Скачать презентацию Know how Know now Know how Know Скачать презентацию Know how Know now Know how Know

accab0787ec0cd4ce365516f436ef15a.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 79

Know how. Know now. Know how. Know now.

Know how. Know now. Alice Henneman, MS, RD Extension Educator University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension Know how. Know now. Alice Henneman, MS, RD Extension Educator University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County Download this Power. Point and a related handout at: http: //lancaster. unl. edu/food/spiceherb. shtml 2003, updated May 2008, Power. Point 2003

“An herb is the friend of physicians and the praise of cooks. ” - “An herb is the friend of physicians and the praise of cooks. ” - Charlemagne 3 3 3

Archeologists estimate that by 50, 000 B. C. primitive man had discovered parts of Archeologists estimate that by 50, 000 B. C. primitive man had discovered parts of certain aromatic plants made food taste better. Source: American Spice Trade Association 4 4 4

“Spice” vs. “Herb” Spices come from the bark (cinnamon), root (ginger, onion, garlic), buds “Spice” vs. “Herb” Spices come from the bark (cinnamon), root (ginger, onion, garlic), buds (cloves, saffron), seeds (yellow mustard, poppy, sesame), berry (black pepper), or the fruit (allspice, paprika) of tropical plants and trees. Herbs are leaves of low-growing shrubs. Examples are parsley, chives, marjoram, thyme, basil, caraway, dill, oregano, rosemary, savory, sage and celery leaves. These can be used fresh or dried. Dried forms may be whole, crushed, or ground. Many dehydrated vegetable seasonings are available. These include onion, garlic … and shallots. Seasoning blends are mixtures of spices/herbs. Source: Ann A. Hertzler, Ph. D, RD, Herbs and Spices, Virginia Cooperative Extension 5 5 5

Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep 6 6 6

Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep 7 7 7

Spices and herbs can help retain flavor in your foods while cutting back on Spices and herbs can help retain flavor in your foods while cutting back on fat, sugar and salt. 8 8 8

“ … removing a tablespoon of fat removes about 10 grams of fat and “ … removing a tablespoon of fat removes about 10 grams of fat and 100 calories — an amount which could represent a 10 pound weight loss in a year. The calories in herbs and spices are far less than in breadings, batters, gravies, sauces and fried foods. ” Source: Ann A. Hertzler, Ph. D, RD, Herbs and Spices, Virginia Cooperative Extension 9 9 9

Reduce or eliminate sugar by using sweettasting spices: 1 tablespoon sugar = 45 calories Reduce or eliminate sugar by using sweettasting spices: 1 tablespoon sugar = 45 calories § Allspice • Cloves § Anise • Ginger § Cardamom • Mace § Cinnamon • Nutmeg 10 10 10

Savory flavors and flavors with “bite, ” are the most effective in replacing the Savory flavors and flavors with “bite, ” are the most effective in replacing the taste of salt. Examples include: Source: American Spice Trade Association 11 § Black pepper § Garlic powder § Curry powder § Cumin § Dill seeds § Basil § Ginger § Coriander § Onion powder 11 11

Omit the salt when cooking pasta and flavor with basil, oregano, parsley and pepper Omit the salt when cooking pasta and flavor with basil, oregano, parsley and pepper or use an Italian seasoning blend. 12 12 12

Use POWDERED garlic or onion rather than their SALT form. Generally, use half as Use POWDERED garlic or onion rather than their SALT form. Generally, use half as much of the powdered form. 13 13 13

Check seasoning labels to see if “salt” or “sodium” are listed among the ingredients. Check seasoning labels to see if “salt” or “sodium” are listed among the ingredients. 14 14 14

Fascinating flavor fact: The reason for Columbus’ voyage in 1492 was to seek a Fascinating flavor fact: The reason for Columbus’ voyage in 1492 was to seek a more direct passage to the rich spices of the Orient. 15 15 15

Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep 16 16 16

Experiment with the following flavor and food combinations to add pizzazz to your meals. Experiment with the following flavor and food combinations to add pizzazz to your meals. Source: Flavor and Food Combinations adapted from information provided by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute 17 17 17

