Joint Application Development Introduction The chapter will

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Joint Application Development Introduction : The chapter will address the following questions: < < Joint Application Development Introduction : The chapter will address the following questions: < < Can joint applications development be used as alternative factfinding technique throughout systems development, and can it expedite the process? What are the typical participants in a JAD session and describe their roles? How do you complete the planning process for conducting a JAD session: including selecting and equipping the location, selecting the participants, and preparing an agenda to guide the JAD session? What are several benefits of using JAD as a fact-finding technique? Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 1 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development : Introduction < < < Joint application design (JAD) is a Joint Application Development : Introduction < < < Joint application design (JAD) is a process whereby highly structured group meetings or mini-retreats involving system users, system owners, and analysts occur in a single room for an extended period of time (four to eight hours per day, anywhere from one day to a couple weeks. ( JAD-like techniques are becoming increasingly common in systems planning and systems analysis to obtain group consensus on problems, objectives, and requirements. Therefore, it is more commonly referred to as joint application development to appropriately reflect that it includes more than simply systems design. Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 2 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development JAD Participants : Sponsor < Any successful JAD session requires a Joint Application Development JAD Participants : Sponsor < Any successful JAD session requires a single person, called the sponsor, to serve as its champion. 8 This person is normally an individual who is in top management who has authority that spans the different departments and users who are to be involved in the systems project. 8 The role of the sponsor is to give full support to the systems project by encouraging designated users to willingly and actively participate in the JAD session(s. ( 8 It is the sponsor who usually makes final decisions regarding go or no-go direction of the project. Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 3 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development JAD Participants : JAD Leader (or Facilitator( < JAD sessions involve Joint Application Development JAD Participants : JAD Leader (or Facilitator( < JAD sessions involve a single individual who plays the role of the leader or facilitator. 8 The JAD leader is usually responsible for leading all sessions that are held for a systems project. T 8 This individual is someone who: • • • Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley Has excellent communication skills Possess the ability to negotiate and resolve group conflicts Has a good knowledge of the business Has strong organizational skills Is impartial to decisions that will be addressed Does not report to any of the JAD session participants 4 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development JAD Participants : JAD Leader (or Facilitator( < < < The Joint Application Development JAD Participants : JAD Leader (or Facilitator( < < < The role of the JAD leader is to plan the JAD session, conduct the session, and to follow through on the results. During the session, the leader is to serve as a facilitator, leading the discussion of issues, encouraging the attendees to actively participate, resolving issue conflicts that may arise, and ensuring the goals and objectives of the meeting are fulfilled. It is the JAD leaders responsibility to establish the “ground rules” that will be followed during the meeting and ensure that the participants abide by these rules. Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 5 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development JAD Participants : Users and Managers < < < These participants Joint Application Development JAD Participants : Users and Managers < < < These participants are normally chosen by the project sponsor. 8 The project sponsor must exercise their authority and encouragement to ensure that these individuals will be committed to actively participate. 8 A typical JAD session may involve anywhere from a relatively small number of user/management people to a dozen or more. The role of the users is to effectively communicate business rules and requirements, review design prototypes, and make acceptance decisions. The role of the managers is to approve project objectives, establish project priorities, approve schedules and costs, and approve identified training needs and implementation plans. Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 6 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development JAD Participants : Scribe(s( < A JAD session also includes one Joint Application Development JAD Participants : Scribe(s( < A JAD session also includes one or more scribes who are responsible for keeping records pertaining to everything discussed in the meeting. 8 These records are published and disseminated to the attendees immediately following the meeting in order to maintain the momentum that has been established by the JAD session and its members. 8 This need to quickly publish the records is reflected in more and more scribes beginning to make use of CASE tools to capture many facts (documented using data and process models) that are communicated during a JAD session. Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 7 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development JAD Participants : IS Staff < < < A JAD session Joint Application Development JAD Participants : IS Staff < < < A JAD session may also include a number of IS personnel who are primarily in attendance to listen and take notes regarding issues and requirements voiced by the users and managers. Normally, IS personnel do not speak up unless invited to do so. 8 Any questions or concerns that they have are usually directed to the JAD leader immediately after or prior to the JAD session. The makeup of the IS staff usually consists of members of the project team. 8 These members may work closely with the scribe to develop models and other documentation related to facts communicated during the meeting. Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 8 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Introduction < < Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Introduction < < Most JAD sessions span a three- to five-day time period and occasionally last up to two weeks. The success of any JAD session is dependent upon proper planning and effectively carrying out that plan. Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 9 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Session < < Before planning a JAD session, the analyst must work closely with the executive sponsor to determine the scope of the project that is to be addressed through JAD sessions. It is also important that the high-level requirements and expectations of each JAD session is determined. Also before planning the JAD session, the analyst must ensure that the executive sponsor is willing to commit people, time, and other resources to the JAD session(s. ( Planning for a JAD session involves three steps: 1 Selecting a location for the JAD session. 2 Selecting JAD participants. 3 Preparing an agenda. Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 10 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Session < Selecting a Location for JAD Sessions: 8 JAD sessions should be conducted at a location that is away from company workplace. • • Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley The attendees can concentrate on the issues and activities related to the JAD session and avoid certain interruptions and distractions that would occur at their regular workplace. A JAD session typically requires that the location accommodations include a several rooms. A conference room is required wherein the entire group of attendees can meet to collectively address JAD issues. Several small break-out rooms may be needed for separate groups of people to meet and focus discussion on specific issues. 11 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods Joint Application Development Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 12 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Session < Selecting JAD Participants: 8 It is analyst, executive sponsor, and managers responsibility to select the JAD leader. • • Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley Ideally, an experienced JAD leader may be available in-house. – If not, an individual may be selected to obtain the extensive training needed to conduct JAD sessions. Many companies opt to hire a qualified person from outside the organization. – Hiring an individual outside the organization provides the benefit of having a JAD leader who will not be biased. 13 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Session < Selecting JAD Participants: 8 One or more scribes must also be selected. • • • Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley Since scribes must possess technical skills (word-processing, CASE, data and process modeling, etc. ), they are usually selected from among the ranks of the organization’s IS professionals. In addition to scribes, other IS professionals must be selected to be involved in the JAD session. The make-up of IS professionals involved in the JAD session usually involves all individuals assigned to the project team. 14 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Session < Selecting JAD Participants: 8 The analyst and managers must select individuals from the user community. • • Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley Only those users who are able to clearly articulate facts and opinions will be invited. These individuals should be key individuals who are quite knowledgeable about their business area. 15 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Session < Preparing a JAD Session Agenda: 8 An agenda for each JAD session should be prepared and distributed prior to each session. • 8 The agenda should contain three parts : • • • Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley The agenda dictates issues to be discussed during the session and amount of time allotted to each item. The opening. The body. The conclusion. 16 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Planning the JAD Session < Preparing a JAD Session Agenda: 8 The Agenda Opening: • • • 8 The Agenda Conclusion: • Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley The opening is intended to communicate the expectations of the session, communicate the ground rules, and to influence or motivate the attendees to participate. The Agenda Body: The body is intended to detail the topics or issues to be addressed in the JAD session. The conclusion is intended to allow time to summarize the day’s session and to remind the attendees of unresolved issues (to be carried forward. ( 17 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Conducting a JAD Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Conducting a JAD Session < < < The JAD session begins with opening remarks, introductions, and a brief overview of the agenda and objectives for the JAD session. The JAD leader will direct the session by following the prepared script. To successfully conduct the session, the leader should follow these guidelines : 8 Do not unreasonably deviate from the agenda. 8 Stay on schedule (agenda topics are allotted specific time. ( 8 Ensure that the scribe is able to take notes (this may require the JAD leader having the users and managers restate their points more slowly or clearly. ( Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 18 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Conducting a JAD Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Conducting a JAD Session < To successfully conduct the session, the leader should follow these guidelines: (continued( 8 Avoid the use of technical jargon. 8 Apply conflict resolution skills. 8 Allow for ample breaks. 8 Encourage group consensus. 8 Encourage user and management participation without allowing individuals to dominate the session. 8 Make sure that attendees abide by the established ground rules for the session. Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 19 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Conducting a JAD Joint Application Development How to Plan and Conduct JAD Sessions : Conducting a JAD Session < The end product of a JAD session is typically a formal written document. 8 This document is essential in confirming the specifications agreed upon during the session(s) to all participants. 8 The content and organization of the specification is obviously dependent on the objectives of the JAD session. 8 The analyst may choose to provide a different set of specifications to different participants based upon their role. Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 20 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development Benefits of JAD : An effectively conducted JAD session offers the Joint Application Development Benefits of JAD : An effectively conducted JAD session offers the following benefits: < < < JAD actively involves users and management in the development project (encouraging them to take own more an “ownership” in the project. ( JAD reduces the amount of time required to develop systems. When JAD incorporates prototyping as a means for confirming requirements and obtaining design approvals, the benefits of prototyping are realized. Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 21 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998

Joint Application Development Summary : : : Introduction Joint Application Development Benefits of JAD Joint Application Development Summary : : : Introduction Joint Application Development Benefits of JAD Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4 ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley 22 Copyright Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 1998




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