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JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 9 “THE REIGN OF KING MOB” JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 9 “THE REIGN OF KING MOB” JACKSON INVITED THE PUBLIC TO HIS INAUGURAL BALL AT THE WHITE HOUSE – THEY TRASHED IT! President's Levee, or all Creation going to the White House, Washington, [March 4, 1829]. Library of Congress. Rare Book and Special Collections Division. Call number: E 165. P 72. Reproduction number: LC-USZC 4 -970 (color film copy transparency)

Andrew Jackson © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • http: //www. whitehouse. gov/history/president s/aj 7. Andrew Jackson © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • http: //www. whitehouse. gov/history/president s/aj 7. html

© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Essential Question: Champion of the “Common Man”? OR “King” © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Essential Question: Champion of the “Common Man”? OR “King” Andrew?

© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Jackson’s Opponents in 1824 Henry Clay [KY] John Quincy © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Jackson’s Opponents in 1824 Henry Clay [KY] John Quincy Adams [MA] William H. Crawford [GA] John C. Calhoun [SC]

Results of the 1824 Election © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. A “Corrupt Bargain? ” Results of the 1824 Election © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. A “Corrupt Bargain? ”

“DEMOCRATIZING” POLITICS • Jacksonian inauguration and the reign of the “common man” • Jefferson: “DEMOCRATIZING” POLITICS • Jacksonian inauguration and the reign of the “common man” • Jefferson: believed ordinary man could be educated to believe what was right • Jackson: insisted ordinary man knew what was right by instinct • “Servant” replaced by “help” © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Increasingly democratic elections • Most states removed property qualifications • By Jackson’s time only Delaware and South Carolina had electors chosen by state legislature rather than by popular vote • Soon after 1828 presidential candidates were nominated by party conventions

“DEMOCRATIZING” POLITICS • Emphasis on idea that every citizen equally important and all should “DEMOCRATIZING” POLITICS • Emphasis on idea that every citizen equally important and all should participate in government © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Final disestablishment of churches • Beginnings of free-school movement, early interest in adult education and slow spread of secondary education • Increase in number of newspapers and the decline in their prices • Increase in voting: • 1824 300, 000 ballots cast • 1828 1. 1 million • 1840 2. 4 million

“DEMOCRATIZING” POLITICS • With increase in importance of voting came increase in competition among “DEMOCRATIZING” POLITICS • With increase in importance of voting came increase in competition among candidates • Running campaigns and getting vote out required money, people and organized effort • Parties became powerful institutions that instilled loyalty among adherents © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • 1828 election stimulated party formation • Created bureaucracies • Devoted party workers were rewarded with political offices • Candidates decided best way to attract voters was by flattery

1828— Democratic Party: THE NEW PARTY SYSTEM IN EMBRYO • Party system developed as 1828— Democratic Party: THE NEW PARTY SYSTEM IN EMBRYO • Party system developed as result of battle to succeed John Quincy Adams © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • 1828 election full of character assassination • Denigrating remarks about Jackson’s wife and marriage • Accusations about Adams conduct in office Mrs. Andrew Jackson / engd. by J. C. Buttre Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D. C. 20540 USA LC-USZ 6225773 (b&w film copy neg. )

© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Jackson in Mourning for His Wife © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Jackson in Mourning for His Wife

© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. 1828 Election Results © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. 1828 Election Results

THE JACKSONIAN APPEAL • Jackson similar to Washington • • Soldier first Inveterate speculator THE JACKSONIAN APPEAL • Jackson similar to Washington • • Soldier first Inveterate speculator in western lands Owner of plantation and slaves Man with few intellectual interests and only sketchily educated © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • More like a southern planter than a frontiersman • Drew support from every section and social class • Believed in equality of opportunity and distrusted entrenched status

© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

THE SPOILS SYSTEM • Jackson decided to punish those who wronged him during campaign THE SPOILS SYSTEM • Jackson decided to punish those who wronged him during campaign • Political office seen as reward for victory • Removed some for incompetence • Some because believed in concept of rotation which meant more citizens could participate in tasks of governing © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Would prevent entrenched bureaucracy • Yet also inhibit governmental efficiency • Jacksonian democracy characterized by contempt for knowledge and belief that ordinary Americans can do anything they set their minds to • Jackson actually appointed people from social and intellectual elite • Did not rotate a lot of positions especially in War and Navy departments

