affordances and Limitations of mobile devices for learning – inexpensive way to engage students in developing technology skills – social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, personal ownership, and ease of use

Literature review (continued) • Affordances and Limitations of mobile devices for learning – can Literature review (continued) • Affordances and Limitations of mobile devices for learning – can be constrained by physical, logical, and socio-cultural factors (Song, 2011) e. g. screen size, slow processing speeds, difficulty with text input, and limited functionality, usability of the hardware, limited memory and battery, difficulties in ending programs, availability and price of appropriate programs and system instability, lack of student investment in projects if the devices are not their own. – The use of mobile computing devices can increase both independent and collaborative learning – We have proposed a definition of m. Learning based more on the contexts in which the devices are used for learning than on the mobility of the devices.

Method • The Study – over two semesters (summer 2011 and semester 1, 2012) Method • The Study – over two semesters (summer 2011 and semester 1, 2012) – Forty i. Pod Touch devices were purchased for each of the two universities: 20 for education and 20 for nursing students. – Case study approach - each participating class comprising a case. – Multiple data collection method • A pre/post survey • Fortnightly reflections by students and facilitators logged in an online tool.

Method (continued) • Focus group interviews conducted with student participants in each of the Method (continued) • Focus group interviews conducted with student participants in each of the cases. • Online discussion forums in which student participants discussed their use of the i. Pods, shared resources, and answered questions posed by their course facilitators. • Software developed to extract a record of applications installed on the i. Pods at the time of return following a semester of use. • This paper reports selected survey data from the first semester of implementation together with summaries from the subject facilitators.

Survey Results S 1 Table 1 Demographic Data Semester Gender: Female Male Total Country Survey Results S 1 Table 1 Demographic Data Semester Gender: Female Male Total Country of Birth: Australia Other Total Current Highest Level of Qualification: Secondary School TAFE qualification University qualification Industry based qualification e. g. , hospital certificate Total University Attended: University 1 University 2 Total Professional qualification being studied: Education Nursing Total Number 12 5 17 15 2 17 % 70. 6 29. 4 100 88. 2 11. 8 100 12 4 1 70. 6 23. 5 5. 9 0 0 17 11 6 17 100 64. 7 35. 3 100 15 2 17 88. 2 11. 8 100. 00

Results (continued) Table 2 Pre-test and post-test mean ratings on key scales (N = Results (continued) Table 2 Pre-test and post-test mean ratings on key scales (N = 17) Mean Attitude to ICT for learning Pre 4. 37 . 615 . 149 Post 4. 29 . 953 . 231 i. Pod Touch ease of use for learning Pre 3. 63 . 686 . 166 Post 3. 09 . 902 . 219 i. Pod touch usefulness for learning * Pre 3. 34 . 749 . 182 Post 2. 45 . 996 . 242 ICT frequency of use for study * Pre 3. 69 . 701 . 170 Post 2. 09 1. 035 . 251 Desirability of mobile device for study * Pre 3. 82 . 594 . 144 Post 2. 99 1. 168 . 283 * Indicates statistically significant mean difference Pre-Post at p<. 01 Std Deviation Std Error Mean

Results (continued) Table 3 Analysis of changes in ratings on the 5 key scales Results (continued) Table 3 Analysis of changes in ratings on the 5 key scales (N = 17)

Results (continued) • Facilitators’ summaries from Semester 1 – Education course – University 1 Results (continued) • Facilitators’ summaries from Semester 1 – Education course – University 1 • Students (n = 19) participated in an ICT and pedagogy methods course during semester 3, 2011. • Students appreciated the opportunity to try new ICT tools both for their own learning and also during their professional experience. • Many students commented that the limited screen space made the device difficult to use to read documentation and work within the LMS. • they valued the opportunity to communicate anywhere at any time and also felt that the mobility of the device kept them connected (to their peers and also their families).

Results (continued) – Education course – University 2 • preliminary data indicates that the Results (continued) – Education course – University 2 • preliminary data indicates that the i. Pod Touch was considered to be an “aside” to the course, its use for learning was treated more explicitly in tutorials, with mobile options offered across all activities. • Creating a purpose for the use of the i. Pod Touch was important, with the discussions about their affordances resulting in the later requests for a device – Nursing course – University 1 • Students indicated that the size of the i. Pod screen limited their ability to access documents. The other often cited difficulty was lack of connectivity to the Internet for access to course materials.

Results (continued) – Nursing course – University 2 • Despite frequent reminders to complete Results (continued) – Nursing course – University 2 • Despite frequent reminders to complete surveys and reflections and to attend the focus groups, participants did not fully engage in data collection. There was some reluctance to use Blackboard Collaborate to engage in the focus groups. This may have been due to these students having never used Collaborate before. It appears the lack of a defined role for the use of the i. Pods within the courses and the lack of confidence in the use of Blackboard Collaborate resulted in poor participation levels and the poor response rates to the surveys and focus groups.

Discussion & Conclusion • The actual distribution involved 62 students, 47 responded to the Discussion & Conclusion • The actual distribution involved 62 students, 47 responded to the pretest and 31 to the post-test questionnaires • Encountered reluctance from Nursing students • Participants reported strong ratings agreeing with a set of statements about interest in and attitude toward ICT for learning • Initial responses about desirability of a mobile device for study, and expectations about ease of use of the i. Pod Touch and its usefulness for learning were also positive • Mean responses for all three scales were lower on the post-test, with means for usefulness and desirability of mobile devices below the midpoint and significantly lower than at pre-test • The scale probing frequency of use of ICT (i. Pod Touch in the post-test) recorded the largest decrease, with the implication that the i. Pod Touch did not support the range of activities for which participants expected to use ICT

Discussion & Conclusion (continued) • Data collection continued in the first half of 2012 Discussion & Conclusion (continued) • Data collection continued in the first half of 2012 • Based on the data presented the key lesson appears to be that the presentation of study materials and learning activities will require significant modifications to enhance the student experience with small mobile devices • Universities should be undertaking those adjustments with some urgency to ensure that learners are able to use their devices for study at times and places of their choosing.

References Blin, F. , & Munro, M. (2008). Why hasn’t technology disrupted academics’ teaching References Blin, F. , & Munro, M. (2008). Why hasn’t technology disrupted academics’ teaching practices? Understanding resistance to change through the lens of activity theory. Computers & Education, 50, 475 -490. Cheung, W. S. , & Hew, K. F. (2009). A review of research methodologies used in studies on mobile handheld devices in K-12 and higher education settings. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(2), 153 -183. Jueming Chen, K. (2005). Mobile Technology in Educational Services. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 14(1), 89 -107. Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age Retrieved November 28, 2006, from http: //www. elearnspace. org/Articles/ connectivism. htm Song, Y. (2011). What are the affordances and constraints of handheld devices for learning in higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(6), 163 -166. doi: 10. 1111/j. 1467 -8535. 2011. 01233. x Waycott, J. (2002). Reading with new tools: An evaluation of Personal Digital Assistants as tools for reading course materials. ALT-J, 10(2), 38 -50. doi: http: //dx. doi. org/10. 1080/0968776020100205