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IS 483 Information Systems Management James Nowotarski 24 April 2003 IS 483 Information Systems Management James Nowotarski 24 April 2003

Today’s Objectives • • Recap Assignment 1 Finish distributed architectures/infrastructures Understand fundamentals of network Today’s Objectives • • Recap Assignment 1 Finish distributed architectures/infrastructures Understand fundamentals of network management Review logistics for Assignments 2, 3

Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap distributed architectures 10 minutes • Network management basics 45 minutes *** Break 10 minutes • Guest speaker: IT planning/arch *** Break 5 minutes • Service level agreements • Quiz • Assignments 2, 3 45 minutes 15 minutes 30 minutes

Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap distributed architectures 10 minutes • Network management basics 45 minutes *** Break 10 minutes • Guest speaker: IT planning/arch *** Break 5 minutes • Service level agreements • Quiz • Assignments 2, 3 45 minutes 15 minutes 30 minutes

Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap distributed architectures 10 minutes • Network management basics 45 minutes *** Break 10 minutes • Guest speaker: IT planning/arch *** Break 5 minutes • Service level agreements • Quiz • Assignments 2, 3 45 minutes 15 minutes 30 minutes

IT Architecture and IT Infrastructure Applications and Data • Presentation logic • Application logic IT Architecture and IT Infrastructure Applications and Data • Presentation logic • Application logic • Data management Reusable Technical Architecture IT Architecture System Software IT Infrastructure Hardware/Network

IT Architecture vs. IT Infrastructure IT Architecture Level of Abstraction Scope • Blueprint • IT Architecture vs. IT Infrastructure IT Architecture Level of Abstraction Scope • Blueprint • Policies, rules • Tech architecture • System software • Hardware/Network IT Infrastructure Implemented capabilities IT Architecture + IT roles, organization + IT processes

Benefits of Architecture • • Productivity Consistency Quality Rapid delivery Maintainability Interoperability Reduces complexity Benefits of Architecture • • Productivity Consistency Quality Rapid delivery Maintainability Interoperability Reduces complexity Leverages scarce skills

Where Does Internet Fit? Distributed Presentation Remote Presentation Distributed Function Remote Data Management Data Where Does Internet Fit? Distributed Presentation Remote Presentation Distributed Function Remote Data Management Data Management Application Logic Distributed Database Application Logic Data Management Presentation o etw N rk Data Management Application Logic Presentation Thin Presentation Application Logic Presentation Thickness of Client

3 -Tier Distributed Architecture LAN Workstation Workgroup Server • Presentation • Application logic Enterprise 3 -Tier Distributed Architecture LAN Workstation Workgroup Server • Presentation • Application logic Enterprise Server • Data management

n-Tier Example DB Server Bank Customers Internet Web Server App Server Legacy Mainframe Internet n-Tier Example DB Server Bank Customers Internet Web Server App Server Legacy Mainframe Internet Firewall Application Firewall

Comparison of n-tier relative to 3 -tier Advantages • Better load balancing on different Comparison of n-tier relative to 3 -tier Advantages • Better load balancing on different servers • More scalable Disadvantages • Potentially greater load on network • More complex to implement • More hardware and network components ($$$)

Solution “Stack” Examples Applications and Data Reusable Technical Architecture System Software Hardware/Network Claims, Payroll, Solution “Stack” Examples Applications and Data Reusable Technical Architecture System Software Hardware/Network Claims, Payroll, CRM, ERP Component-Based Architecture for Microsoft (Accenture) Middleware overlap Web. Sphere, CICS TS Apache J 2 EE DB 2, Oracle, SQL Server Linux, Unix, Windows, z/OS Dell, HP, Sun, EMC, Cisco AT&T, Sprint, World. Com Public Internet