PRESIDENT OF ALL THE PEOPLE • Jackson relied not on formal cabinet (where only PRESIDENT OF ALL THE PEOPLE • Jackson relied not on formal cabinet (where only secretary of state, Martin Van Buren, had any talent) but on informal “Kitchen Cabinet” © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Vetoed over a dozen bills that he deemed inexpedient • Did not seek to expand federal authority at expense of states because favored a “frugal” constitutionally limited government • Poor administrator, given to pennypinching and lacking in imagination, Great success b/c of personality

SECTIONAL TENSIONS REVIVED • Moderate course © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Slight reduction SECTIONAL TENSIONS REVIVED • Moderate course © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Slight reduction in tariff • “constitutional” internal improvements • Once federal debt paid off, distribute rest among states • If did this could not reduce price of public land which upset westerners • Created proposal for South-West alliance based on cheap land low tariff • Alliance cut down by Daniel Webster

JACKSON: “THE BANK… I WILL KILL IT” • Jackson was re-elected in 1832 over JACKSON: “THE BANK… I WILL KILL IT” • Jackson was re-elected in 1832 over Henry Clay • One of main issues was Second Bank of U. S. © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Bank was run by Nicholas Biddle who realized it could act as rudimentary central bank • State banks often issued more paper money than hard currency reserves • By collecting bank notes and submitting them for redemption, Biddle could compel local banks to maintain reserves of gold and silver

JACKSON: “THE BANK… I WILL KILL IT” • Biddle’s policies were good for Bank JACKSON: “THE BANK… I WILL KILL IT” • Biddle’s policies were good for Bank • Earned substantial profits • But state banks pressured to print money which caused farmers to overextend themselves © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Led to decline in prices and agricultural depression • Reckless lending caused inflation and greatly exaggerated ups and downs of business cycle • Biddle had supporters but they were outnumbered by detractors who did not understand what he was doing

JACKSON’S BANK VETO • After Jackson admitted his dislike and fear of Bank, Biddle JACKSON’S BANK VETO • After Jackson admitted his dislike and fear of Bank, Biddle gravitated to the opposition (National Republicans) • In 1832 Biddle asked for renewal of Bank charter due to expire in 1836 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Congress passed but Jackson vetoed saying Bank was • Unconstitutional • Inexpedient • Stock owned by foreigners

JACKSON’S BANK VETO • Jackson withdrew government funds from the Bank of the United JACKSON’S BANK VETO • Jackson withdrew government funds from the Bank of the United States and deposited them in state banks • Had to replace two Secretaries of the Treasury before found Roger Taney who made transfer • By 1836 funds distributed to 90 institutions © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • In response to withdrawals, Biddle • • Presented all state bank notes and checks for specie Contracted own lending Paper money became scarce and specie unattainable In 1834, Biddle caved to pressure and returned to lending freely

© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Downfall of “Mother Bank” © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Downfall of “Mother Bank”

JACKSON VERSUS CALHOUN • Jackson: “Our Federal Union: It must be preserved” • Calhoun: JACKSON VERSUS CALHOUN • Jackson: “Our Federal Union: It must be preserved” • Calhoun: “The Union, next to our liberty, most dear” • Strained relations • Peggy Eaton • Calhoun’s 1818 response to Jackson’s invasion of Florida © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Jackson’s views: • Did not believe that the area of national power was large or should be expanded • Interested in government economy, distribution of federal surpluses to the states, and interpreting powers of Congress narrowly • Favored internal improvements but preferred local projects be left to states

© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The “Peggy Eaton Affair” © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The “Peggy Eaton Affair”

