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KTH 05/2006 Page Expandable launchers Example of Ariane 5, European workhorse Rocket Propulsion course KTH 05/2006 Page Expandable launchers Example of Ariane 5, European workhorse Rocket Propulsion course Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm May 2006 H. LAPORTE - WEYWADA This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 2 1. Introduction to Space transportation activity 2. Main driver for KTH 05/2006 Page 2 1. Introduction to Space transportation activity 2. Main driver for launcher conception 3. Ariane 5 Launch System description 4. Photos : ESA, CNES, Arinanespace, EADS, SNECMA This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 • • • Introduction to Space Transportation activity Main driver for launcher KTH 05/2006 • • • Introduction to Space Transportation activity Main driver for launcher conception Ariane 5 Launch System description 1. Introduction to Space transportation activity r Satellites : missions, configuration, orbits r Market r World-wide competition r Budget overview This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 3

KTH 05/2006 Page 4 SPACE MISSIONS OVERVIEW r “Prestige” missions, manned flights r Scientific KTH 05/2006 Page 4 SPACE MISSIONS OVERVIEW r “Prestige” missions, manned flights r Scientific interplanetary missions ( a few % of automatic flights ) r Scientific mission in earth orbit (astronomy, …) r Operational missions : ð telecommunication (most important, the only one being truly commercial ) ð meteorology ð navigation ð Earth observation ð micro-gravity research activity This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Examples of satellites Atlantic Bird : ERS : Telecom Radar earth observation KTH 05/2006 Examples of satellites Atlantic Bird : ERS : Telecom Radar earth observation in Sun Synchronous orbit This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 5

KTH 05/2006 Page 6 Examples of satellites Integral : Sonde Galileo : Astronomy Solar KTH 05/2006 Page 6 Examples of satellites Integral : Sonde Galileo : Astronomy Solar system exploration This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 7 Examples of satellites Meteosat : ISS and ATV : Meteorology KTH 05/2006 Page 7 Examples of satellites Meteosat : ISS and ATV : Meteorology Manned flight, research This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 CLASSICAL ORBITS Orbits are defined by their altitude (min, max) and angles KTH 05/2006 CLASSICAL ORBITS Orbits are defined by their altitude (min, max) and angles defining their position in space (inclination, perigee argument, ascending node longitude) This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 8

KTH 05/2006 CLASSICAL ORBITS Classical orbits are GEO : geostationary earth orbit, reached through KTH 05/2006 CLASSICAL ORBITS Classical orbits are GEO : geostationary earth orbit, reached through GTO, geostationary transfer orbit LEO : Low Earth Orbit < 1 500 km altitude MEO : Medium Earth Orbit (6 000 to 20 000 km altitude) SSO : Sun Synchronous Orbit PEO : Polar Earth Orbit HEO : Highly Elliptical earth Orbit This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 9

KTH 05/2006 Orbits This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not KTH 05/2006 Orbits This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 10

KTH 05/2006 Page 11 Orbits This document is the property of EADS SPACE and KTH 05/2006 Page 11 Orbits This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Orbits Orbit of Ulysse, solar poles exploration probe This document is the KTH 05/2006 Orbits Orbit of Ulysse, solar poles exploration probe This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 12

KTH 05/2006 • • • Introduction to Space Transportation activity Main driver for launcher KTH 05/2006 • • • Introduction to Space Transportation activity Main driver for launcher conception Ariane 5 Launch System description 1. Introduction to Space transportation activity r Satellites : missions, configuration, orbits r Market r World-wide competition r Budget overview This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 13

