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Lean & Agile Systems Engineering for Systems of Systems Dr. David F. Rico, PMP, Lean & Agile Systems Engineering for Systems of Systems Dr. David F. Rico, PMP, CSM Website: http: //davidfrico. com Linked. In: http: //www. linkedin. com/in/davidfrico Facebook: http: //www. facebook. com/profile. php? id=1540017424

Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Engineering Scaling Agile Systems Engineering Testing Agile Systems Engineering Value Summary 2

Author o o o à à à Do. D contractor with 25+ years of Author o o o à à à Do. D contractor with 25+ years of IT experience B. S. Comp. Sci. , M. S. Soft. Eng. , & D. M. Info. Sys. Large gov’t projects in U. S. , Far/Mid-East, & Europe Published six books & numerous journal articles Expertise in metrics, models, & cost engineering Adjunct at George Washington, UMUC, & Argosy Six Sigma, CMMI, ISO 9001, Do. DAF & Do. D 5000 Agile Program Management & Lean Development 3

Purpose of Briefing o Provide an overview of traditional, lean, and agile systems engineering Purpose of Briefing o Provide an overview of traditional, lean, and agile systems engineering concepts: n n n Define systems engineering, its purpose, and identify major approaches to traditional systems development Identify the strengths and weaknesses of traditional systems engineering for today’s ever changing world Discuss lean and agile systems engineering as a means of managing ever increasing system complexity Introduce mechanisms for scaling lean and agile systems engineering for larger systems of systems Examine iterative testing techniques within agile systems engineering for verification and validation 4

Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Engineering Scaling Agile Systems Engineering Testing Agile Systems Engineering Value Summary 5

What is Systems Engineering? o Sys-tem (sĭs-'təm): Interacting, interrelated, interdependent elements; A complex whole What is Systems Engineering? o Sys-tem (sĭs-'təm): Interacting, interrelated, interdependent elements; A complex whole n n n Interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems [INCOSE] Interdisciplinary tasks required to transform customer needs into a system solution [IEEE] Interdisciplinary approach for transforming a set of customer needs into a product solution [CMMI] Interdisciplinary approach for translating mission needs into operational systems [Do. D 5000] Interdisciplinary processes spanning the conception of ideas through the retirement of a system [ISO] 6

Purpose of Systems Engineering o o o Manage increasing system complexity (1950 s) Optimize Purpose of Systems Engineering o o o Manage increasing system complexity (1950 s) Optimize [sub]system performance (1960 s) Improve system cost and quality (1970 s) Eisner, H. (2002). Essentials of project and systems engineering management. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Blanchard, B. S. , & Fabrycky, W. J. (2006). Systems engineering and analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall. 7

MIL-STD-1521 B o o o Created by U. S. Air Force in 1976 Framework MIL-STD-1521 B o o o Created by U. S. Air Force in 1976 Framework for system and software reviews Standardized milestone reviews and technical audits U. S. Department of Defense. (1985). Military standard: Technical reviews and audits for systems, equipments, and computer software (MIL-STD-1521 B). Washington, DC: Air Force Systems Command (AFSC). 8

MIL-STD-498 o o o Created by U. S. Navy in 1994 Consolidated multiple U. MIL-STD-498 o o o Created by U. S. Navy in 1994 Consolidated multiple U. S. Do. D standards Software process and documentation standard U. S. Department of Defense. (1994). Military standard: Software development and documentation (MIL-STD-498). Arlington, VA: Space and Naval Warfare Center (SPAWAR). 9

ISO-15288 o o o Created by ISO/IEC around 2002 Standardization of international practices Meant ISO-15288 o o o Created by ISO/IEC around 2002 Standardization of international practices Meant for complex, computer-based systems International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission. (2002). Standard for systems engineering: System life cycle processes (ISO/IEC 15288). Geneva, Switzerland: Author. 10

CMMI o o o Created by the SEI in 2002 Merger of SW-CMM, SA-CMM, CMMI o o o Created by the SEI in 2002 Merger of SW-CMM, SA-CMM, IPD-CMM, etc. Used for systems engineering process improvement CMMI Product Team. (2006). CMMI for development version 1. 2 (CMU/SEI-2006 -TR-008). Pittsburg, PA: Software Engineering Institute. 11