INDIAN REMOVALS © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Jackson’s Views: • Indians were “savage” INDIAN REMOVALS © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Jackson’s Views: • Indians were “savage” because roamed wild in trackless wilderness and therefore were incapable of selfgovernment • Ignored reality of Cherokee life • Indian Removal Act of 1830 -Jackson insisted that Indians must be removed from path of white settlement but must be paid fairly for land government must bear expense of relocating them • Saw relocation as protecting Indians from “degradation and destruction”

INDIAN REMOVALS • Between 1831 and 1833 some 15, 000 Choctaw migrated from Mississippi INDIAN REMOVALS • Between 1831 and 1833 some 15, 000 Choctaw migrated from Mississippi to region west of Arkansas Territory • Resistance: • Black Hawk’s Sac and Fox in Illinois • Osceola’s Seminole in Florida © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Accommodation: Cherokee • Took up farming and cattle raising • Developed a written language • Drafted a constitution • 1828 Georgia declared all Cherokee laws void and claimed their land as part of Georgia

INDIAN REMOVALS • Cherokees sued in Supreme Court • Cherokee Nation v Georgia (1831) INDIAN REMOVALS • Cherokees sued in Supreme Court • Cherokee Nation v Georgia (1831) • Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokee were not a foreign nation and thus could not sue in U. S. court © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Worcester v. Georgia (1832) • Involved two missionaries to Cherokee who had not obtained license required by Georgia • Marshall ruled state could not control Cherokee or their territory • Supported this decision in follow up case when Cherokee convicted in Georgia court sued and Marshall overturned conviction since had occurred on Cherokee territory thereby making Georgia’s actions unconstitutional

INDIAN REMOVALS • Jackson supported Georgia (State over Federal govt) • Trail of Tears INDIAN REMOVALS • Jackson supported Georgia (State over Federal govt) • Trail of Tears (1838) © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • 15, 000 Cherokees were forced to leave Georgia for Oklahoma • At least 4, 000 died on the way • Jackson’s actions regarding Georgia convinced many southern states’ righters that he would not oppose doctrine of nullification

© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Trail of Tears (18381839) © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Trail of Tears (18381839)

© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cherokee Nation After 1820 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cherokee Nation After 1820

© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Jackson’s Professed “Love” for Native Americans © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Jackson’s Professed “Love” for Native Americans

THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS • 1832 Tariff failed to lower prices enough to satisfy southerners, THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS • 1832 Tariff failed to lower prices enough to satisfy southerners, especially South Carolina © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Upcountry cotton planters suffering competition from more fertile Alabama • Planter aristocrats of rice-growing Tidewater were troubled by northern criticisms of slavery • • Blacks outnumbered whites two to one in region Many were African born 1822 planned revolt of Denmark Vesey exposed 1831 Nat Turner revolt terrified even more

THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS • Radical South Carolinians saw protective tariffs and anti-slavery agitation as THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS • Radical South Carolinians saw protective tariffs and anti-slavery agitation as tyranny of the majority to which nullification was the logical defense © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Calhoun’s Exposition and Protest based on false assumptions: • That the Constitution was subject to definitive interpretation • That one party could be permitted to interpret a compact unilaterally without destroying it • That a minority of the nation could reassume its sovereign independence but that a minority of the state could not • Jackson realized if state could nullify a law of Congress, the Union could not exist

THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS • October 1832 South Carolina state legislature provided for the election THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS • October 1832 South Carolina state legislature provided for the election of a special convention which wound up containing a majority of nullifiers © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • November 24, 1832: convention passed an ordinance of nullification prohibiting collection of tariff duties after February 1, 1833 and authorized raising of army • Jackson threatened to use force while also pressuring Congress to further lower tariff and warning South Carolina of the consequences

THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS • Calhoun resigned as Vice President and replaced Senator Hayne • THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS • Calhoun resigned as Vice President and replaced Senator Hayne • Sought solution aided by Henry Clay • Administration allies introduced new tariff bill and a Force Bill (granting president additional authority to execute revenue laws) © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • No other southern states joined South Carolina • March 1833 Calhoun and Clay got compromise tariff through Congress that lowered tariff over 10 year period • South Carolina repealed nullification law and nullified force law—WHEW-Civil War…Almost…

