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IPB in Counterinsurgency (Part I Operational Environment) US Army Combined Arms Center IPB in Counterinsurgency (Part I Operational Environment) US Army Combined Arms Center

Operational Environment - Population large part of defining the terrain: OAKOC Conventional Environment/War: Obstacles Operational Environment - Population large part of defining the terrain: OAKOC Conventional Environment/War: Obstacles Counterinsurgency Environment/War: Key Terrain - Deny the enemy passive/active support - Physically/psychologically separate the population from the insurgency Step One Define: Operational Environment US Army Combined Arms Center

A. S. C. O. P. E. • • • Area Structures Capabilities Organizations People A. S. C. O. P. E. • • • Area Structures Capabilities Organizations People Events US Army Combined Arms Center

IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA (Where) LOCATION Use x Perspectives Insurgents Population Counterinsurgents STRUCTURE (Why Important) CAPABILITIES (Who is Responsible) LOCATION STATUS Sewer Water Electric Academic Trash Medical Security ORGANIZATION (What Groups in AO) LOCATION/ DETAILS PEOPLE (How do they Communicate) LOCATION/ RECIPIENT EVENTS (When) DTG/LOCATION US Army Combined Arms Center

IPB 1 1 Determine Threat Courses of Action Evaluate the Threat Define the Operational IPB 1 1 Determine Threat Courses of Action Evaluate the Threat Define the Operational Environment Visualize the specific groups that defines the limits of the AO/AI by looking at the physical and human terrain using ASCOPE (overlay). Identify each specific community or group. Describe the Environment's Effects US Army Combined Arms Center

IPB 1 1 Determine Threat Courses of Action Define the Operational Environment Visualize the IPB 1 1 Determine Threat Courses of Action Define the Operational Environment Visualize the specific groups that defines the limits of the AO/AI by looking at the physical and human terrain using ASCOPE (overlay). Identify each specific community or group. Describe the SO WHAT? Environment's 1. Identifying the “Corners” (neighborhoods, demographic groups, Effects Evaluate the Threat communities) of the 4 x Corner War defined by: - Ethnic - Social - Political - Religious - Economic - Tribal/Family 2. Details of each demographic groups US Army Combined Arms Center

IPB 1 4 Determine Threat Courses of Action Evaluate the Threat 1 Define the IPB 1 4 Determine Threat Courses of Action Evaluate the Threat 1 Define the Operational Environment Describe the Environment's Effects 3 US Army Combined Arms Center 2

US Army Combined Arms Center US Army Combined Arms Center

xx xx xx x x xxx x x xx xx x x xxx x xx xx xx x x xxx x x xx xx x x xxx x xxx x x x FOB GIGANTOR x x x x xx US Army Combined Arms Center x xx x

 Areas Tribe B Tribal Areas xx xx xx x x xxx x x Areas Tribe B Tribal Areas xx xx xx x x xxx x x xx xx x x xxx xx Tribe A x xxx x x x FOB GIGANTOR Tribe C x x x Tribe D xx US Army Combined Arms Center x xx x

 Areas Religious Boundaries Shi’a Sunni xx xx xx x x xxx x x Areas Religious Boundaries Shi’a Sunni xx xx xx x x xxx x x xx xx x x xxx x xxx x x x FOB GIGANTOR x x Sunni x x x Shi’a xx US Army Combined Arms Center x xx x

 Areas Economic Districts Poor Middle Merchants xx xx xx x x xxx x Areas Economic Districts Poor Middle Merchants xx xx xx x x xxx x x xx xx x x xxx x xxx x x x Poor FOB GIGANTOR Poor x x x x Middle Merchants x x x Middle Merchants xx US Army Combined Arms Center x xx x Poor Rich Ex Regime

