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Introduction to e-Commerce Domain Names Dr. Michael D. Featherstone 1 Introduction to e-Commerce Domain Names Dr. Michael D. Featherstone 1

Domain Names Fundamental building block of any electronic business. New. com and. net registrations Domain Names Fundamental building block of any electronic business. New. com and. net registrations totaled nearly 8. 1, representing an average of approximately 2. 7 million new domain name registrations per month. Every second a new domain name is added in the dot com and dot net zones. 2

Domain Name System The Domain Name System (abbreviated DNS) is an Internet directory service. Domain Name System The Domain Name System (abbreviated DNS) is an Internet directory service. DNS is how domain names are translated into IP addresses, and DNS also controls email delivery. The DNS system consists of three components: 1. DNS data (called resource records), 2. Servers (called name servers), and 3. Internet protocols for fetching data from the servers Paul Mockapetris and Jon Postel introduced DNS in 1984. 3

Domain Name System The Domain Name System (abbreviated DNS) is an Internet directory service. Domain Name System The Domain Name System (abbreviated DNS) is an Internet directory service. DNS is how domain names are translated into IP addresses, and DNS also controls email delivery. The DNS system consists of three components: 1. DNS data (called resource records), 2. Servers (called name servers), and 3. Internet protocols for fetching data from the servers Paul Mockapetris and Jon Postel introduced DNS in 1984. 4

Domain Names Make it easier for us humans – We Like Names, Computers Like Domain Names Make it easier for us humans – We Like Names, Computers Like Numbers Not unlike telephone books Brownkowski, John A ……. . 256 -555 -2727 www. mensbowties. com ……… 75. 144. 42. 2 Domain Name IP Address 5

Domain Names IP Address Rules FOUR OCTETS OF NUMBERS ie. 1. 2. 3. 4 Domain Names IP Address Rules FOUR OCTETS OF NUMBERS ie. 1. 2. 3. 4 VALID RANGE FOR EACH OCTET is 0 -255 EACH OCTET is separated by a dot. 0. 123. 4. 255 6

Domain Names WHAT THE HECK IS AN OCTET? 7 Domain Names WHAT THE HECK IS AN OCTET? 7

Domain Names WHAT THE HECK IS AN OCTET? A BYTE is a character of Domain Names WHAT THE HECK IS AN OCTET? A BYTE is a character of information – only its represented in binary code – snooty scientific talk for information represented by ones and zeros. A BYTE looks sort of like this “ 0001 - 0111” So suffice to say – if we filled up all eight of those positions with 1 s and 0 s starting at 0000 -0000 then to 0000 -0001, then to 0000 -0010, and finally ending at 1111 -1111 – we would be able to represent 256 numbers – the numbers 0 to 255 Which explains why they are called Octets (eight ‘ 1 s and 0 s) and why the range of numbers they represent is 0 -255… I don’t know why they put dots between them. 8

Domain Names So a BYTE is a character of information (remember? ). This sentence Domain Names So a BYTE is a character of information (remember? ). This sentence consists of 54 bytes (including spaces). A K- BYTE (Kilobyte) is 1000 characters of information A Megabyte is a million characters of information (1000 K-bytes) A Gigabyte is 1000 Megabytes A Terabyte is 1000 Gigabytes A Petabyte is 1000 Terabytes Here is the numerical representation of a Petabyte 1, 000, 000 An Exabyte is 1000 Petabytes We’ll chat a bit more about this later in the Analytics Section 9

Domain Names We are transitioning to IP v 6 addresses, even while we speak… Domain Names We are transitioning to IP v 6 addresses, even while we speak… But we will still be using IP v 4 for the forseeable future. 10

Domain Names Domain Name Resolution: process that returns a Web page after a name Domain Names Domain Name Resolution: process that returns a Web page after a name is entered into a browser or sends/receives an email after a name is entered in an email address Domain names are resolved from right to left www. jsu. edu EDU 11

Domain Names Domain Name Resolution Domain names are resolved from right to left www. Domain Names Domain Name Resolution Domain names are resolved from right to left www. jsu. edu EDU JSU 12

Domain Names Domain Name Resolution Domain names are resolved from right to left www. Domain Names Domain Name Resolution Domain names are resolved from right to left www. jsu. edu EDU JSU That’s why this is called the Top Level Domain or TLD. Domain name bestows ownership on items to the left. 13