Beef § Bay leaf § Marjoram § Nutmeg § Onion § Pepper § Sage Beef § Bay leaf § Marjoram § Nutmeg § Onion § Pepper § Sage § Thyme 18 18 18

Pork § Garlic § Onion § Sage § Pepper § Oregano 19 19 19 Pork § Garlic § Onion § Sage § Pepper § Oregano 19 19 19

Lamb § Curry powder § Garlic § Rosemary § Mint 20 20 20 Lamb § Curry powder § Garlic § Rosemary § Mint 20 20 20

Poultry § Ginger § Marjoram § Oregano § Paprika § Poultry seasoning § Rosemary Poultry § Ginger § Marjoram § Oregano § Paprika § Poultry seasoning § Rosemary § Sage § Tarragon § Thyme 21 21 21

Fish § Curry powder § Dill § Dry mustard § Marjoram § Paprika § Fish § Curry powder § Dill § Dry mustard § Marjoram § Paprika § Pepper 22 22 22

Carrots § Cinnamon § Cloves § Dill § Ginger § Marjoram § Nutmeg § Carrots § Cinnamon § Cloves § Dill § Ginger § Marjoram § Nutmeg § Rosemary § Sage 23 23 23

Corn § Cumin § Curry powder § Onion § Paprika § Parsley 24 24 Corn § Cumin § Curry powder § Onion § Paprika § Parsley 24 24 24

Green Beans § Dill § Curry powder § Marjoram § Oregano § Tarragon § Green Beans § Dill § Curry powder § Marjoram § Oregano § Tarragon § Thyme 25 25 25

Greens § Onion § Pepper 26 26 26 Greens § Onion § Pepper 26 26 26

Potatoes § Dill § Garlic § Onion § Paprika § Parsley § Sage 27 Potatoes § Dill § Garlic § Onion § Paprika § Parsley § Sage 27 27 27

Summer Squash § Dill § Garlic § Onion § Paprika § Parsley § Sage Summer Squash § Dill § Garlic § Onion § Paprika § Parsley § Sage 28 28 28

Winter Squash § Cinnamon § Ginger § Nutmeg § Onion 29 29 29 Winter Squash § Cinnamon § Ginger § Nutmeg § Onion 29 29 29

Tomatoes § Basil § Bay leaf § Dill § Marjoram § Onion § Oregano Tomatoes § Basil § Bay leaf § Dill § Marjoram § Onion § Oregano § Parsley § Pepper 30 30 30

Fascinating flavor fact: In early Rome, young suitors wore a sprig of basil to Fascinating flavor fact: In early Rome, young suitors wore a sprig of basil to signal their marital intentions. Source: American Spice Trade Association 31 31 31

Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep 32 32 32

When you don’t have a spice or herb blend called for in a recipe, When you don’t have a spice or herb blend called for in a recipe, try the following combinations as a substitution. 33 33 33

For each 1 teaspoon of apple pie spice, substitute a COMBINATION of: § 1 For each 1 teaspoon of apple pie spice, substitute a COMBINATION of: § 1 teaspoon cinnamon § 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg 34 34 34

For each 1 teaspoon of pumpkin pie spice, substitute a COMBINATION of these ground For each 1 teaspoon of pumpkin pie spice, substitute a COMBINATION of these ground spices: § 1 teaspoon cinnamon § 1/4 teaspoon ginger § 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg § 1/8 teaspoon allspice 35 35 35

For each 1 -1/2 teaspoon of Italian seasoning, substitute a COMBINATION of: § 1/4 For each 1 -1/2 teaspoon of Italian seasoning, substitute a COMBINATION of: § 1/4 teaspoon EACH of crumbled, dried §oregano leaves §marjoram leaves §basil leaves § 1/8 teaspoon rubbed sage 36 36 36

For each 1 teaspoon of poultry seasoning, substitute a COMBINATION of: § 3/4 teaspoon For each 1 teaspoon of poultry seasoning, substitute a COMBINATION of: § 3/4 teaspoon § ground sage 1/4 teaspoon ground thyme 37 37 37

When substituting herbs, you may be more successful substituting FRESH herbs for DRIED herbs, When substituting herbs, you may be more successful substituting FRESH herbs for DRIED herbs, than the other way around. 38 38 38

