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LCA ADEME database – Technical Committee Electric and Electronic Equipment April 19 th 2012 LCA ADEME database – Technical Committee Electric and Electronic Equipment April 19 th 2012 Olivier Réthoré ADEME - Service Eco-Conception & Consommation Durable (SECCD) With Intertek RDC (Isabelle Descos, Matthieu Gillis)

Agenda Goal and scope Speakers and housing Screens Printed Circuit Boards Power cables (End Agenda Goal and scope Speakers and housing Screens Printed Circuit Boards Power cables (End of life: first elements) 2

Goal and scope Goal: to establish short term and long term needs in terms Goal and scope Goal: to establish short term and long term needs in terms of LCI data to give specifications to Ecoinvent and PE in order to feed ADEME’s DB Scope: – TVs – + other “grey” and “black” EEEs: computers, phones, printers, hi-fi, set-top boxes. . . questions: § Relevancy to use of the same data as for TV § Missing inventories 3

Approach For each module: Analyze the needs in terms of inventory data: – Based Approach For each module: Analyze the needs in terms of inventory data: – Based on the PCR for TV – Using the preliminary study conclusions: « Elaboration d’un plan de développement d’une base publique de données d’ACV comme support à l’affichage » (ADEME, 2009 -10) Determine the appropriate granulometry – Regarding § Technological representativeness § Geographical representativeness § Temporal representativeness – Considering for each differentiation § The relative environmental impact § The information accessibility for the industrial (specific data) § The short term data availability in existing databases (generic data) Propose a list of inventories to be integrated in ADEME database, at least for short term 4

ADEME database content Processes Unit Reference flow, Unitgroups LCI Flows*, flow property*, Unitgr oups ADEME database content Processes Unit Reference flow, Unitgroups LCI Flows*, flow property*, Unitgr oups Metadata Sources, contacts, external documents *Common data for all suppliers (to be given by the JRC) X Characterization factors* LCIA Method Result for each impact category 5

3 modes to feed ADEME DB 1. Purchasing & adapting existing data – From 3 modes to feed ADEME DB 1. Purchasing & adapting existing data – From databases suppliers: PE, ecoinvent, PWC, BV, federations (e. g. worldsteel, Plastics. Europe) – For this lot (n° 10) : PE, ecoinvent 2. Data co-production – In order to fill missing data in some sectors – Projects generally launched by ADEME (e. g. Agri. Balyse for agriculture products) 3. Third party proposal – In order to allow the integration of data not yet available in ADEME DB – In order to promote assessment by industry 6

PCR for TV Functional unit PCR for TV Functional unit "To use a television in France during 8 years, switched on 4 hours a day, and switched off 20 hours a day. ” Impact categories –Climate change - IPCC 2007 –Resource depletion - EDIP 97 (2004) (may change) –Ecotoxicity (not validated) 7

Agenda Goal and scope Speakers and housing Screens Printed Circuit Boards Power cables (End Agenda Goal and scope Speakers and housing Screens Printed Circuit Boards Power cables (End of life: first elements) 8

Speakers and housing – Data need Plastic parts – Raw materials § « transversal Speakers and housing – Data need Plastic parts – Raw materials § « transversal » plastic needs already discussed in ad hoc Technical Committee: – Thermoplastics: HDPE, LLDPE, PP, amorphous PET, PET bottle grade, PA 6, PA 6 -6, PVC (emulsion), PVC (suspension), PVC (bulk), PMMA, ABS, PC, SAN, POM, GPPS, HIPS, PSE / PA 11, PA 12, Surlyn, PLA (polylactic acid), biosourced PET, Plastic from startch – Thermosets: polyurethane (flexible and rigid foam), Epoxy, PTFE, Unsaturated polyester resin, EVA / Elasthane, Elastodiene – Elastomers: Butadiene, Polybutadiene, Latex (SBR), Silicone, EPDM / Butyl rubber, Natural rubber, Isobutylene isoprene, Isoprene rubber, NBR, Neoprene, Nitrile rubber, SBS, SEBS § What pastics for Speakers and housing? § Other specific materials? 9

Speakers and housing – Data need Plastic parts – Forming and shaping § « Speakers and housing – Data need Plastic parts – Forming and shaping § « transversal » processes already discussed in ad hoc Technical Committee: – Thermoplastics: Injection, Extrusion, Expansion for EPS, Thermoforming / Foaming, Forming for GPPS and HIPS, Blow extrusion, Blow injection, Calendering, rotomolding – Thermosets: Foaming (flexible and rigid), Injection, Pressure molding, Thermoforming § What forming processes for Speakers and housing? § Other specific processes? 10