Do. D Acquisition Lifecycle o o o Created by the U. S. Do. D Do. D Acquisition Lifecycle o o o Created by the U. S. Do. D around 2003 Latest evolution of acquisition best practices Meant for large-scale, multi-billion weapon systems DAU. (2009). Integrated defense acquisition, technology, and logistics life cycle management framework. Retrieved October 9, 2009, from https: //acc. dau. mil/ifc 12

Systems Engineering Benefits o o o Study funded by Australian defense institute Almost 44 Systems Engineering Benefits o o o Study funded by Australian defense institute Almost 44 programs studied from 2001 to 2004 Systems engineering minimizes schedule overruns Honour, Eric C. (2009). Demographics in measuring systems engineering return on investment (SE-ROI). Proceedings of the Joint 19 th Annual International Symposium of INCOSE/Third Asia-Pacific Conference on Systems Engineering (INCOSE/APCOSE 2009), Singapore. 13

Systems Engineering Studies o o o U. S. Air Force Center for Systems Engineering Systems Engineering Studies o o o U. S. Air Force Center for Systems Engineering Case studies of 9 major U. S. Air Force Programs had significant cost and technical issues Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT). (2009). Systems engineering case studies. Retrieved October 19, 2009, from http: //www. afit. edu/cse/cases. cfm 14

Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Summary Practices Scaling Testing Value 15

What is a Challenge? o Chal-lenge (chăl-'ənj): Contest, competition, fight, defy, confront, or dispute; What is a Challenge? o Chal-lenge (chăl-'ənj): Contest, competition, fight, defy, confront, or dispute; To question n n 21 st century systems are more software-intensive and highly-complex with numerous invisible parts Technology is evolving at an exponential rate of change which severely limits the planning horizon Global competitiveness has intensified and new military threats are rapidly emerging all of the time Customers have unpredictable needs and necessitate decision-making flexibility throughout the program Today’s post-industrial information age knowledge workers need new systems engineering approaches 16

Information Age o o o U. S. is no longer an industrial-age nation U. Information Age o o o U. S. is no longer an industrial-age nation U. S. part of a group of post-industrial countries U. S. consists of information-age knowledge workers Bell, D. (1999). The coming of post industrial society. New York, NY: Basic Books. 17

System Complexity is Growing o o o 21 st century systems are becoming more System Complexity is Growing o o o 21 st century systems are becoming more complex Number of physical parts are becoming smaller Nano-circuitry and software hide complexity Moody, J. A. , et al. (1997). Metrics and case studies for evaluating engineering designs. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 18

Software Century o o o Number of software-intensive systems is growing Yearly software industry Software Century o o o Number of software-intensive systems is growing Yearly software industry revenue exceeds $3 trillion Poor software quality costing trillions in lost revenues Dvorak, D. L. (2009). NASA study on flight software complexity. Pasadena, CA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). 19

Exponential Rate of Change o o o Technology evolving at an ever increasing rate Exponential Rate of Change o o o Technology evolving at an ever increasing rate Nano-scale computers will become the norm soon Technological breakthroughs may climax in 25 years Kurzweil, R. (2005). The singularity is near: When humans transcend biology. New York, NY: Penguin Group. 20

Crossing the Chasm o o o New technology spreads very slowly There a few Crossing the Chasm o o o New technology spreads very slowly There a few innovators and early adopters Years and decades for most to adopt new technology Moore, G. A. (1991). Crossing the chasm: Marketing and selling technology to mainstream customers. New York, NY: Harper Business. 21

Coping With Big Changes o o o Humans can’t cope with large technological change Coping With Big Changes o o o Humans can’t cope with large technological change Changes may be resisted for a long time (years) Big projects plunge organizations into chaos Sidky, A. (2008). Becoming agile in an imperfect world. Washington, DC: Agile Project Leadership Network (APLN). 22

Global Market Competition o o o Globalization has intensified market competition Domestic competition is Global Market Competition o o o Globalization has intensified market competition Domestic competition is no longer the major threat The trade deficit with the Far East is growing bigger 23

Cyber Threats are Growing o o o Cyber threats have increased 10 -fold in Cyber Threats are Growing o o o Cyber threats have increased 10 -fold in last decade 70% of cyber incidents perpetrated by U. S. citizens Cyber threats coming from Far East less than 3% 24

Complex Systems are Unstable o o o Large systems experience big downstream changes Project Complex Systems are Unstable o o o Large systems experience big downstream changes Project plans designed to cope with small changes Systems engineering not well-suited for changes Jones, C. (1995). Patterns of software system failure and success. Boston, MA: International Thompson Computer Press. 25