Middleware Types of Middleware • Network middleware – Procedure calls over a network – Middleware Types of Middleware • Network middleware – Procedure calls over a network – Example: Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs), ORBs • Conversational middleware – Transparent conversion of text, graphics, data – Example: Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) • Transaction Processing – Transaction management services to support processing of high volumes of transactions – Example: CICS TS

Middleware Types of Middleware (cont. ) • SQL and Database Middleware – Applications can Middleware Types of Middleware (cont. ) • SQL and Database Middleware – Applications can connect to several different databases using one programming interface – Example: Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) • GUI Middleware – Applications can support multiple GUIs across a network – Example: X Windows • Messaging Middleware – Distributing data and control through synchronous or asynchronous messages – Example: IBM MQSeries

IT Management Issues Associated with Distributed Architectures • Migrating from legacy (mainframe) to distributed IT Management Issues Associated with Distributed Architectures • Migrating from legacy (mainframe) to distributed architecture: - Three major business issues 1. 2. 3. - Five typical alternatives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. • Cost Resources Risk Replatforming Screen scraping Replace with package Build from scratch #4 plus business process reengineering Support and maintenance issues – – – Training and standards Robust, fault tolerant components (lack thereof) Service level monitoring and troubleshooting

Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap distributed architectures 10 minutes • Network management basics 45 minutes *** Break 10 minutes • Guest speaker: IT planning/arch *** Break 5 minutes • Service level agreements • Quiz • Assignments 2, 3 45 minutes 15 minutes 30 minutes

Network Management Definition The set of activities required to plan, install, monitor and maintain Network Management Definition The set of activities required to plan, install, monitor and maintain all network components in order to achieve specified service levels reliably, at an acceptable and agreed cost

Importance of business focus in network solutions • Network is critical to lifeline of Importance of business focus in network solutions • Network is critical to lifeline of the business, must meet business needs • A complete solution involves managing the network and all its components, which includes the business processes and user’s needs • Administrators will need to proactively manage the network instead of reacting to user’s complaints

Importance of business focus in network solutions What business requirements are driving business network Importance of business focus in network solutions What business requirements are driving business network needs today? Business Driver Network Impact Reduce operational costs Consolidate network infrastructure Outsource

Network management architecture Source: Cisco Network management architecture Source: Cisco

Elements of Network Management Architecture • End stations (managed devices) – send alerts when Elements of Network Management Architecture • End stations (managed devices) – send alerts when problem is recognized – examples: routers, access servers, switches, bridges, hubs, computer hosts, printers • Management entities – gather information from managed devices (via agents) – log and react to network events – present status info and alerts to network operator – perform tests • Agents – software modules that reside within managed devices and gather and store information

Elements of Network Management Architecture (cont. ) • Network management protocol – protocol used Elements of Network Management Architecture (cont. ) • Network management protocol – protocol used by agent and management entity to exchange information – Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is near universal standard for private networks – Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) is gaining popularity in the more heterogeneous world of public networks • Proxies – represent network managed devices • Management database – repository of information collected by agent (alarms outstanding, performance data, etc. ) – complex and high-volume information (oo databases being used)

Network Management Functions • Fault management • Configuration management • Accounting management • Performance Network Management Functions • Fault management • Configuration management • Accounting management • Performance management • Security management Source: International Standards Organization (ISO)

Network Management Functions Fault Management • • Detection Isolation Diagnosis Correction Network Management Functions Fault Management • • Detection Isolation Diagnosis Correction

Network Management Functions Configuration Management • • • Analyzing impact of changes Installing changes Network Management Functions Configuration Management • • • Analyzing impact of changes Installing changes Controlling changes

Network Management Functions Accounting Management • • Track network usage (no abuse of privileges) Network Management Functions Accounting Management • • Track network usage (no abuse of privileges) Monitor operating costs

Network Management Functions Performance management • • Establish performance goals Collect and analyze performance Network Management Functions Performance management • • Establish performance goals Collect and analyze performance data Assess actual performance relative to goals Identify areas for improvement (capacity, network design, etc. )