 Areas Government Centers Poor Middle Merchants G FOB GIGANTOR Poor G Middle Merchants Areas Government Centers Poor Middle Merchants G FOB GIGANTOR Poor G Middle Merchants Poor x x xx xx xx x x xxx x x. P x x x xx xx xx x x xx xxx xx x x P x x xx x x Gx x Px G Middle Merchants xx US Army Combined Arms Center x xx x Rich Ex Regime Poor P

Structures How a structure’s location, function, and capabilities can support or hinder operations. Traditional Structures How a structure’s location, function, and capabilities can support or hinder operations. Traditional high payoff targets: Bridges, communications towers, power plants, and dams. International and localize significant sites: Churches, mosques, national libraries, and hospitals, cemeteries, historical ruins, religious sites, cultural areas, and other protected sites Practical sites: jails, warehouses, toxic industrial materials, television and radio stations, and print plants, , may influence operations. Important: HN provides what the effects of engaging these sites US Army Combined Arms Center

Capabilities refers to the ability of local authorities to provide key functions and services Capabilities refers to the ability of local authorities to provide key functions and services not just mentioning the functions. What is required to save, sustain, or enhance life, in that priority. Those areas the populace needs help in after combat operations Public health Security Public works and utilities Economics Commerce US Army Combined Arms Center

Capabilities Useful tool is SWEAT-MS to look at Capabilities Sewer – Local government (Mayor Capabilities Useful tool is SWEAT-MS to look at Capabilities Sewer – Local government (Mayor and council) Water – Tribal leader (historical - for hundreds of years, tribal leader controlled and protected wells. Electricity – Town engineer Academic – Government and Imams Trash – Private business (local merchants) Medical – Tribal doctors Security – Police, tribal militia Note: Some of these unofficial leaders may seem inefficient or bad ideas. It is important to approach the problem by first understanding the issue. Possibly including unofficial leaders in the process is enough to maintain their respect and support of the government. US Army Combined Arms Center

 Capability P G Gov. Poor Council Member xx Middle Merchants Gov. Council Poor Capability P G Gov. Poor Council Member xx Middle Merchants Gov. Council Poor Member G Poor x x x Police Chief P Gov. Council Member Tribal Leader Rich Ex Regime TL G Doctor Middle Merchants Poor xx US Army Combined Arms Center Tribal Leader M x x x TL Gx x Px FOB GIGANTOR Middle Merchants x x xxx x x Imam x x x Police x x xx x x. P x xx x x x x TL M x xx x x xx Police xx Tribal x x xxx Leader x xx xx Imam x xxx x x x M x x xx TL M Tribal Leader P

Organizations • Consider all nonmilitary groups or institutions in the AO Cultural, Social, Religious Organizations • Consider all nonmilitary groups or institutions in the AO Cultural, Social, Religious • • • Tribes Political Wings of Insurgent Groups PRT Non-government organizations (NGOs) Private Sector (Companies) International Red Cross OGAs Contractors Media (TV, Radio, Newspapers, Periodical, 24/7) US Army Combined Arms Center

 Organization Poor Middle Merchants G G x x FOB GIGANTOR Poor x x Organization Poor Middle Merchants G G x x FOB GIGANTOR Poor x x xx xx xx x x xxx x x. P x x x xx xx M xx x x. Squatters x x xx xxx xx x x P M Poor Middle Merchants Squatters P M x xx x x Gx x Px Rich Ex Regime G Middle Merchants M Poor xx US Army Combined Arms Center x xx x Squatters P

People • All nonmilitary personnel that military forces encounter in the AO • • People • All nonmilitary personnel that military forces encounter in the AO • • Sheiks City council leaders Imams Professionals Displaced persons or “squatters” Sources Tribal Leaders Include how these people communicate. This is important to see the best way to provide I/O both friendly and enemy. US Army Combined Arms Center

People • What are the key methods of communication used in the area? • People • What are the key methods of communication used in the area? • • • Word of Mouth Mosques Tea shops Satellite TV Cell phones Graffiti Internet Meetings I/O Products US Army Combined Arms Center