Fascinating flavor fact: “Cilantro” refers to the leaf of the coriander plant while “coriander” Fascinating flavor fact: “Cilantro” refers to the leaf of the coriander plant while “coriander” refers to a spice made from the seed of the same plant. “Cilantro” and “coriander” are not interchangeable in recipes. 39 39 39

Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep 40 40 40

Here are some guidelines for how much spices or herbs to use. 41 41 Here are some guidelines for how much spices or herbs to use. 41 41 41

If possible, start with a tested recipe from a reliable source. If creating a If possible, start with a tested recipe from a reliable source. If creating a recipe, begin by trying one or two spices or herbs. 42 42 42

The amount to add varies with the: § Type of recipe § Spice or The amount to add varies with the: § Type of recipe § Spice or herb § Personal preference 43 43 43

Approximate EQUIVALENT amounts of different forms of herbs are: § 1 tablespoon § § Approximate EQUIVALENT amounts of different forms of herbs are: § 1 tablespoon § § finely cut fresh herbs 1 teaspoon crumbled dried herbs 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon ground dried herbs 44 44 44

Begin with 1/4 teaspoon of most ground spices or ground dried herbs for these Begin with 1/4 teaspoon of most ground spices or ground dried herbs for these amounts; adjust as needed: * § 4 servings § 1 pound of meat § 1 pint (2 cups of soup or sauce) *Remember: Use more herbs if using a crumbled dried or a fresh form. Source: www. spiceadvice. com 45 45 45

§ Start with 1/8 teaspoon for cayenne pepper and garlic powder; adjust as needed. § Start with 1/8 teaspoon for cayenne pepper and garlic powder; adjust as needed. § Red pepper intensifies in flavor during cooking; add in small increments. 46 46 46

When doubling a recipe: § DO NOT double spices and herbs. § Increase amounts When doubling a recipe: § DO NOT double spices and herbs. § Increase amounts by 1 -1/2 times. § Taste, add more if needed. 47 47 47

Fascinating flavor fact: During the Middle Ages, ladies embroidered a sprig of thyme into Fascinating flavor fact: During the Middle Ages, ladies embroidered a sprig of thyme into scarves they gave to their wandering knights. 48 48 48

Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep 49 49 49

The time during preparation at which you add spices and herbs influences their flavor. The time during preparation at which you add spices and herbs influences their flavor. 50 50 50

As a general rule, add FRESH HERBS near the end of cooking or just As a general rule, add FRESH HERBS near the end of cooking or just before serving Prolonged heating can cause flavor and aroma losses. 51 51 51

More delicate fresh herbs can be added a minute or two before the end More delicate fresh herbs can be added a minute or two before the end of cooking or sprinkled on food before serving. Examples include: § Basil § Chives • Parsley § Cilantro • Marjoram • Mint § Dill leaves 52 52 52

Less delicate fresh herbs can be added about the last 20 minutes of cooking. Less delicate fresh herbs can be added about the last 20 minutes of cooking. Examples include: § Dill seeds § Rosemary § Tarragon § Thyme 53 53 53

For some foods such as breads, batters, etc. , you may have to add For some foods such as breads, batters, etc. , you may have to add fresh herbs at the beginning of the cooking process. 54 54 54

Follow these tips and techniques for best taste when adding DRIED SPICES and HERBS. Follow these tips and techniques for best taste when adding DRIED SPICES and HERBS. 55 55 55

WHOLE dried spices and herbs (such as whole allspice and bay leaves): § Release WHOLE dried spices and herbs (such as whole allspice and bay leaves): § Release flavors slower § than crumbled or ground ones. Are ideal for dishes cooking an hour or more, such as soups and stews. 56 56 56

GROUND dried spices and herbs: § Release their § flavor quickly. May taste best GROUND dried spices and herbs: § Release their § flavor quickly. May taste best in shorter-cooking recipes or added nearer the end of longer-cooking ones. 57 57 57

CRUMBLED dried herbs may differ: § Milder herbs (such as basil) may flavor best CRUMBLED dried herbs may differ: § Milder herbs (such as basil) may flavor best added toward end of cooking. § More robust herbs (such as thyme) can stand longer cooking periods. 58 58 58