KTH 05/2006 Page WORLD WIDE LAUNCH MARKET Satellites launches (yearly average, 2001) 45 -50 KTH 05/2006 Page WORLD WIDE LAUNCH MARKET Satellites launches (yearly average, 2001) 45 -50 25 -30 Institutional market Commercial market - Mainly USA & Russia - Europe : 1 to 2 launches per year This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page COMMERCIAL MARKET Satellites launches (2001) Maximum Nominal This document is the KTH 05/2006 Page COMMERCIAL MARKET Satellites launches (2001) Maximum Nominal This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page Market study result (e. g. Euroconsult) Forecast Completed 35 Digital audio KTH 05/2006 Page Market study result (e. g. Euroconsult) Forecast Completed 35 Digital audio broadcasting satellites 30 Number of satellites Fixed service satellites 25 All commercial GEO satellites* 00’s: 19 /year (21 with ICO) 80’s average: 13 /year 20 15 90’s: 22 /year Mobile communication satellites ICO without 10 70’s average: 4 /year 5 0 Satellites needed to meet the C & Ku-band transponder demand model 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page GTO SATELLITES MASS FORECAST (2001) >5000 Kg 4000 -5000 Kg 3000 KTH 05/2006 Page GTO SATELLITES MASS FORECAST (2001) >5000 Kg 4000 -5000 Kg 3000 -4000 Kg 2400 -3000 Kg <2400 Kg This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 LAUNCH MARKET Page • Governmental market : – Very important in USA KTH 05/2006 LAUNCH MARKET Page • Governmental market : – Very important in USA (NASA + Do. D : 20 à 25 launches per year) – Very weak in Europe: scientific payloads (Envisat, Herschel Planck. . ), ATV, military activities (com, elint, observation…). Average 1 per year. • Commercial market: – GEO : important, relatively stable (15 to 20 satellites per year) major part = telecom – Stabilization of satellite mass, maximum mass around 6 tonnes This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 MISSIONS vs ORBITS This document is the property of EADS SPACE and KTH 05/2006 MISSIONS vs ORBITS This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 19

KTH 05/2006 • • • Introduction to Space Transportation activity Main driver for launcher KTH 05/2006 • • • Introduction to Space Transportation activity Main driver for launcher conception Ariane 5 Launch System description 1. Introduction to Space transportation activity r Satellites : missions, configuration, orbits r Market r World-wide competition r Budget overview This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 20

KTH 05/2006 LAUNCHER CATEGORIES r Heavy and Super heavy launchers : ð Able to KTH 05/2006 LAUNCHER CATEGORIES r Heavy and Super heavy launchers : ð Able to lift to all orbits, including GTO and escape, masses of more than 3 tonnes en GTO( heavy ) or more than 10 tonnes en GTO (super-heavy ) r Medium Launchers : ð But not adapted to GTO orbit (around 1 tonne) ð Able to lift more than 3 tonnes in LEO r Small launchers : ð Limited to 1, 5 tonne in LEO r Micro launchers : ð limited to a few hundreds of kg in LEO This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 21

KTH 05/2006 Page Boeing range of launcher Delta 3 Delta 2 Delta 4 * KTH 05/2006 Page Boeing range of launcher Delta 3 Delta 2 Delta 4 * *Équivalent Kourou EELV new Delta 4 family, mainly to capture government orders marketing of the Zenit, through Sea Launch This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Sea Launch

KTH 05/2006 Page Lockheed Martin range of launcher Atlas 3 Atlas 2 Atlas 5 KTH 05/2006 Page Lockheed Martin range of launcher Atlas 3 Atlas 2 Atlas 5 Proton * *Équivalent Kourou EELV new Atlas 5 family : proven Atlas 3 technology and Russian RD 180 engine marketing of the Proton M through ILS This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page European range of launchers Ariane 5 (Arianespace) Soyouz (Starsem) Rockot (Eurockot) KTH 05/2006 Page European range of launchers Ariane 5 (Arianespace) Soyouz (Starsem) Rockot (Eurockot) This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Vega (Arianespace)