Speakers and housing – Data need Plastic parts – Additives § « transversal » Speakers and housing – Data need Plastic parts – Additives § « transversal » additives needs already discussed in ad hoc Technical Committee but NOT integrated in consultation letters: – Phtalates: DEHP – Mineral charges: Sulfur (poudre), Carbon black, Ti. O 2 alpha, Ti. O 2 beta, Silicium, Calcium carbonate, Magnésium carbonate, Baryum sulfate, Zinc oxyde, Lithopone, Fatty acids – Flame retardants: halogenous, non-halogenous – Dye agent § What additives for Speakers and housing? § Other specific additives? 11

Speakers and housing – Data need Steel – Raw materials § « transversal » Speakers and housing – Data need Steel – Raw materials § « transversal » steel needs already discussed in ad hoc Technical Committee: – Primary, secondary and average steel – Stainless steel (the most representative) – Tin steel § What steel for speakers? / Other specific steels? – Forming into semi-finished products § « transversal » processes already discussed in ad hoc Technical Committee: – – Wire Extrusion Sheet Galvanization § What forming processes for speakers? / Other specific processes? 12

Speakers and housing – Data need Steel – Forming into finished products § « Speakers and housing – Data need Steel – Forming into finished products § « transversal » processes already discussed in ad hoc Technical Committee: – – Forming with material withdrawal Forming without material withdrawal Surface treatment with additional input Surface treatment without additional input § What forming processes for speakers? / Other specific processes? 13

Speakers and housing – Data need Aluminium – Raw materials § « transversal » Speakers and housing – Data need Aluminium – Raw materials § « transversal » aluminium needs already discussed in ad hoc Technical Committee: – Primary, secondary and average aluminium § Other specific aluminium? – Forming into semi-finished products § « transversal » processes already discussed in ad hoc Technical Committee: – Extrusion – Sheet – Foil § What forming processes for speakers? / Other specific processes? 14

Speakers and housing – Data need Aluminium – Forming into finished products § « Speakers and housing – Data need Aluminium – Forming into finished products § « transversal » processes already discussed in ad hoc Technical Committee: – – Forming with material withdrawal Forming without material withdrawal Surface treatment with additional input Surface treatment without additional input § What forming processes for speakers? / Other specific processes? 15

Speakers and housing – Data need Other metals: data need has NOT been discussed Speakers and housing – Data need Other metals: data need has NOT been discussed in any Technical Committee – Raw materials § § § Single metals: copper, zinc, tungsten, titanium, tin Alloys: brass, bronze, zamak What metals for Speakers and housing? / Other specific metals? – Forming into semi-finished products § Similar to steel and aluminium? – – § Wire Extrusion Sheet Foil Other specific processes? 16

Speakers and housing – Data need Other metals: data need has NOT been discussed Speakers and housing – Data need Other metals: data need has NOT been discussed in any Technical Committee – Forming into finished products § Similar to steel and aluminium? – – Forming with material withdrawal Forming without material withdrawal Surface treatment with additional input Surface treatment without additional input § Other specific processes? 17

Speakers and housing – Other EEE Are there specific needs for other EEE, in Speakers and housing – Other EEE Are there specific needs for other EEE, in particular high fidelity equipments? – Wood and its processes 18

Agenda Goal and scope Speakers and housing Screens Printed Circuit Boards Power cables (End Agenda Goal and scope Speakers and housing Screens Printed Circuit Boards Power cables (End of life: first elements) 19

Screens – Data need Technological representativity Specific data mentioned in the PCR: – Technology Screens – Data need Technological representativity Specific data mentioned in the PCR: – Technology – Diagonal – Surface 20

Screens – Data need Technological representativity Technology Gf. K report in 2011, prevision for Screens – Data need Technological representativity Technology Gf. K report in 2011, prevision for 2012 in France Questions CRT 0% No need for data for TV. What about other equipments? LCD 27% PDP (plasma) 5% LED 68% o-LED 0% When would this technology represent 25% of the market? (not mentioned in the PCR) Technology 21

Screens – Data need Technological representativity Diagonal of visible screen (inches) Total surface of Screens – Data need Technological representativity Diagonal of visible screen (inches) Total surface of the screen (cm²) – Is there a correlation between the diagonal and surface, i. e. is only one parameter enough to characterize a screen? – Is there a linear correlation between the surface/diagonal and the impact? And the mass? § If not, for which surfaces/diagonals should one give LCIAs in the DB? § Do unusual diagonals imply higher environmental impacts? i. e. Are specific inventories required? 22

