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Introduction to Shakespeare 莎翁 莎劇 簡介 董崇選 中山醫大 應用外語系 教授 「懂更懂 學習英文 網站」負責人 網址：http: //dgdel. nchu. edu. tw
The Universality of Shakespeare: 莎翁 之 普世永恆 • We look into Shakespeare’s plays and find ourselves. • Shakespeare is “a poet of nature. ” --Samuel Johnson • Shakespeare has “a comprehensive soul. ” --John Dryden
Records of Shakespeare’s Life: 莎翁簡要生平登載 • • • 1564. born April 26 at Stratford-on-Avon 1582. married Anne Hathwey of Straford 1583. had Susanna 1585. had Hamnet & Judeth 1591 -2. began to write plays (I Henry VI) 1616. died on April 23, the day of Saint George
III. Shakespeare’s England: • London: St. Paul’s, Mayor, riots, plague, sanitation • Country Life: parish, squire, parson, farmers, roads, family life • Religion: the Church of England, Bishops, ministers, “living, ” tithe • Organization of the State: the Queen, Privy Council, Noblemen (Earl, Viscount, Baron), Earl of Essex (Robert Devereux), knights & gentlemen; Parliament
III. Shakespeare’s England: • Crime and Punishment: hanging, burned alive, drawn and quartered, pressing to death. The Gunpowder Plot • The Wars: defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588, the war ceased in 1603 when Queen Elizabeth died. • Education: three great schools (St. Paul’s, Merchant Taylors, Westminster), grammar schools, the universities, the Inns of Court
III. Shakespeare’s England: • Publication: about 200 publications came out each year, no newspapers, only pamphlets, carefully controlled, literary vogues, Bacon’s Essays. • The Soldiers： • The Sailors： • The Travelers：
IV. Elizabethan Drama: • Mysteries 神跡戲 and Moralities 道德戲 • 最早劇場: the Theater, the Curtain , the Blackfriars Theater, the Rose , the Globe Playhouse • 業主名伶: James Burbage, Edward Alleyn, etc. • 同代名家：Thomas Kyd, Christopher Marlowe, Robert Greene, Ben Jonson, etc.
Shakespeare’s Works • • Totally 37 or 38 plays (The Two Noble Kinsmen), 154 sonnets, 2 long poems, etc. The plays are in blank verse (無韻体詩), prose (散文), rhymed verse (押韻詩), even sonnet (十四行詩) form. Plays include tragedies, comedies, histories, & romances (傳奇). Four Periods of Development.
Elizabethan playhouse, the stage
Elizabethan Playhouse, the Stage