KTH 05/2006 Page 25 OTHER LAUNCHERS IN THE WORLD • Space Shuttle used only KTH 05/2006 Page 25 OTHER LAUNCHERS IN THE WORLD • Space Shuttle used only for US governmental mission, in particular access to International Space Station. Next flight(2 nd after Columbia accident in 2004) is scheduled for July 2006. This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 OTHER LAUNCHERS IN THE WORLD • Other operational launchers : – USA KTH 05/2006 OTHER LAUNCHERS IN THE WORLD • Other operational launchers : – USA : small launchers Taurus XL, Pegasus XL (air launched) – Japan : H 2 A (heavy launcher), M 5 (medium launcher) – China : Long March family, medium to heavy launcher – India : PSLV, GSLV (medium launchers) – Israel : Shavit, (small launcher) – Russia / Ukraine : Proton, Soyuz, Cyclone, Zenith 2, Cosmos, Dniepr, Volna, Rockot • Launcher in development : – Brazil – South Korea – Russia : Angara – Israel : Next – Several US private initiatives (Falcon, …) This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 26

KTH 05/2006 SMALL LAUNCHERS (1/2) This document is the property of EADS SPACE and KTH 05/2006 SMALL LAUNCHERS (1/2) This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page

KTH 05/2006 Page 28 This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall KTH 05/2006 Page 28 This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 29 This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall KTH 05/2006 Page 29 This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 30 This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall KTH 05/2006 Page 30 This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 • • • Introduction to Space Transportation activity Main driver for launcher KTH 05/2006 • • • Introduction to Space Transportation activity Main driver for launcher conception Ariane 5 Launch System description 1. Introduction to Space transportation activity r Satellites : missions, configuration, orbits r Market r World-wide competition r Budget overview This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 31

KTH 05/2006 SPACE BUDGETS IN THE WORLD • USA predominance in the world 25 KTH 05/2006 SPACE BUDGETS IN THE WORLD • USA predominance in the world 25 SPACE BUDGETS 1997 Md € 20 Civilian Military 15 10 5 0 USA Europe Japan Russia • France, Germany, Italy major contributors in Europe This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page

KTH 05/2006 SPLIT OF BUDGET PER CIVILIAN APPLICATION This document is the property of KTH 05/2006 SPLIT OF BUDGET PER CIVILIAN APPLICATION This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 33

KTH 05/2006 • • • Introduction to Space Transportation activity Main drivers for launcher KTH 05/2006 • • • Introduction to Space Transportation activity Main drivers for launcher conception Ariane 5 Launch System description 2. Main drivers for launcher conception r Launcher mission and specification r Typical configuration of a launcher This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 34

KTH 05/2006 Page 35 LAUNCHER MISSION • Launcher mission consists in giving to the KTH 05/2006 Page 35 LAUNCHER MISSION • Launcher mission consists in giving to the satellite the speed (8 to 10 km/s) and the altitude (200 to 1000 km) needed to reach the intended orbit (injection orbit). This orbit can be the final one, or an intermediate orbit (transfer orbit) • Once needed altitude and speed obtained (i. e. once injection orbit reached), the launcher provides adequate orientation and spin • Then satellites are separated from the launcher. This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 LAUNCH OF A GEOSTATIONNARY SATELLITE launch in orbit Page 36 Orbital manoeuvre KTH 05/2006 LAUNCH OF A GEOSTATIONNARY SATELLITE launch in orbit Page 36 Orbital manoeuvre (circularisation) This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 37 BEGINNING OF SATELLITE LIFE After satellite release, the satellite control KTH 05/2006 Page 37 BEGINNING OF SATELLITE LIFE After satellite release, the satellite control centre takes the satellite in charge and controls all operations ( solar panel opening, antennas deployment, checks, …) and manoeuvres (orientations, orbit change, …) needed to begin operational mission. This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 38 CONSTRAINTS COMING FROM LAUNCH PHASE ON THE SATELLITE • Launch KTH 05/2006 Page 38 CONSTRAINTS COMING FROM LAUNCH PHASE ON THE SATELLITE • Launch phase induces severe constraints on the satellite, driving its design : – Severe mechanical environment (acoustic noise, vibrations, static acceleration, thermal fluxes during count down and during flight) – In orbit injection inaccuracy (scattered speed and position leading to a slightly different orbit than the one targeted), which must be corrected by the satellite manoeuvre) – Injection attitude inaccuracy (impacting satellite navigation system and thermal control) – « Narrow » volume under the fairing, leading to folding / unfolding mechanisms for antennas, solar panels, etc. . This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 39 CONSEQUENCES ON LAUNCHER SPECIFICATION • Launcher specification gathers all satellite KTH 05/2006 Page 39 CONSEQUENCES ON LAUNCHER SPECIFICATION • Launcher specification gathers all satellite customer’s requirements from the launcher : - Performance, targeted orbits - Satellite orientation at injection - Injection accuracy, attitude accuracy - Flight environment - Mechanical Acoustic Thermal EMC Pollution - Available Volume under fairing - Services given to the satellite - Electrical orders, - radio transparent windows under fairing, - … - Constraints during launch campaign This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 • • • Introduction to Space Transportation activity Main drivers for launcher KTH 05/2006 • • • Introduction to Space Transportation activity Main drivers for launcher conception Ariane 5 Launch System description 2. Main drivers for launcher conception r Launcher mission and specification r Typical configuration of a launcher This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006 Page 40