BOOM AND BUST • 1833 and 1834 Taney insisted “pet” state banks maintain large BOOM AND BUST • 1833 and 1834 Taney insisted “pet” state banks maintain large reserves © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Other state banks began to offer credit on easy terms because had increase in their reserves of gold and silver • Decline in Chinese demand for Mexican silver led to increased exports of metal to U. S. • Rise of American interest rates attracted English capital • Heavy English purchases of American cotton of high prices increased flow of specie to banks

BOOM AND BUST • Bank notes in circulation jumped from $82 million in January BOOM AND BUST • Bank notes in circulation jumped from $82 million in January 1835 to $120 million in December 1836 • New money flowed into land speculation where prices rose 15% in 6 months © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • By 1836 U. S. government had eliminated debt and had a $20 million surplus • Alarmed by speculation, Jackson issued Specie Circular in 1836 • Purchasers must pay for public land in gold or silver • Led to the Panic of 1837 as depositors demanded specie payment from banks-banks forced to suspend specie payments-boom is over

JACKSONIANISM ABROAD • Reciprocal trade agreements negotiated • One with Great Britain opened British JACKSONIANISM ABROAD • Reciprocal trade agreements negotiated • One with Great Britain opened British West Indian ports to American ships © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Pressed American claims dating from Napoleonic Wars • 1831: France agreed to pay $5 million • Initially the French Chamber of Deputies refused to pay and only after Jackson had severed relations and threatened war did Chamber finally give in

THE JACKSONIANS © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Jacksonians of Democratic Party believed in THE JACKSONIANS © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Jacksonians of Democratic Party believed in certain underlying principles: • Suspicion of special privilege and large business corporations • Freedom of economic opportunity, unfettered by private or governmental restrictions • Absolute political freedom, at least for white males • Conviction that any ordinary man is capable of performing the duties of most public offices • Supported public education

RISE OF THE WHIGS • Opposition to Jackson less cohesive though clearly anti-Jackson © RISE OF THE WHIGS • Opposition to Jackson less cohesive though clearly anti-Jackson © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Whigs: • Bankers • Those who found “pushiness and coarseness” of Jacksonians offensive • Lawyers, ministers, doctors and other well educated people joined due to anti-intellectual and anti-scientific bias of administration • Problems • Too many generals, not enough troops • Could agree on little besides dislike of Jackson

MARTIN VAN BUREN: JACKSONIANISM WITHOUT JACKSON • Took office as Panic of 1837 hit MARTIN VAN BUREN: JACKSONIANISM WITHOUT JACKSON • Took office as Panic of 1837 hit • By 1838 the banks resumed specie payment • 1839 bumper crop caused a sharp decline in price of cotton © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • States that had overextended themselves in internal improvements were forced to default on debts • Discouraged foreign investments • Result was economic depression that lasted until 1843

MARTIN VAN BUREN: JACKSONIANISM WITHOUT JACKSON • Van Buren ignored economy © 2006 Pearson MARTIN VAN BUREN: JACKSONIANISM WITHOUT JACKSON • Van Buren ignored economy © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Did pass Independent Treasury Act 1840 • Called for the construction of government owned vaults where federal revenues could be stored until needed • All payments to the government were to be made in hard cash • Despite criticism system actually worked for a number of years Martin Van Buren LC-USZ 62 -13008 (b&w film copy neg. of detail) LC-BH 82401 -5239 (b&w film copy neg. ) Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D. C. 20540 USA

Jackson trivia: © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Did you know that Andrew Jackson Jackson trivia: © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • Did you know that Andrew Jackson was the only president to have ever paid off the national debt?

WEBSITES • Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler WEBSITES • Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler (1904) http: //digital. library. okstate. edu/kappler • The Second Bank of the United States, 1816 -1836 http: //odur. let. rut. nl/~usa/E/usbank/bank 04. htm • Daniel Webster http: //www. dartmouth. edu/~dwebster © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. • The American Whig Party, 1834 -1856 http: //odur. let. rug. nl/~usa/E/uswhig/whigsxx. htm • National Museum of the American Indian http: //www. si. edu/nmai