Domain Names Domain Name Resolution 14 Domain Names Domain Name Resolution 14

Domain Names Dot-com Domain Name File from a Veri. Sign TLD Server FUJITSU NS Domain Names Dot-com Domain Name File from a Veri. Sign TLD Server FUJITSU NS NS 1. FUJITSU WPD NS DNS 1. UTELFLA WRENCH NS ENESTWO. WRENCH BAKA NS WAV 2. CLARITYCONNECT. NET. CLMCPA NS NS 2. MYSUPERPAGESHOSTING PJDICK NS CMTU. MT. NS. ELS-GMS. ATT. NET. CARBONATION NS NS 6. HOSTEXCELLENCE SHIELDMARK NS NS 1. SITEBYTES. NL. NS 1. LOUDOUNCOUNTYJAILINMATES A 70. 84. 117. 101 NS 2. VTRECORDER A 70. 84. 117. 102 NS 1. BROWARDNOTARYPUBLIC A 70. 84. 117. 101 NS 2. DEOFFENDERS A 70. 84. 117. 102 NS 2. LIVINGSTONCOUNTYRECORDS A 70. 84. 117. 102 NS 1. NEPROPERTYINFO A 70. 84. 117. 101 NS 2. BN 47 W 3 A 69. 90. 126. 71 NS 2. FREEUSPUBLICRECORDS A 70. 84. 117. 102 Resource Records 15

Domain Names Dot-com Domain Name File from a Veri. Sign TLD Server FUJITSU NS Domain Names Dot-com Domain Name File from a Veri. Sign TLD Server FUJITSU NS NS 1. FUJITSU WPD NS DNS 1. UTELFLA WRENCH NS ENESTWO. WRENCH BAKA NS WAV 2. CLARITYCONNECT. NET. CLMCPA NS NS 2. MYSUPERPAGESHOSTING PJDICK NS CMTU. MT. NS. ELS-GMS. ATT. NET. CARBONATION NS NS 6. HOSTEXCELLENCE SHIELDMARK NS NS 1. SITEBYTES. NL. NS 1. LOUDOUNCOUNTYJAILINMATES A 70. 84. 117. 101 NS 2. VTRECORDER A 70. 84. 117. 102 NS 1. BROWARDNOTARYPUBLIC A 70. 84. 117. 101 NS 2. DEOFFENDERS A 70. 84. 117. 102 NS 2. LIVINGSTONCOUNTYRECORDS A 70. 84. 117. 102 NS 1. NEPROPERTYINFO A 70. 84. 117. 101 NS 2. BN 47 W 3 A 69. 90. 126. 71 NS 2. FREEUSPUBLICRECORDS A 70. 84. 117. 102 Resource Records 16

Domain Names Dot-com Domain Name File from a Veri. Sign TLD Server FUJITSU NS Domain Names Dot-com Domain Name File from a Veri. Sign TLD Server FUJITSU NS NS 1. FUJITSU WPD NS DNS 1. UTELFLA WRENCH NS ENESTWO. WRENCH BAKA NS WAV 2. CLARITYCONNECT. NET. CLMCPA NS NS 2. MYSUPERPAGESHOSTING PJDICK NS CMTU. MT. NS. ELS-GMS. ATT. NET. CARBONATION NS NS 6. HOSTEXCELLENCE SHIELDMARK NS NS 1. SITEBYTES. NL. NS 1. LOUDOUNCOUNTYJAILINMATES A 70. 84. 117. 101 NS 2. VTRECORDER A 70. 84. 117. 102 NS 1. BROWARDNOTARYPUBLIC A 70. 84. 117. 101 NS 2. DEOFFENDERS A 70. 84. 117. 102 NS 2. LIVINGSTONCOUNTYRECORDS A 70. 84. 117. 102 NS 1. NEPROPERTYINFO A 70. 84. 117. 101 NS 2. BN 47 W 3 A 69. 90. 126. 71 NS 2. FREEUSPUBLICRECORDS A 70. 84. 117. 102 Resource Records 17

Domain Names The. aero domain is reserved for members of the air-transport industry and Domain Names The. aero domain is reserved for members of the air-transport industry and is sponsored by Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques (SITA). The. biz domain is restricted to businesses and is operated by Neu. Level, Inc. The. cat domain is reserved for the Catalan linguistic and cultural community and is sponsored by Fundació punt. Cat The. com domain is operated by Veri. Sign Global Registry Services. The. coop domain is reserved for cooperative associations and is sponsored by Dot Cooperation LLC. The. info domain is operated by Afilias Limited. The. jobs domain is reserved for human resource managers and is sponsored by Employ Media LLC. The. mobi domain is reserved for consumers and providers of mobile products and services and is sponsored by m. TLD Top Level Domain, Ltd. The. museum domain is reserved for museums and is sponsored by the Museum Domain Management Association. The. name domain is reserved for individuals and is operated by Global Name Registry. The. net domain is operated by Veri. Sign Global Registry Services. The. org domain is operated by Public Interest Registry. It is intended to serve the noncommercial community, but all are eligible to register within . org. The. pro domain is restricted to credentialed professionals and related entities and is operated by Registry. Pro. The. travel domain is reserved for entities whose primary area of activity is in the travel industry and is sponsored by Tralliance Corporation. Registrations in the domains listed above may be made through dozens of competitive registrars. For a list of the currently operating accredited registrars, go to the Inter. NIC site. Information about becoming an accredited registrar is available on the ICANN site. The. gov domain is reserved exclusively for the United States Government. It is operated by the US General Services Administration. The. edu domain is reserved for postsecondary institutions accredited by an agency on the U. S. Department of Education's list of Nationally Recognized Accrediting Agencies and is registered only through Educause. The. mil domain is reserved exclusively for the United States Military. It is operated by the US Do. D Network Information Center. The. int domain is used only for registering organizations established by international treaties between governments. It is operated by the IANA. int Domain Registry. 18