KTH 05/2006 Page 41 EXPANDABLE LAUNCH SYSTEM TYPICAL CONFIGURATION • A launcher is made KTH 05/2006 Page 41 EXPANDABLE LAUNCH SYSTEM TYPICAL CONFIGURATION • A launcher is made of several “stages” – Each stage delivers part of speed needed for in orbit injection. – Once empty, stage is jettisoned, following one is ignited. • Each stage is made around a propulsive system more or less autonomous, comprising : – Engines, delivering thrust – Tanks, feed system (feeding the engines with propellant), and pressurisation system – Connecting structures with other stages • Avionic, including software, ensuring following functions : – – – • « Guidance/Navigation/Control » (ensure flight control and trajectory optimisation) « Telemetry » (allows post flight check of the correct behaviour of launcher’s subsystems) « Safeguard » (allows protection of goods and people on earth, through ranging of launcher during flight to check trajectory, and potential destruction if it becomes dangerous). Upper Part – accommodates the Payloads and protects them from atmosphere • Launch Range/Launch Pad – Provides facilities for satellite final assembly and tests, before integration atop of the launcher – Allows Launcher final assembly and tests, Launcher flight preparation (filling, final checks, take off) – Provides Radar ranging and Telemetry acquisition during the whole flight This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 42 Why several stages on a launcher ? To inject 1 KTH 05/2006 Page 42 Why several stages on a launcher ? To inject 1 T in LEO (i. e. 7800 m/s + losses =10000 m/s) ΔV = go Isp Log (1+k)/k Conclusions : With today’s technology: Storable propulsion : k = 10% cryo propulsion : k = 10 à 15% Needed mass ratio for SSTO is not realistic • In addition, high risk in case of drift of mass during project development… Single stage to orbit : today a dream This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 43 SOLID PROPULSION TECHNOLOGIES Solid propellants : ð Isp 260 to KTH 05/2006 Page 43 SOLID PROPULSION TECHNOLOGIES Solid propellants : ð Isp 260 to 300 s ð Delivers very high thrust (take off) ð High density, => compact stages ð Easy / simple ignition ð Thrust law (vs time) is frozen once for ever, according to geometry of propellant block ð Stop of thrust can not (or hardly) be commanded in real time This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 44 LIQUID PROPULSION TECHNOLOGIES Liquid propellants : r storable : Isp KTH 05/2006 Page 44 LIQUID PROPULSION TECHNOLOGIES Liquid propellants : r storable : Isp 260 to 330 s ð UDMH or MMH + Nitrogen peroxide : most frequent r semi-cryogenic : Isp 300 to 350 s ð LOX + kerosene, LOX + CH 4 r Cryogenic : Isp 425 to 455 s ð LOX + LH 2 very efficient, but complex, and with low propellant density (LH 2 70 Kg/m 3) r Vacuum thrust quasi constant, or varies slightly with launcher acceleration (variation of pumps inlet pressures). r Engine are hardly throttable r Engine cut-off can be commanded in real time This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 45 OTHER TECHNOLOGIES r Structures : search for low masses ð KTH 05/2006 Page 45 OTHER TECHNOLOGIES r Structures : search for low masses ð Light/ strong aluminium alloys ð Composites : high pressure filament wound envelopes, NIDA sandwich wrapped shells r Thermal protections ð “Hot" : to protect from aerothermodynamics fluxes ð “Cold" : for cryogenic propellant tanks r Hydraulic systems ð Engine