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Konsep B 2 B Prentice Hall, 2002 1 Konsep B 2 B Prentice Hall, 2002 1

Tujuan pembelajaran Memahami konsep dan karakteristik B 2 B Menggambarkan tipe model B 2 Tujuan pembelajaran Memahami konsep dan karakteristik B 2 B Menggambarkan tipe model B 2 B Menggambarkan karakteristik marketplace sell-side dan buy side Prentice Hall, 2002 2

Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B 2 B Definisi EC B 2 B Suatu transaksi Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B 2 B Definisi EC B 2 B Suatu transaksi bisnis yang dilakukan secara elektronik melalui jaringan Internet, Extranet, Intranet, private network (Contoh EDI). Suatu Transaksi dapat dilakukan antara bisnis dan anggota supply chain-nya, seperti melakukan antar bisnis. Suatu bisnis bisa suatu organisasi, umum atau swasta, untuk kepentingan profit / non profit Karakteristik B 2 B adalah perusahan yang melakukan otomatisasi proses jual-beli / trading Prentice Hall, 2002 3

Konsep dan karakteristik EC B 2 B Ukuran dan isi pasar Diperkirakan tumbuh dari Konsep dan karakteristik EC B 2 B Ukuran dan isi pasar Diperkirakan tumbuh dari $1. 1 juta di 2003 sampai $10 juta di 2005 Persentase of Internet-based B 2 B dari 2. 1% di 2000 sampai 10% di 2005 Private and public e-marketplace Private—one-to-many mode Public—many-to-many mode Prentice Hall, 2002 4

Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B 2 B Bagaimana B 2 B bisa berjalan ? Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B 2 B Bagaimana B 2 B bisa berjalan ? Bisa Secara langsung antara pembeli/buyer dan penjual/seller melalui perantara / intermediary online. Intermediary dapat berupa organisasi, orang, atau sistem elektronik Biasanya Melalui supply chain dengan atau tidak melalui perantara -perantara/ intermediaries Tipe transaksi B 2 B Spot buying / pembeli spot—berdasarkan pembelian barang dan jasa pada pasar harga/market price yang ditentukan oleh dynamic supply dan permintaan pasar /demand. Penjual dan pembeli biasanya tidak saling kenal. Contoh stock exchange dan commodity exchange (minyak gula, jagung) Strategic sourcing/sumber strategik—melibatkan kontrak jangka panjang biasanya berdasarkan negosiasi antara penjual dan pembeli. Prentice Hall, 2002 5

Figure 6 -1 B 2 B Supply Chain Prentice Hall, 2002 6 Figure 6 -1 B 2 B Supply Chain Prentice Hall, 2002 6

Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B 2 B Hubungan Supply chain Saling berhubungan subproses dan Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B 2 B Hubungan Supply chain Saling berhubungan subproses dan aturan-aturan mendapatkan material memroses produk dan jasa Menuju distributor Dibeli oleh pelanggan Proses Traditional diatur melalui transaksi kertas Aplikasi B 2 B menawarkan keuntungan competitive untuk supply chain management (SCM) Prentice Hall, 2002 7

Konsep dan karakteristik EC B 2 B Entitas B 2 B Selling company / Konsep dan karakteristik EC B 2 B Entitas B 2 B Selling company / Perusahaan penjual— perspektif manajemen marketing Buying company / perusahaan pembeli— perspektif manajemen pengadaan Electronic intermediaries / perantara elektronik—optional third party directory service provider (scope of service may be extended to order fulfillment) Trading platforms—pricing and negotiation protocol (auctions, reverse auctions) Prentice Hall, 2002 8

Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B 2 B Payment services—mechanism for transferring money to sellers Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B 2 B Payment services—mechanism for transferring money to sellers Logistics providers—logistics to complete transaction (packaging, storage, delivery) Network platforms—Internet, VAN, intranet, extranet Protocols of communication—EDI or XML Back-end integration—connecting to ERP systems, databases, functional applications Prentice Hall, 2002 9

Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B 2 B Information processed in B 2 B Product Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B 2 B Information processed in B 2 B Product Customer Supplier Product process Transportation Inventory Supply chain Competitor Sales and marketing Supply chain process and performance Prentice Hall, 2002 10

Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B 2 B Electronic intermediaries in B 2 B Pelanggan Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B 2 B Electronic intermediaries in B 2 B Pelanggan dan bisnis bisa saling berbagi perantara/intermediaries Bisnis dapat menggunakan intermediaries yang berbeda dengan supplier yang berbeda Keuntungan model B 2 B Menghilangkan sistem yang menggunakan kertas Mempercepat waktu siklus Mengurangi kesalahan Meningkatkan produktifitas karyawan Mengurangi biaya Meningkatkan pelayanan pelanggan dan manajemen 11 partnership / kerjasama 2002 Prentice Hall,

Model B 2 B Company-centric models Sell-side marketplace (one-to-many), satu perusahaan melakukan semua penjualan Model B 2 B Company-centric models Sell-side marketplace (one-to-many), satu perusahaan melakukan semua penjualan Buy-side marketplace (many-to-one), satu perusahaan melakukan semua pembelian Many-to-many marketplaces—the exchange Buyers and sellers meet to trade Trading communities Trading exchanges Exchanges Prentice Hall, 2002 12

Model B 2 B Other B 2 B models and services Tujuan penjualan / Model B 2 B Other B 2 B models and services Tujuan penjualan / selling Tujuan pembelian / buying Integrator Value chain Service provider Value chain Information brokers Prentice Hall, 2002 13