Screens – Data need Geographical representativity Semi-specific data mentioned in the PCR: – Production Screens – Data need Geographical representativity Semi-specific data mentioned in the PCR: – Production country of the screen module Remaining questions: – For electric mixes, our intention is to provide LCI with an adaptation of the country. Is it acceptable? – For other parameters, shall we consider a geographical differenciation? 23

Data available in Ga. Bi and ecoinvent Data available in one database Unavailable data Data available in Ga. Bi and ecoinvent Data available in one database Unavailable data Screens – Existing data Modules Characteristics ecoinvent (EIME, for information) Ga. Bi Amount of data Technologies 2 TFT, Monochrome Diagonal 15 inches - Geographical representativity Temporal representativity Amount of data 2003 Diagonal Geographical representativity Temporal representativity Amount of data Global 2001 1 Average (for computer): can it be used for TV? 17 inches Global 1998 Diagonal Geographical representativity Temporal representativity 12 1 diode (not a screen): is it adapted for screens? Mounting technique: THT or SMD Efficiency: high or low Maximum current: 0. 5, 1 or 1. 5 A Other: with lens, flip chip… Global 2007 Technologies LCD 1 a-Si TFT LCD module Technologies CRT LED o-LED PDP 24

Screens – Other EEE Can the same inventories be used for small screens in Screens – Other EEE Can the same inventories be used for small screens in telecommunications (phones)? Or must they be specific? What about computer screens? What about touch screen? 25

Agenda Goal and scope Speakers and housing Screens Printed Circuit Boards Power cables (End Agenda Goal and scope Speakers and housing Screens Printed Circuit Boards Power cables (End of life: first elements) 26

PCB – Data need Technological representativity Data mentioned in the PCR for the mainboard: PCB – Data need Technological representativity Data mentioned in the PCR for the mainboard: – Specific data § Number of faces (1 or 2) § Number of layers (no amount is given) § External surface of the board (cm²) – Semi-specific data § Country of production – NB: the mass is not mentioned! § An adaptation of the mass of the LCI process appears however necessary if one wants the mass of the model to fit with the real product. But it would require a modification of the PCR. 27

PCB – Data need Technological representativity Specific data mentioned in the PCR for the PCB – Data need Technological representativity Specific data mentioned in the PCR for the PS board: – Specific data § None – Semi-specific data § Number of faces (1 or 2) § Number of layers (no amount is given) § External surface of the board (cm²) § Country of production – NB: the weight is not mentioned 28

PCB – Data need Technological representativity Technology What type? Possible differentiations, to be discussed PCB – Data need Technological representativity Technology What type? Possible differentiations, to be discussed Amount of faces (single-sided or 1, 2 double-sided) Amount of layers 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 Substrat/insulating material FR 4, FR 2, FR 1, Teflon, CEM 1, CEM 3 Soldering Sn. Ag. Cu. . . Finishing Au. Ni, HASL (Hot Air Solder Leveling). . . Population & mounting What mix of SMD/THT components? (IC’s, conductors, resistors, transistors, connectors…) 29

PCB – Data need Geographical representativity Semi-specific data mentioned in the PCR: – Production PCB – Data need Geographical representativity Semi-specific data mentioned in the PCR: – Production country of the mainboard – Production country of the Power Supply board Remaining questions: – For electric mixes, our intention is to provide LCI with an adaptation of the country. Is it acceptable? – For other parameters, shall we consider a geographical differenciation? 30

PCB – Existing data Characteristics ecoinvent Ga. Bi EIME (for information) Amount of data PCB – Existing data Characteristics ecoinvent Ga. Bi EIME (for information) Amount of data 22 12 26 Type of product For computers Generic? Mounting technology SMD, THT Not mentionned Amount of faces (single -sided or double-sided) 2 1, 2 Not mentionned Amount of layers 2, 6 1 to 16 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 Substrate FR 4 CEM 1, FR 2 Soldering With or without lead Sn-Cu-Ag 11 compositions of Sn-Ag-Cu-Ni-Pb-Zn Not mentionned Finishing HASL Au. Ni, HASL Not mentionned Surface Functional unit: m² Not mentioned Main board or power board Main and power Not mentionned Not mentioned Population Included Geographical representativity Global Not mentioned Time-related representativity 2005 2010 2006 31