High Project Failure Rates o o o Failed and challenged projects hover around 70% High Project Failure Rates o o o Failed and challenged projects hover around 70% High failure rate due to inability to cope with change Big projects exacerbate challenge and failure potential Johnson, J. , et al. (2009). Chaos summary 2009. Boston, MA: Standish Group International. 26

Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Agile Systems Summary Engineering Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Agile Systems Summary Engineering Engineering Practices Scaling Testing Value 27

What is Lean? o Lean (lēn): Thin, slim, slender, narrow, adequate, or just-enough; Without What is Lean? o Lean (lēn): Thin, slim, slender, narrow, adequate, or just-enough; Without waste n n n A customer-driven systems engineering process that delivers the maximum amount of business value An economical systems engineering way of planning and managing the development of complex systems A systems engineering process that is free of excess waste, capacity, and non-value adding activities Just-enough, just-in-time, and right-sized systems engineering processes, documentation, and tools A systems engineering approach that is adaptable to change in customer needs and market conditions 28

Lean Thinking o o o Term coined by John Krafcik of MIT in 1988 Lean Thinking o o o Term coined by John Krafcik of MIT in 1988 Taiichi Ohno of Toyota is credited with its ideas Toyota Production System was adapted from Ford Womack, J. P. , & Jones, D. T. (1996). Lean thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation. New York, NY: Free Press. Liker, J. K. (2004). The toyota way: 14 management principles from the world’s greatest manufacturer. New York, NY: Mc. Graw Hill. Larman, C. , & Vodde, B. (2008). Scaling lean and agile development: Thinking and organizational tools for large-scale scrum. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. 29

Lean Six Sigma o o o Created in late 1990 s by Allied Signal Lean Six Sigma o o o Created in late 1990 s by Allied Signal and Maytag Combination of Six Sigma and Lean Thinking Focuses on eliminating waste vs. variation George, M. L. (2002). Lean six sigma: Combining six sigma quality with lean speed. New York, NY: Mc. Graw-Hill. 30

Lean Development o o o Lean product development emerged in the 1980 s Adaptation Lean Development o o o Lean product development emerged in the 1980 s Adaptation of Toyota Production System (TPS) “Toyota [New] Product Development System” Clark, K. B. , & Fujimoto, T. (1991). Product development performance: Strategy, organization, and management in the world auto industry. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 31

Lean Systems Engineering o o o Origin in MIT Lean Aerospace Initiative in 1992 Lean Systems Engineering o o o Origin in MIT Lean Aerospace Initiative in 1992 Lean Systems Engineering WG formed in 2006 Lean Enablers for Systems Engineering in 2009 INCOSE. (2009). Lean enablers for systems engineering. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from http: //www. incose. org/practice/techactivities/wg/leansewg 32

Lean+ 10 X o o o Created by Charles Toups of Boeing in 2008 Lean+ 10 X o o o Created by Charles Toups of Boeing in 2008 In-use by P-8 A Poseidon and AEW&C System Adaptation of lean thinking for non-manufacturing Brabant, E. M. (2009). Simple as. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from http: //www. boeing. com/news/frontiers/i_ids 01. pdf 33

Lean Engineering Benefits o o o MIT has studied dozens of systems for last Lean Engineering Benefits o o o MIT has studied dozens of systems for last 15 years They applied criteria to determine if they were lean Numerous programs, past, present, and future Murman, E. , et al. (2002). Lean enterprise value: Insights from MIT's lean aerospace initiative. New York, NY: Palgrave. 34

Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Agile Systems Summary Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Agile Systems Summary Engineering Practices Scaling Testing Value 35

What is Agility? o A-gil-i-ty (ə-'ji-lə-tē) Quickness, lightness, and ease of movement; To be What is Agility? o A-gil-i-ty (ə-'ji-lə-tē) Quickness, lightness, and ease of movement; To be very nimble n n n The ability to create and respond to change in order to profit in a turbulent global business environment The ability to quickly reprioritize use of resources when requirements, technology, and knowledge shift A very fast response to sudden market changes and emerging threats by intensive customer interaction Use of evolutionary, incremental, and iterative delivery to converge on an optimal customer solution Maximizing the business value with right-sized, justenough, and just-in-time processes and documentation 36