Arsitektur Sell-Side Marketplace Prentice Hall, 2002 14 Arsitektur Sell-Side Marketplace Prentice Hall, 2002 14

Sell-Side Marketplaces: One-to-Many Successful cases Dell Intel IBM Cisco Prentice Hall, 2002 15 Sell-Side Marketplaces: One-to-Many Successful cases Dell Intel IBM Cisco Prentice Hall, 2002 15

Sell-Side Case: CISCO Connection Online (CCO) Benefits—saves the company $363 million per year in: Sell-Side Case: CISCO Connection Online (CCO) Benefits—saves the company $363 million per year in: Technical support Human resources Software distribution Marketing material Prentice Hall, 2002 16

Cisco Connection Online (CCO) (cont. ) Benefits to Cisco Reduced operating costs for order Cisco Connection Online (CCO) (cont. ) Benefits to Cisco Reduced operating costs for order taking Enhanced technical support and customer service Reduced technical support staff cost Reduced software distribution costs Lead times reduced fro 4 -10 days to 2 -3 days Prentice Hall, 2002 17

Cisco Connection Online (CCO) (cont. ) Benefits to customers Quick order configuration Immediate cost Cisco Connection Online (CCO) (cont. ) Benefits to customers Quick order configuration Immediate cost determination Collaboration with Cisco staff Prentice Hall, 2002 18

Buy Side: One-from-Many, E-Procurement Purchasing agents (buyers) Direct purchasing Use of material is scheduled Buy Side: One-from-Many, E-Procurement Purchasing agents (buyers) Direct purchasing Use of material is scheduled Not a shelf item Indirect purchasing MROs Nonproduction materials Inefficiencies in procurement management of indirect materials Prentice Hall, 2002 19

Figure 6 -3 A Traditional Purchasing Process Flow Source: ariba. com, February 2001. Prentice Figure 6 -3 A Traditional Purchasing Process Flow Source: ariba. com, February 2001. Prentice Hall, 2002 20

Figure 6 -4 Buy-Side B 2 BMarketplace Architecture Prentice Hall, 2002 21 Figure 6 -4 Buy-Side B 2 BMarketplace Architecture Prentice Hall, 2002 21

Procurement Revolution at GE TPN at GE Lighting Division Purchasing was inefficient—too many administrative Procurement Revolution at GE TPN at GE Lighting Division Purchasing was inefficient—too many administrative transactions Process for each requisition took 7 days Complex and time-consuming Could only send out bids for 2 or 3 suppliers Trading Process Network (TPN)—electronic bids Entire process takes 7 days (for suppliers to bid) 2 hours to send information to suppliers Evaluate and award bids same day Prentice Hall, 2002 22

Procurement Revolution at GE (cont. ) Benefits to GE Involvement in procurement process Labor Procurement Revolution at GE (cont. ) Benefits to GE Involvement in procurement process Labor declined 30% Material costs declined 5%-20%--wider base of suppliers online Redeployment 60% of the staff Sourcing department concentrates on strategic activities instead of paperwork, etc. Prentice Hall, 2002 23

Procurement Revolution at GE (cont. ) Benefits to GE Time to identify suppliers, prepare Procurement Revolution at GE (cont. ) Benefits to GE Time to identify suppliers, prepare a request for bid, negotiate a price, and award the contract Was 18 -23 days Now 9 -11 days Invoices automatically reconciled reflecting modifications GE procurement departments share information about their best suppliers across the world Prentice Hall, 2002 24

Procurement Revolution at GE (cont. ) Benefits to buyers Worldwide supplier partnerships Current business Procurement Revolution at GE (cont. ) Benefits to buyers Worldwide supplier partnerships Current business partners Strengthen relationships Streamline sourcing process Rapid distribution of information Transmit electronic drawings to multiple suppliers Decrease sourcing cycle time Quick receipt and comparison of pricing bids Prentice Hall, 2002 25

Procurement Revolution at GE (cont. ) Benefits to suppliers Increased sales volume Expanded market Procurement Revolution at GE (cont. ) Benefits to suppliers Increased sales volume Expanded market reach, finding new buyers Lowered administration costs for sales and marketing activities Shortened requisition cycle time Improved sales staff productivity Streamlined bidding process Prentice Hall, 2002 26

Procurement Revolution at GE (cont. ) Deployment strategies Start EC in one division and Procurement Revolution at GE (cont. ) Deployment strategies Start EC in one division and slowly go to all divisions Use the site as public bidding marketplace to generate commission income to GE Prentice Hall, 2002 27

B 2 B Infrastructure Server to host database and applications Software for executing sell-side B 2 B Infrastructure Server to host database and applications Software for executing sell-side (catalogs) Software for conducting auctions and reverse auctions Software for e-procurement (buy-side) Prentice Hall, 2002 28

B 2 B Infrastructure (cont. ) Software for CRM Security hardware and software Software B 2 B Infrastructure (cont. ) Software for CRM Security hardware and software Software for building a storefront Telecommunications networks and protocols Prentice Hall, 2002 29

Extranet and EDI Secure interorganizational networks Traditional EDI limits accessibility of small companies Internet-based Extranet and EDI Secure interorganizational networks Traditional EDI limits accessibility of small companies Internet-based EDI offers wide accessibility to companies around the world Prentice Hall, 2002 30

Figure 6 -7 Intelligent Agent-Based Commerce B 2 B Agents Source: J. K. Lee Figure 6 -7 Intelligent Agent-Based Commerce B 2 B Agents Source: J. K. Lee and W. Lee (1997). Prentice Hall, 2002 31