PCB – Need vs existing data Differentiations Technology Amount of faces Main board Power PCB – Need vs existing data Differentiations Technology Amount of faces Main board Power board SMT (Surface Mounted Technology) THT (Through-Hole Technology) 1, 2 Amount of layers 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 Substrat FR 4 FR 2 FR 1 Teflon CEM 1 CEM 3 Soldering Tin-Silver-Copper Finishing Au. Ni HASL (Hot Air Solder Leveling) General use Mounting Data available in Ga. Bi and ecoinvent Data available in one database (or unknown information) Unavailable data Population (is included in the global module LCI but information is not always provided) IC’s, conductors, resistors, transistors, connectors… 32

PCB – What and how many inventories? 33 PCB – What and how many inventories? 33

PCB – Other EEE Can the same inventories be used for any EEE? 34 PCB – Other EEE Can the same inventories be used for any EEE? 34

Agenda Goal and scope Speakers and housing Screens Printed Circuit Boards Power cables (End Agenda Goal and scope Speakers and housing Screens Printed Circuit Boards Power cables (End of life: first elements) 35

Power cables – Data needs PCR for TV does not require to include cables Power cables – Data needs PCR for TV does not require to include cables Is it acceptable, environmentally speaking (especially for resources depletion)? If not, shall we consider –Different modules? (based on material composition) –One average secondary data? (in this case: what most common conductor (copper? ) and what most common insulator? ) –One average data, but based on cable length as primary/semispecific data? 36

Power cables – Existing data ecoinvent has – Data for connector cables for computer Power cables – Existing data ecoinvent has – Data for connector cables for computer (made of copper, TPE and PVC) and printer (made of copper, aluminium and PVC) – Other types of cables (network cable, ribbon cable…) Ga. Bi does not have data for connector cables but for other types of cables (high voltage, optical fiber, phone…) 37

Agenda Goal and scope Speakers and housing Screens Printed Circuit Boards Power cables (End Agenda Goal and scope Speakers and housing Screens Printed Circuit Boards Power cables (End of life: first elements) 38

End of life – Data need Dismantling neglected by the PCR, because supposed manual End of life – Data need Dismantling neglected by the PCR, because supposed manual Materials recovery from screen and PCB: should it include only energy consumption and infrastructures? Disposal (incineration and landfill) of screen and PCB: how many inventories are needed and what parameters should be differentiated? (solder paste type, after or before Ro. HS…) i. e. is only one inventory for PWB incineration enough, or must there be as much inventories as for production processes? What about the estimated impact of the Ro. HS for Eo. L? Recycling and disposal of plastics and metals (see ad hoc Technical Committee) 39

End of life – Existing data ecoinvent has data for the end of life End of life – Existing data ecoinvent has data for the end of life of computer products (computer, mouse, printer…) including – Materials recovery from modules (screen, PWB…) including electricity, infrastructures and transport – Recycling of metals, from electronic scrap – Incineration of residues and unrecycled parts based on elementary composition (end-of-life model) – No recycling credits PE has data for PCB incineration after and before Ro. HS 40

End of life – Data need vs. Existing data Incineration, Landfill: based on composition End of life – Data need vs. Existing data Incineration, Landfill: based on composition Recycling Data available in at least two databases Data available in one database 41

End of life – Other than LCA data need For each material within each End of life – Other than LCA data need For each material within each module, we need statistics data for France, for each type of end of life (e. g. X % of copper incorporated in TV’s PCB is recycled, and Y % is incinerated…) PCR for TV propose a table from an Eco-systèmes pilot study (see next slide): can it be used? Are there official and validated data? 42

End of life – Non LCA data need Fractions issues du traitement d'un téléviseur End of life – Non LCA data need Fractions issues du traitement d'un téléviseur écran plat Estimation des taux de valorisation et de recyclage obtenus d'après étude pilote % recyclage matière % valorisation énergie Métaux ferreux 99 % Métaux non ferreux 100 % Coques plastiques 90 % Feuilles plastiques 99 % Cartes électroniques a) 34 % Câbles 88 % 3 % 25 % % élimination 1 % 6 % 1 % 41 % 12 % 100 % Dalles LCD: verre et cristaux liquides Plasma: verre et poudres Polluants : condensateurs, lampes mercure, composants électroniques Stériles a) Pour les cartes électroniques, le rendement de recyclage dépend des matériaux : 100 % des métaux (ferreux, non ferreux et précieux) des cartes électroniques sont recyclés, ce qui représente 34 % de la masse des cartes électroniques. 43

Other EEE Are there needs missing for other EEE? 44 Other EEE Are there needs missing for other EEE? 44