What are Agile Methods? o o o ‘Adaptable’ software development methodologies ‘Human-centric’ method for What are Agile Methods? o o o ‘Adaptable’ software development methodologies ‘Human-centric’ method for creating business value ‘Alternative’ to large document-based methodologies Agile Manifesto. (2001). Manifesto for agile software development. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from http: //www. agilemanifesto. org 37

Crystal Methods o o o Created by Alistair Cockburn in 1991 Has 14 practices, Crystal Methods o o o Created by Alistair Cockburn in 1991 Has 14 practices, 10 roles, and 25 products Scalable family of techniques for critical systems Cockburn, A. (2002). Agile software development. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. 38

Scrum o o o Created by Jeff Sutherland at Easel in 1993 Has 5 Scrum o o o Created by Jeff Sutherland at Easel in 1993 Has 5 practices, 3 roles, 5 products, rules, etc. Uses EVM to burn down backlog in 30 -day iterations Schwaber, K. , & Beedle, M. (2001). Agile software development with scrum. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 39

Dynamic Systems Develop. o o o Created by group of British firms in 1993 Dynamic Systems Develop. o o o Created by group of British firms in 1993 15 practices, 12 roles, and 23 work products Non-proprietary RAD approach from early 1990 s Stapleton, J. (1997). DSDM: A framework for business centered development. Harlow, England: Addison-Wesley. 40

Feature Driven Development o o o Created by Jeff De Luca at Nebulon in Feature Driven Development o o o Created by Jeff De Luca at Nebulon in 1997 Has 8 practices, 14 roles, and 16 work products Uses object-oriented design and code inspections Palmer, S. R. , & Felsing, J. M. (2002). A practical guide to feature driven development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 41

Extreme Programming o o o Created by Kent Beck at Chrysler in 1998 Has Extreme Programming o o o Created by Kent Beck at Chrysler in 1998 Has 28 practices, 7 roles, and 7 work products Popularized pair programming and test-driven dev. Beck, K. (2000). Extreme programming explained: Embrace change. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 42

Side-Effects of Agile Methods o o o Enable us to cross-the-chasm sooner or earlier Side-Effects of Agile Methods o o o Enable us to cross-the-chasm sooner or earlier Reduce chaos associated with large-scale change Reduce or divide the risk of change into small pieces Sidky, A. (2008). Becoming agile in an imperfect world. Washington, DC: Agile Project Leadership Network (APLN). 43

Essence of Agile Methods o o o High degree of customer & developer interaction Essence of Agile Methods o o o High degree of customer & developer interaction Highly-skilled teams producing frequent iterations Right-sized, just-enough, and just-in-time process Highsmith, J. A. (2002). Agile software development ecosystems. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. 44

Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Engineering Scaling Agile Systems Engineering Testing Agile Systems Engineering Value Summary 45

What is a Practice? o Prac-tice (prăk-'tĭs): Action, tool, technique, or work instruction; Step-by-step What is a Practice? o Prac-tice (prăk-'tĭs): Action, tool, technique, or work instruction; Step-by-step procedure n n n A set of one or more systems engineering techniques to accomplish a specific action or desired outcome Standard or semi-formal best practices or rules-ofthumb that are proven to be effective or efficient A suite of manual or automated tools or instruments that are useful for system design and development An array of optional elements that may be employed on an as-needed basis, i. e. , right tool at the right time Value-adding action that may significantly enhance productivity, quality, or other key performance metric 46

Release Planning o o o Created by Kent Beck at Chrysler in 1998 Project Release Planning o o o Created by Kent Beck at Chrysler in 1998 Project plan with a 30 -60 -90 -day timing horizon Disciplined and adaptable project management F/W Beck, K. , & Fowler, M. (2004). Planning extreme programming. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley. 47

Onsite Customers o o o Term coined by Kent Beck in 1999 Customer who Onsite Customers o o o Term coined by Kent Beck in 1999 Customer who sits with developers full-time Fast and efficient way to capture customer needs Tabaka, J. (2006). Collaboration explained: Facilitation skills for software project leaders. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison Wesley. 48

User Stories o o o Term coined by Kent Beck in 1999 Functions or User Stories o o o Term coined by Kent Beck in 1999 Functions or features of value to customers Highly adaptable requirements engineering process Cohn, M. (2004). User stories applied: For agile software development. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. 49

Pair Programming o o o Term coined by Jim Coplien in 1995 Consists of Pair Programming o o o Term coined by Jim Coplien in 1995 Consists of two side-by-side programmers Highly-effective group problem-solving technique Williams, L. , & Kessler, R. (2002). Pair programming illuminated. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. 50

