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Labor Policy Keiichiro HAMAGUCHI
Chapter 2 Labor Market Policy
Section 5 Vocational Training and Youth Policy
(1) Vocational Training Policy
(a) From apprenticeship to in-house training • 1911 Factory Law provided rules on apprenticeship. • 1938 Skilled Workers Training Order obliged companies training of employees. • ILO Recommendation No. 57 on Vocational Training adopted in 1939 • 1947 Labor Standards Law prohibited exploitation of apprentice and trainee.
(b) Vocational training and trade skill test • 1958 Vocational Training Law combined in -house training with public vocational training. • The Law introduced trade skill test system. • 1969 VT Law put in-house training under prefectural governors. • ILO Recommendation No. 117 on Vocational Training adopted in 1962.
(c) Employment stability policy and in-house training • 1974 Employment Insurance Law headed for employment stabilization (implying in-house training). • 1978 revised VT Law advocated employer’s obligation on training. • 1985 Human Resources Development Promotion Law recognized on-the job training (OJT) as in-house training. • ILO Convention No. 142 on Vocational Guidance and Vocational Training in the Development of Human Resources adopted in 1975.
(d) Voluntary Human Resource Development • Focus shifted from in-house training to voluntary training (self enlightenment). • 1997 revised HRDP Law declared “Career is property”. • 1998 Educational Training Benefits are paid to workers who take training course (benefit rate: 80% down to 40% in 2003).
(e) Support of Career Development • 2001 revised HRDP Law encouraged voluntary initiatives on career designs. • 2004 ILO Recommendation No. 195 on Human Resources Development advocated life-long learning. • 2006 revised HRDP Law introduced “Japanese dual system” (combination of workplace training and classroom education). • 2007 Jobs Card System may facilitate employment of “freeters” and single mothers.
(2) Youth Policy
(a) Protection of Minors • 1911 Factory Law banned child labor under 12, restricted working time and banned night work of age 12 -15. • 1923 Industrial Minimum Age Law banned child labor under 14 based on ILO Convention No. 5. • 1947 Labor Standards Law set minimum age at 15 based on ILO Convention No. 59, restricted overtime, night work and dangerous work age of age 15 -18.
(b) Employment Placement of New Graduates • 1947 Employment Security Law put placement for students by schools under permit. • 1949 revised ES Law relaxed it. • PESOs deal with junior high students. • Schools deal with senior high students. • Smooth transition from school to work
(c) Support of Career Development of Youth • Young non-regular workers (freeters) and inactive (NEET) are increasing. • Four Ministers set Youth Independence and Challenge Plan. • Junior Internship (work experience for high school students) • Dual System (training combining school and workplace) • Trial Employment