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Journal Topic n Mathma Gandhi, a leader of India, believed that political change and justice should be gained without violence. Do you think violence is ever justified? Explain your answer and give examples?
City States of Ancient Sumer Sections 3 and 4
Geography of the fertile crescent Land between the Floods and Irrigation rivers n Rivers frequently n Mesopotamia is rose in terrifying located between the floods that washed Tigris and away topsoil and Euphrates river. destroyed mud brick villages. n The two rivers flow from the highlands n Under the of modern day leadership of Turkey through Iraq priests, villagers into the Persian Gulf built dikes to hold back flood water.
Sumerian Civilization Government and Society The ruler was responsible for maintaining the city walls and the irrigation system. The ruler was seen as the chief servant of the gods and led ceremonies designed to please them. Social Hierarchy: ruling family, lesser priests or scribes, and peasant farmers.
Role of Women The role of women in Sumerian society reflected mother goddess in farming communities. n Supervised palace workshops and ruled for the king when he was absent. n Well to do women engaged in trade and own property. n
Sumerian Religion n Ancient Sumerians were polytheistic. Sumerians viewed Gods almost like mortals in that they were able to eat, drink, and become married. The goal of Sumerians were to keep the Gods pleased because the Gods favored truth and justice, they were also responsible for violence and suffering.
…………. Continued Sumerians built a Ziggurat that paid homage to the Gods. n People offered sacrifices such as animals, grain, and wine. n Like the Egyptians, the Sumerians believed in the afterlife. Conversely, Sumerians saw the underworld as a dim or murky place. n
Advances in Learning n n Sumerians used a form of communication known as cuneiform. It was used to record myth, prayers, laws, treaties and business contracts. Sumerian scholars made advances in math by dividing the hour into 60 minutes and the circle into 360 degrees. Examining the skies enabled Priests to create accurate calendars to improve the farming society.
Pause (Do not copy) n n n “If the robber is not caught, then shall he who was robbed claim under oath the amount of his loss; then shall the community, and. . . on whose ground and territory and in whose domain it was compensate him for the goods stolen. ” “If persons are stolen, then shall the community and. . . pay one mina of silver to their relatives. ” “If fire break out in a house, and some one who comes to put it out cast his eye upon the property of the owner of the house, and take the property of the master of the house, he shall be thrown into that self-same fire. ”
Code of Hammurabi controlled much of Mesopotamia around 1790 B. C. n He is well known for his publication “ The Code of Hammurabi. ” (282 laws written on 12 tablets) n He was the first ruler to codify all of the laws that would govern a state. n
Criminal Law In the past, victims were allowed to take the law into their own hands. n “Vengeance is Mine” n Hammurabi’s code set out specific punishments for specific offenses. n
Civil Law n n n This branch of government dealt with the invasion of rights such as business contracts, property inheritances, marriage, and even divorce. “ If a woman so hated her husband that she has declared, “You may not have me”. Pause. How was civil law different from criminal law?
Nebuchadnezzar (Arrogant Dictator) n n n He was an “I” man Nebuchadnezzar did successfully revive the Babylon empire through the rebuilding of cities, canals, aqueducts, and reservoirs. He relied heavily on his wealth and his warriors.
The Roots of Judaism n n Abraham is considered the founder of the Israelite nation. The Israelites were monotheistic believing in one true God. The Ten commandments are used to guide the Jewish faith. Prophets such as Isaiah and Jeremiah warned that failure to obey God’s law would lead people to disaster.
Review Questions (Please use your notes and the text to answer the following questions) 1. Between which two rivers was Mesopotamia located? n 2. What were the responsibilities of the rulers of each city state? 3. Who made up three classes in the Sumerian social hierarchy? n 4. What was the role of women in Sumerian society? n 5. In what three areas of learning did the Sumerians excel? n
…. . Continued 6. What was the significance of the Code of Hammurabi? n 7. What did Nebuchadnezzar do to help Mesopatamia floruish? n 8. Which leader united the Hebrew tribes into a single nation? n