Refactoring o o o Term coined by William Opdyke in 1990 Process of frequently Refactoring o o o Term coined by William Opdyke in 1990 Process of frequently rewriting source code Improves readability, maintainability, and quality Fowler, M. (1999). Refactoring: Improving the design of existing code. Boston, MA. Addison-Wesley. 51

Test-Driven Development o o o Term coined by Kent Beck in 2003 Consists of Test-Driven Development o o o Term coined by Kent Beck in 2003 Consists of writing all tests before coding Ensures all source code is verified and validated Beck, K. (2003). Test-driven development: By example. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. 52

Continuous Integration o o o Term coined by Martin Fowler in 1998 Process of Continuous Integration o o o Term coined by Martin Fowler in 1998 Process of automated build/regression testing Evaluates impact of changes against entire system Duvall, P. , Matyas, S. , & Glover, A. (2006). Continuous integration: Improving software quality and reducing risk. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. 53

Agile Documentation o o o Myth that voluminous documentation is needed Myth that agile Agile Documentation o o o Myth that voluminous documentation is needed Myth that agile methods do not use documentation Right-sized, just-in-time, and just enough documents Rueping, A. (2003). Agile documentation: A pattern guide to producing lightweight documents for software projects. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons. 54

Which Practices Are In-Use o o o Surveys of agile practices are conducted annually Which Practices Are In-Use o o o Surveys of agile practices are conducted annually Release planning is the most often used practice Continuous integration is also a major practice Version One. (2008). The state of agile development: Third annual survey. Alpharetta, GA: Author. 55

Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Engineering Scaling Agile Systems Engineering Testing Agile Systems Engineering Value Summary 56

What is Scalability? o Scal-a-ble (skāl-'ə-bəl): To expand, grow, stretch, raise, or intensify; Increase What is Scalability? o Scal-a-ble (skāl-'ə-bəl): To expand, grow, stretch, raise, or intensify; Increase in size n n n A systems engineering process that applies to projects of varying size, scope, magnitude, and complexity A product development process that is tailorable to the type, kind, and class of product under development A process that works well on range of products, from small to large programs involving systems of systems An approach that enables control of time, cost, scope, quality, and performance regardless of program type Systems engineering processes designed to maximize business value under a wide variety of constraints 57

Multi-Level Teams o o o Enables projects to plan for the future and present Multi-Level Teams o o o Enables projects to plan for the future and present Decomposes capabilities into implementable pieces Unclogs the drainpipes to let the execution flow freely Highsmith, J. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. 58

Multi-Level Backlog o o o Enables multiple levels of abstraction to co-exist Allows customers Multi-Level Backlog o o o Enables multiple levels of abstraction to co-exist Allows customers and developers to communicate Makes optimum use of everyone’s time and resources Highsmith, J. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. 59

Multi-Level Planning o o o Enables multiple level enterprise plans to co-exist Allows stakeholders Multi-Level Planning o o o Enables multiple level enterprise plans to co-exist Allows stakeholders to build viewpoint-specific plans Ensures capabilities are delivered at regular intervals Highsmith, J. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. 60

Multi-Level Coordination o o o Enables lean and agile methods to scale-up Allows enterprises Multi-Level Coordination o o o Enables lean and agile methods to scale-up Allows enterprises to create large-scale programs Unleashes optimum productivity and overall control Schwaber, K. (2004). Agile project management with scrum. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press. 61

Multi-Level Governance o o o Enables enterprises to achieve functional needs Allows programs to Multi-Level Governance o o o Enables enterprises to achieve functional needs Allows programs to coordinate functional activities Ensures optimal technical performance is achieved Ambler, S. W. (2009). Scaling agile software development through lean governance. Proceedings of the 2009 ICSE Workshop on Software Development Governance, Vancouver, Canada, 1 -2. 62

Multi-Level PMO o o o Enables enterprises to optimize project performance Allows enterprises to Multi-Level PMO o o o Enables enterprises to optimize project performance Allows enterprises to control and monitor programs Ensures projects are operating at peak capability Augustine, S. , & Cuellar, R. (2006). The lean-agile PMO: Using lean thinking to accelerate agile project delivery. Agile Project Management Executive Report, 7(10), 1 -28. 63