Network Management Functions Security Management • • Control access to network Report, diagnose, and Network Management Functions Security Management • • Control access to network Report, diagnose, and correct security breaches

Network Management Costs • Annual cost of owning and operating a network 16% - Network Management Costs • Annual cost of owning and operating a network 16% - cost of network equipment 84% - ongoing operating expenses, most of this is the support organization

Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap distributed architectures 10 minutes • Network management basics 45 minutes *** Break 10 minutes • Guest speaker: IT planning/arch *** Break 5 minutes • Service level agreements • Quiz • Assignments 2, 3 45 minutes 15 minutes 30 minutes

Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap distributed architectures 10 minutes • Network management basics 45 minutes *** Break 10 minutes • Guest speaker: IT planning/arch *** Break 5 minutes • Service level agreements • Quiz • Assignments 2, 3 45 minutes 15 minutes 30 minutes

Service Level Agreements Definition Contract that details the level of service required from a Service Level Agreements Definition Contract that details the level of service required from a service provider to the user of those services 2 Types of SLA’s • Internal • External

Management of Systems Environments Users Internal SLA External SLA Vendors Systems Management • Network Management of Systems Environments Users Internal SLA External SLA Vendors Systems Management • Network Mgmt • Server Mgmt • etc. Service Management Developers

Service Level Agreements Service Provider Service User Internal IT network group End user group Service Level Agreements Service Provider Service User Internal IT network group End user group (i. e. , business unit) External Vendor End user group -- IT network group coordinates Type of SLA

Service Level Agreements • Clearly articulate and document the level of service that users Service Level Agreements • Clearly articulate and document the level of service that users of the computing environment expect to receive • Should be used to drive out the requirements for the service provider organization • Clarifies the business objectives and constraints for an application system • Require an accurate way of measuring the service levels achieved

Service Level Agreements Table of Contents • Dates (start, expiration) • Types of services Service Level Agreements Table of Contents • Dates (start, expiration) • Types of services provided • Service measures • Roles/Responsibilities (provider, consumer) • Resources needed and/or costs charged • Reporting mechanism • Signatures

Service Level Agreements Table of Contents • Dates (start, expiration) • Types of services Service Level Agreements Table of Contents • Dates (start, expiration) • Types of services provided • Service measures • Roles/Responsibilities (provider, consumer) • Resources needed and/or costs charged • Reporting mechanism • Signatures

Service Level Agreements Disciplines Service Types Availability Performance Management Reliability Response time Configuration Management Service Level Agreements Disciplines Service Types Availability Performance Management Reliability Response time Configuration Management Application versions & enhancements Accounting Management Reporting procedure Fault Management Incident management, e. g. , • database failure • workstation failure Security Management Recovery Management Backup Recovery Capacity Planning Online Systems Output handling Batch Systems Schedule execution

Service Level Agreements • How many are needed? • Do they contain primarily business Service Level Agreements • How many are needed? • Do they contain primarily business or technical language? • How are they used? • What are consequences if SLA not met? – To the service provider – To the service user (i. e. , the business) • In an internet environment, what are challenges experienced in the creation of effective SLAs?

Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap distributed architectures 10 minutes • Network management basics 45 minutes *** Break 10 minutes • Guest speaker: IT planning/arch *** Break 5 minutes • Service level agreements • Quiz • Assignments 2, 3 45 minutes 15 minutes 30 minutes

Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap Today’s agenda Topic Duration • Recap Assignment 1 & Quiz 10 minutes • Recap distributed architectures 10 minutes • Network management basics 45 minutes *** Break 10 minutes • Guest speaker: IT planning/arch *** Break 5 minutes • Service level agreements • Quiz • Assignments 2, 3 45 minutes 15 minutes 30 minutes

Topics for May 1 • Operations Management • See web site for reading • Topics for May 1 • Operations Management • See web site for reading • Quiz on Operations Management • End user training (start)

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