orientation : actuators, hydraulic fluid, electrical pumps or blow down pressure r Pyrotechnic systems ð Used for stage separation ð Classical pyrotechnic devices, high energy, optopyro transmission r Avionics : use of technology developed for other applications (aeronautics, military) ð Hardening to resist to radiations r Software : real time, fault tolerant This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 46 LAUNCHERS ARCHITECTURE r Number of propulsive stages : ð 2 KTH 05/2006 Page 46 LAUNCHERS ARCHITECTURE r Number of propulsive stages : ð 2 stages for low energy orbit injection (LEO), sometime 3 (Single Stage To Orbit not feasible) ð 1 additional stage to reach more energetic orbits r « linear » launchers, or « parallel » launchers (with strap on boosters or stages) ð linear : stages assembled one atop of the other, working one after the other ð Lateral stages : lowers launcher height (lowering loads on launcher structure), allows simultaneous burning of stage r Air launched launcher (from a plane) : limited to small or micro launchers This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 47 LAUNCHER ARCHITECTURE r Upper part architecture : ð Satellite interface KTH 05/2006 Page 47 LAUNCHER ARCHITECTURE r Upper part architecture : ð Satellite interface : circular flanges on all launchers, except lateral trunions on Space Shuttle bay ð Satellite separation : clamp band or pyro bolts + springs r Avionic lay out : ð Gathered in an Avionic bay, or distributed in all stages r Upper stage architecture : ð Under fairing (lowers loads and thermal constraints on orbital stage, but more complex fairing) ð Or external (simpler, but heavier upper stage) This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 48 LAUNCH FACILITIES r Constraint applying on Launch Range : - KTH 05/2006 Page 48 LAUNCH FACILITIES r Constraint applying on Launch Range : - safety during launcher trajectory (=> next to a sea or an unpopulated area) - Wide area needed for launch facility - Proximity to equator (GTO launch) - Access from production facility r Interest of Launch Range allowing to reach orbits of various inclination Example : KOUROU, ALCANTARA (need of CCAS and VAB in US for GTO and polar launches) r Interest of maritime platforms questionable (SAN MARCO - SEA LAUNCH) r Launch Ranges are very expansive assets, investment has to be backed by highest launch cadence possible. This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006

KTH 05/2006 Page 49 Trend for future r Cost reduction (market price : low KTH 05/2006 Page 49 Trend for future r Cost reduction (market price : low demand, increased offer) r New injection strategies (direct GEO injection, super synchronous orbits) r Transition to fully or partly reusable launchers (in a longer term) : several issues not yet solved : ð Technical feasibility · Reusable high performance propulsion · Reusable structure (+ thermal protection), reusable systems (e. g. actuators) · Need of a low number of stages ð Operational constraints · Need of a higher reliability (e. g. fault tolerant systems, engine failure) · Overhaul cycle has to be quite shorter than today’s launch operations ð Need of a high launch cadence · Otherwise expandable launcher remains cheaper This document is the property of EADS SPACE and shall not be communicated to third parties and/or reproduced without prior written agreement. Its contents shall not be disclosed. - EADS SPACE - 2006