Multi-Level Automation o o o Enables enterprises to be flexible but disciplined Allows enterprises Multi-Level Automation o o o Enables enterprises to be flexible but disciplined Allows enterprises to distribute project work teams Ensures distributed project teams are collaborating 64

Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Engineering Scaling Agile Systems Engineering Testing Agile Systems Engineering Value Summary 65

What is Integration? o In-te-gra-tion (ĭn-'tĭ-grā-shən): To add, group, mix, or assemble; Act of What is Integration? o In-te-gra-tion (ĭn-'tĭ-grā-shən): To add, group, mix, or assemble; Act of combining n n n A critical verification and validation step in the systems engineering process for a complex new system A process of testing and evaluating units, components, subsystems, and systems of systems A key best practice that enables suppliers to deliver operational systems to customers early and often A automated systems development process that lowers the risks of developing large-scale complex systems A lean and efficient process that maximizes business value by eliminating waste from traditional testing 66

What is Agile Testing? o o o Traditional testing is a late, manual process What is Agile Testing? o o o Traditional testing is a late, manual process Agile testing is an early and automated process The goal of agile testing is to deliver early and often Grant, T. (2005). Continuous integration using cruise control. Northern Virginia Java Users Group (Novajug), Reston, Virginia, USA. 67

Agile Testing Process o o o Developers check-in changes as they occur Server detects Agile Testing Process o o o Developers check-in changes as they occur Server detects all changes and initiates testing Server compiles, tests, analyzes, builds, and deploys Duvall, P. , Matyas, S. , & Glover, A. (2006). Continuous integration: Improving software quality and reducing risk. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. 68

Agile Testing Technologies o o o There are literally hundreds of agile testing tools Agile Testing Technologies o o o There are literally hundreds of agile testing tools There are tools for building, testing, and deploying Integration tools monitor repositories and initiate tests Smart, J. (2009). Automated deployment with maven and friends: Going the whole nine yards. Proceedings of the Agile 2009 Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA. 69

Agile Testing Statistics o o o Fewer builds leave in higher bug counts A Agile Testing Statistics o o o Fewer builds leave in higher bug counts A high number of builds eliminates the defects Goal is to have as many, early builds as possible Lacoste, F. J. (2009). Killing the gatekeeper: Introducing a continuous integration system. Proceedings of the Agile 2009 Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 387 -392. 70

Scaling Agile Testing o o o Agile testing slows down with very large systems Scaling Agile Testing o o o Agile testing slows down with very large systems Slow testing slows integration and increases bugs Agile testing can speed back up with proper attention Kokko, H. (2009). Increase productivity with large scale CI: Reduce feedback cycle from weeks to 100 minutes. Proceedings of the Agile 2009 Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA. 71

Agile Testing Costs o o o Most agile testing tools are “free” open source Agile Testing Costs o o o Most agile testing tools are “free” open source A build server is no more than a commodity PC Low overhead for new and subsequent setup time Grant, T. (2005). Continuous integration using cruise control. Northern Virginia Java Users Group (Novajug), Reston, Virginia, USA. 72

Agile Testing Benefits o o o Reduces the cost-of-change by 10 times Frequent builds Agile Testing Benefits o o o Reduces the cost-of-change by 10 times Frequent builds dramatically lower defect levels Enables early “what-if” tests as well as late changes Fredrick, J. (2008). Accelerate software delivery with continuous integration and testing. Proceedings of the Sixth Japan Symposium on Software Testing (JASST 2008), Tokyo, Japan. 73

Agile Testing is Next. Gen o o o Manual testing is CMMI Capability Level Agile Testing is Next. Gen o o o Manual testing is CMMI Capability Level 0 or 1 Agile testing is a CMMI Capability Level 5 practice It is planned, defined, measured, and it’s optimizing Fredrick, J. (2008). Accelerate software delivery with continuous integration and testing. Proceedings of the Sixth Japan Symposium on Software Testing (JASST 2008), Tokyo, Japan. 74

Agile Testing Side-Effects o o o Eliminates big-bang integration in the 11 th hour Agile Testing Side-Effects o o o Eliminates big-bang integration in the 11 th hour Creates a repeatable and reliable testing process Evaluates system-wide changes throughout project Duvall, P. , Matyas, S. , & Glover, A. (2006). Continuous integration: Improving software quality and reducing risk. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. 75

Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Engineering Scaling Agile Systems Engineering Testing Agile Systems Engineering Value Summary 76