People Tie people/leaders to method of communication How does the Tribal leader communicate and People Tie people/leaders to method of communication How does the Tribal leader communicate and pass word of mouth? Tea shops, tribal council meetings, mosque Imam? Mosque, during charity events for IDPs Merchants? On the corners in market sector were they gather to smoke and eat Various outspoken Tribal members? Tea shops, graffiti, radio US Army Combined Arms Center

People Graffiti G Graffiti M xx xx xx T x xxx x Gx x People Graffiti G Graffiti M xx xx xx T x xxx x Gx x x x. P x x G x xx x x TL M x xx G x x x. T G x x xx xxx xx x x. Gx x x G G x x Tea Shops FOB GIGANTOR Graffiti Tea Shops G x P G P T M x x x TL Gx x Px Tea Shops TL Graffiti G US Army Combined Arms Center xx x xx T TL G M x P

Events • Events are routine, cyclical, planned, or spontaneous activities that significantly affect organizations, Events • Events are routine, cyclical, planned, or spontaneous activities that significantly affect organizations, people, and military operations • • • Saddam Hussein’s Trial National Elections Arbae’en Anniversary (Ba’ath Party) Ramadan/Id’Al Fitr Funerals US Army Combined Arms Center

Events • Events are routine, cyclical, planned, or spontaneous activities that significantly affect organizations, Events • Events are routine, cyclical, planned, or spontaneous activities that significantly affect organizations, people, and military operations • • Saddam Hussein’s Trial National Elections Arbae’en Anniversary (Ba’ath Party) Ramadan/Id’Al Fitr Funerals Political Rallies US Army Combined Arms Center

Events Tie effect to event: Annual pilgrimage Arbae’en is marked by sectarian attacks Wedding Events Tie effect to event: Annual pilgrimage Arbae’en is marked by sectarian attacks Wedding brings members of the tribe with rifles for celebratory fire. (Important to know if wedding as day as raid on target) Potential I/O issue especially if wedding party fires on raiding party. Friday prayer coincides with sectarian violence Ba’ath Party is trigger for simultaneous attacks Spring brings seasonal fighters from surrounding nations US Army Combined Arms Center

Events M G xx xx xx T x xxx x Gx x x x. Events M G xx xx xx T x xxx x Gx x x x. P x x G x xx x x TL M x xx G x x x. T G x x xx xxx xx x x. Gx x x x x FOB GIGANTOR x x x x G G G x P G P T M x x x TL Gx x Px TL G TL M G US Army Combined Arms Center xx x xx T x P

IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA (Where) LOCATION Use x Perspectives Insurgents Population Counterinsurgents STRUCTURE (Why Important) CAPABILITIES (Who is Responsible) LOCATION STATUS Sewer Water Electric Academic Trash Medical Security ORGANIZATION (What Groups in AO) LOCATION/ DETAILS PEOPLE (How do they Communicate) LOCATION/ RECIPIENT EVENTS (When) DTG/LOCATION US Army Combined Arms Center

IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA (Where) LOCATION Market LOCATION Population Grid Sq 3476 STRUCTURE (Why Important) Use x Perspectives Insurgents Center of economic activity Counterinsurgents Insurgents use for black market Semi-permissive Environment CAPABILITIES (Who is Responsible) STATUS Sewer Water Electric Academic Trash Medical Security ORGANIZATION (What Groups in AO) LOCATION/ DETAILS PEOPLE (How do they Communicate) LOCATION/ RECIPIENT EVENTS (When) DTG/LOCATION US Army Combined Arms Center

IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA (Where) LOCATION Market LOCATION Sunni Mosque Grid 318778 CAPABILITIES (Who is Responsible) STATUS Population Grid Sq 3476 STRUCTURE (Why Important) Use x Perspectives Insurgents Center of economic activity Insurgents use for black market Semi-permissive Environment Center of religious life Safe area/cache for Insurgents LOCATION/ RECIPIENT EVENTS (When) LOCATION/ DETAILS PEOPLE (How do they Communicate) ORGANIZATION (What Groups in AO) Sewer Water Electric Academic Trash Medical Security Counterinsurgents DTG/LOCATION US Army Combined Arms Center Protected site; approval is needed

IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data Use IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data Use x Perspectives Insurgents Population Counterinsurgents AREA (Where) LOCATION Market Grid Sq 3476 STRUCTURE (Why Important) LOCATION Sunni Mosque Grid 318778 CAPABILITIES (Who is Responsible) STATUS Green Red Yellow Red Center of economic activity Insurgents use for black market ORGANIZATION (What Groups in AO) LOCATION/ RECIPIENT EVENTS (When) Safe area/cache for Insurgents LOCATION/ DETAILS PEOPLE (How do they Communicate) Semi-permissive Environment Center of religious life Sewer Water Electric Academic Trash Medical Security DTG/LOCATION US Army Combined Arms Center Protected site; approval is needed

IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA (Where) LOCATION Market LOCATION Sunni Mosque Grid 318778 CAPABILITIES (Who is Responsible) STATUS Population Grid Sq 3476 STRUCTURE (Why Important) Use x Perspectives Insurgents Center of economic activity Insurgents use for black market Sewer Water Electric Academic Trash Medical Security Safe area/cache for Insurgents Protected site; approval is needed Red Red ORGANIZATION (What Groups in AO) LOCATION/ DETAILS LOCATION/ RECIPIENT EVENTS (When) DTG/LOCATION PEOPLE (How do they Communicate) Semi-permissive Environment Center of religious life Counterinsurgents US Army Combined Arms Center

IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA (Where) LOCATION Market LOCATION Sunni Mosque Grid 318778 CAPABILITIES (Who is Responsible) STATUS Population Grid Sq 3476 STRUCTURE (Why Important) Use x Perspectives Insurgents Center of economic activity Insurgents use for black market Sewer Water Electric Academic Trash Medical Security Red Al Sheik Rashad Zidan: Nima Sarhid Tribe electrician Abdul Al Karim, Al Sheik Rashad Zidan Director of Water Sheik Zidan; providing generators and black market gas Abu Sadeq Saba, City electrician LOCATION/ DETAILS LOCATION/ RECIPIENT EVENTS (When) DTG/LOCATION PEOPLE (How do they Communicate) US Army Combined Arms Center Protected site; approval is needed Al Sheik Rashad Zidan Safe area/cache for Insurgents Red ORGANIZATION (What Groups in AO) Semi-permissive Environment Center of religious life Counterinsurgents

IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA (Where) LOCATION Market LOCATION Sunni Mosque Grid 318778 CAPABILITIES (Who is Responsible) STATUS Population Grid Sq 3476 STRUCTURE (Why Important) Use x Perspectives Insurgents Center of economic activity Insurgents use for black market Sewer Water Electric Academic Trash Medical Security Semi-permissive Environment Center of religious life Counterinsurgents Safe area/cache for Insurgents Red Al Sheik Rashad Zidan: Nima Sarhid Tribe electrician Drain on economy, but Abdul Al Karim, Sheik Zidan; providing generators and black market gas Source of recruits and ORGANIZATION (What Groups in AO) LOCATION/ RECIPIENT Director of Water 2000 in Slum, SE Sector PEOPLE (How do they Communicate) Al Sheik Rashad Zidan Abu Sadeq Saba, City electrician LOCATION/ DETAILS IDPs/Refugees Protected site; approval is needed Intel (eyes and ears) EVENTS (When) DTG/LOCATION charity is their Muslim duty Marginalized by local government/police US Army Combined Arms Center

IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA (Where) LOCATION Market LOCATION Sunni Mosque Grid 318778 CAPABILITIES (Who is Responsible) STATUS Population Grid Sq 3476 STRUCTURE (Why Important) Use x Perspectives Insurgents Center of economic activity Insurgents use for black market Sewer Water Electric Academic Trash Medical Security Semi-permissive Environment Center of religious life Counterinsurgents Safe area/cache for Insurgents Red Al Sheik Rashad Zidan: Nima Sarhid Tribe electrician Drain on economy, but Abdul Al Karim, Sheik Zidan; providing generators and black market gas Source of recruits and ORGANIZATION (What Groups in AO) LOCATION/ RECIPIENT Tea Shop Grid 310790/ Poor Wrks EVENTS (When) DTG/LOCATION Director of Water 2000 in Slum, SE Sector PEOPLE (How do they Communicate) Al Sheik Rashad Zidan Abu Sadeq Saba, City electrician LOCATION/ DETAILS IDPs/Refugees Protected site; approval is needed charity is their Muslim duty Marginalized by local government/police Intel (eyes and ears) Al Sheik Rashad Zidan; ‘Word of Mouth’ Recruiting, HUMINT, Nothing Propaganda, Pop. Control US Army Combined Arms Center

IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA IPB I - Operational Environment (ASCOPE) Community, Neighborhood, Group (Center of Influence) Data AREA (Where) LOCATION Market LOCATION Sunni Mosque Grid 318778 CAPABILITIES (Who is Responsible) STATUS Population Grid Sq 3476 STRUCTURE (Why Important) Use x Perspectives Insurgents Center of economic activity Insurgents use for black market Sewer Water Electric Academic Trash Medical Security Semi-permissive Environment Center of religious life Counterinsurgents Safe area/cache for Insurgents Red Al Sheik Rashad Zidan: Nima Sarhid Tribe electrician Drain on economy, but Abdul Al Karim, Sheik Zidan; providing generators and black market gas Source of recruits and ORGANIZATION (What Groups in AO) LOCATION/ RECIPIENT Tea Shop Grid 310790/ Poor Wrks EVENTS (When) DTG/LOCATION Religious Events/ Eid ul-Fitr US Army 10 -13 Oct, Entire Sector Director of Water 2000 in Slum, SE Sector PEOPLE (How do they Communicate) Al Sheik Rashad Zidan Abu Sadeq Saba, City electrician LOCATION/ DETAILS IDPs/Refugees Protected site; approval is needed charity is their Muslim duty Intel (eyes and ears) Al Sheik Rashad Zidan; ‘Word of Mouth’ Combined Arms Center Recruiting, HUMINT, Nothing Propaganda, Pop. Control Feast that ends Ramadan, families get together Marginalized by local government/police Recruiting, propaganda, Opportunities to target attacks against non. HVIs returning home to Muslims be with family

Environment Tribe B Poor Middle Merchants xx xx x x T x x xxx Environment Tribe B Poor Middle Merchants xx xx x x T x x xxx x Gx x x x x G x x xx xx xx x x G xx x x x. T G x x xx xxx xx Tribe A x x. Gx x x x x Poor x x G G T x x Legend/Key Mortar/Rocket x T G x x xx T x x x Tribe D Rich Ex Regime Middle Merchants IED/SAF Sig. Act Tea Shop Enemy I/O Graffiti. Army US Poor Middle Merchants G x Tribe C G Combined Arms Center FOB GIGANTOR x x xx T x Poor

Environment Tribe B Poor Middle Merchants xx xx x x T x x xxx Environment Tribe B Poor Middle Merchants xx xx x x T x x xxx x Gx x x x x G x x xx xx xx x x G x. T G x xx Insurgents attack Tribe x G xx xx A’s economic rivals to Tribe A x x. Gx x x Sectarian Violence Insurgency x x secure their support x x Poor FOB GIGANTOR x x x x Poor Middle Merchants Tribe C Legend/Key Mortar/Rocket x T G x x xx T x x x T Tribe D Rich Ex Regime Middle Merchants IED/SAF Sig. Act Tea Shop Enemy I/O Graffiti. Army US G G Combined Arms Center x x xx T x Poor

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