Freshly grinding spices (such as black pepper and nutmeg) provide more flavor than buying Freshly grinding spices (such as black pepper and nutmeg) provide more flavor than buying them already ground. 59 59 59

AVOID sprinkling dried spices and herbs directly from container into a steaming pot to AVOID sprinkling dried spices and herbs directly from container into a steaming pot to prevent moisture from entering the container. Use a DRY spoon to measure spices and herbs from a container. 60 60 60

Secure whole spices, such as cloves, in a tea ball for easy removal at Secure whole spices, such as cloves, in a tea ball for easy removal at the end of cooking. 61 61 61

Warning: Remove bay leaves at the end of cooking. They can be a choking Warning: Remove bay leaves at the end of cooking. They can be a choking hazard if left in foods and can cause harmful cuts and scratches in your throat and esophagus. 62 62 62

For UNCOOKED foods, add both FRESH and DRIED spices and herbs several hours before For UNCOOKED foods, add both FRESH and DRIED spices and herbs several hours before serving to allow flavors to blend. 63 63 63

Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep 64 64 64

Use the following guidelines for storing your spices and herbs to maintain maximum quality. Use the following guidelines for storing your spices and herbs to maintain maximum quality. 65 65 65

To prevent flavor and color loss, AVOID: Moisture Light 66 Heat Air 66 66 To prevent flavor and color loss, AVOID: Moisture Light 66 Heat Air 66 66

Store in tightly covered containers. Store in a dark place away from sunlight, such Store in tightly covered containers. Store in a dark place away from sunlight, such as inside a cupboard or drawer. 67 67 67

AVOID storage above dishwasher, microwave, stove, refrigerator or near a sink or heating vent. AVOID storage above dishwasher, microwave, stove, refrigerator or near a sink or heating vent. If storing in an open spice rack, store away from heat, light and moisture. 68 68 68

Refrigerator/freezer storage? § Refrigerate paprika, chili powder and red pepper for best color retention, Refrigerator/freezer storage? § Refrigerate paprika, chili powder and red pepper for best color retention, especially in summer or hotter climates. § Spices and herbs can get wet if condensation forms when a container from a refrigerator or freezer is left open in a humid kitchen. 69 69 69

Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep 70 70 70

Here are some guidelines to help you determine when it’s time to TOSS your Here are some guidelines to help you determine when it’s time to TOSS your spices and herbs. 71 71 71

As a general rule, keep: § 1 year: Herbs or GROUND spices § 2 As a general rule, keep: § 1 year: Herbs or GROUND spices § 2 years: WHOLE spices Buy a smaller container until you determine how fast you’ll use a particular spice or 72 herb. 72 72

If a spice or herb smells strong and flavorful, it’s probably still potent. 73 If a spice or herb smells strong and flavorful, it’s probably still potent. 73 73 73

ü ü Check an herb or a ground spice by rubbing a small amount ü ü Check an herb or a ground spice by rubbing a small amount in your hand. If the aroma is fresh, rich and immediate, it can still flavor foods Check a whole spice ― such as a clove or cinnamon stick ― by breaking, crushing or scraping it before smelling it. 74 74 74

AVOID smelling PEPPER or CHILI POWDER as they can irritate your nose. 75 75 AVOID smelling PEPPER or CHILI POWDER as they can irritate your nose. 75 75 75

“Pepper is small in quantity and great in virtue. ” - Plato 76 76 “Pepper is small in quantity and great in virtue. ” - Plato 76 76 76

Initial quality influences shelf life. Label date of purchase on container with a permanent Initial quality influences shelf life. Label date of purchase on container with a permanent marking pen. 77 77 77

In conclusion. . . “Spice a dish with love and it pleases every palate. In conclusion. . . “Spice a dish with love and it pleases every palate. ” - Plautus 78 78 78

Know how. Know now. Extension is a Division of the Institute of Agriculture and Know how. Know now. Extension is a Division of the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln cooperating with the Counties and the United States Department of Agriculture. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension educational programs abide with the nondiscrimination policies of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and the United States Department of Agriculture.