What is Business Value? o Val-ue (văl-'yōō): An amount, quantity, rate, magnitude, or desirability; What is Business Value? o Val-ue (văl-'yōō): An amount, quantity, rate, magnitude, or desirability; Economic worth n n n An economic estimation of the tangible worth of the organizational assets such as buildings and equipment An appraisal of intangible assets such as knowledge, experience, skills, patents, processes, and methods A technique for evaluating the costs and benefits of investments in a business, operations, or personnel The economic impact of deploying a new product development approach such as systems engineering The total life cycle costs of institutionalizing lean and agile systems engineering techniques in an enterprise 77

Studies of Agile Methods o o o Agile (138 pt. ) and traditional methods Studies of Agile Methods o o o Agile (138 pt. ) and traditional methods (99 pt. ) Agile methods fare better in all benefits categories Agile methods 359% better than traditional methods Rico, D. F. (2008). What is the ROI of agile vs. traditional methods? Tick. IT International, 10(4), 9 -18. 78

Productivity of Agile Methods o o o PP productivity 32 X more than trad. Productivity of Agile Methods o o o PP productivity 32 X more than trad. methods Scrum productivity 5 X more than trad. methods Agile methods productivity 20 X more than traditional Rico, D. F. , Sayani, H. H. , & Sone, S. (2009). The business value of agile software methods. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing. 79

Quality of Agile Methods o o o XP quality 13 X better than trad. Quality of Agile Methods o o o XP quality 13 X better than trad. methods Scrum quality 3 X better than trad. methods Agile methods quality 5 X better than traditional Rico, D. F. , Sayani, H. H. , & Sone, S. (2009). The business value of agile software methods. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing. 80

Costs of Agile Methods o o o XP costs 8 X less than traditional Costs of Agile Methods o o o XP costs 8 X less than traditional methods Scrum costs 2 X less than traditional methods Agile methods cost 5 X less than traditional methods Rico, D. F. , Sayani, H. H. , & Sone, S. (2009). The business value of agile software methods. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing. 81

Benefits of Agile Methods o o o XP benefits 1. 5 X more than Benefits of Agile Methods o o o XP benefits 1. 5 X more than traditional methods Scrum benefits 1. 3 X more than traditional methods Agile methods benefits 1. 4 X more than trad. methods Rico, D. F. , Sayani, H. H. , & Sone, S. (2009). The business value of agile software methods. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing. 82

ROI of Agile Methods o o o XP ROI 18 X more than traditional ROI of Agile Methods o o o XP ROI 18 X more than traditional methods Scrum ROI 3. 4 X more than traditional methods Agile methods ROI 10 X more than trad. methods Rico, D. F. , Sayani, H. H. , & Sone, S. (2009). The business value of agile software methods. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing. 83

NPV of Agile Methods o o o XP NPV 2. 4 X more than NPV of Agile Methods o o o XP NPV 2. 4 X more than traditional methods Scrum NPV 1. 9 X more than traditional methods Agile methods NPV 2. 3 X more than trad. methods Rico, D. F. , Sayani, H. H. , & Sone, S. (2009). The business value of agile software methods. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing. 84

Real Options of Agile Methods o o o XP ROA 1. 6 X more Real Options of Agile Methods o o o XP ROA 1. 6 X more than traditional methods Scrum ROA 1. 4 X more than traditional methods Agile methods ROA 1. 6 X more than trad. methods Rico, D. F. , Sayani, H. H. , & Sone, S. (2009). The business value of agile software methods. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing. 85

Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Agenda Introduction Systems Engineering Challenges Lean Systems Engineering Agile Systems Engineering Practices Agile Systems Engineering Scaling Agile Systems Engineering Testing Agile Systems Engineering Value Summary 86

Summary o o o Agility is the evolution of management thought Confluence of traditional Summary o o o Agility is the evolution of management thought Confluence of traditional and non-traditional ideas Improve performance by over an order-of-magnitude Rico, D. F. , Sayani, H. H. , & Sone, S. (2009). The business value of agile software methods: Maximizing ROI with just-in-time processes and documentation. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing. 87

New Book on Agile Methods o o o Guide to Agile Methods for business New Book on Agile Methods o o o Guide to Agile Methods for business leaders Communicates business value of Agile Methods Rosetta stone to Agile Methods for traditional folks n n http: //davidfrico. com/agile-book. htm (Description) http: //www. amazon. com/dp/1604270314 (Amazon) 88