Domain Names gs – South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. gt – Guatemala. Domain Names gs – South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. gt – Guatemala. gu – Guam. ac – Ascension Island. cm – Cameroon. gw – Guinea-Bissau. ad – Andorra. cn – China. gy – Guyana. ae – United Arab Emirates. co – Colombia. hk – Hong Kong. af – Afghanistan. cr – Costa Rica. hm – Heard and Mc. Donald Islands. ag – Antigua and Barbuda. cu – Cuba. hn – Honduras. ai – Anguilla. cv – Cape Verde. hr – Croatia/Hrvatska. al – Albania. cx – Christmas Island. ht – Haiti. am – Armenia. cy – Cyprus. hu – Hungary. an – Netherlands Antilles. cz – Czech Republic. id – Indonesia. ao – Angola. de – Germany. ie – Ireland. aq – Antarctica. dj – Djibouti. il – Israel. ar – Argentina. dk – Denmark. im – Isle of Man. as – American Samoa. dm – Dominica. in – India. at – Austria. do – Dominican Republic. io – British Indian Ocean Territory. au – Australia. dz – Algeria. iq – Iraq. aw – Aruba. ec – Ecuador. ir – Iran, Islamic Republic of. ax – Aland Islands. ee – Estonia. is – Iceland. az – Azerbaijan. eg – Egypt. it – Italy. ba – Bosnia and Herzegovina. eh – Western Sahara. je – Jersey. bb – Barbados. er – Eritrea. jm – Jamaica. bd – Bangladesh. es – Spain. jo – Jordan. be – Belgium. et – Ethiopia. jp – Japan. bf – Burkina Faso. eu – European Union. ke – Kenya. bg – Bulgaria. fi – Finland. kg – Kyrgyzstan. bh – Bahrain. fj – Fiji. bi – Burundi. fk – Falkland Islands (Malvinas). kh – Cambodia. ki – Kiribati. bj – Benin. fm – Micronesia, Federated States of. km – Comoros. bm – Bermuda. fo – Faroe Islands. kn – Saint Kitts and Nevis. bn – Brunei Darussalam. fr – France. kp – Korea, Democratic People's . bo – Bolivia. ga – Gabon Republic. br – Brazil. gb – United Kingdom. kr – Korea, Republic of. bs – Bahamas. gd – Grenada. kw – Kuwait. bt – Bhutan. ge – Georgia. ky – Cayman Islands. bv – Bouvet Island. gf – French Guiana. kz – Kazakhstan. bw – Botswana. gg – Guernsey. la – Lao People's Democratic . by – Belarus. gh – Ghana Republic. bz – Belize. gi – Gibraltar. lb – Lebanon. ca – Canada. gl – Greenland. lc – Saint Lucia. cc – Cocos (Keeling) Islands. gm – Gambia. li – Liechtenstein. cd – Congo, The Democratic Republic of the. gn – Guinea. lk – Sri Lanka. cf – Central African Republic. gp – Guadeloupe. lr – Liberia. cg – Congo, Republic of. gq – Equatorial Guinea. ch – Switzerland. gr – Greece. ls – Lesotho. lt – Lithuania. lu – Luxembourg. lv – Latvia. ly – Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. ma – Morocco. mc – Monaco. md – Moldova, Republic of. me – Montenegro. mg – Madagascar. mh – Marshall Islands. mk – Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of. ml – Mali. mm – Myanmar. mn – Mongolia. mo – Macao. mp – Northern Mariana Islands. mq – Martinique. mr – Mauritania. ms – Montserrat. mt – Malta. mu – Mauritius. mv – Maldives. mw – Malawi. mx – Mexico. my – Malaysia. mz – Mozambique. na – Namibia. nc – New Caledonia. ne – Niger. nf – Norfolk Island. ng – Nigeria. ni – Nicaragua. nl – Netherlands. no – Norway. np – Nepal. nr – Nauru. nu – Niue. nz – New Zealand. om – Oman. pa – Panama. pe – Peru. pf – French Polynesia. pg – Papua New Guinea. ph – Philippines. pk – Pakistan. pl – Poland. pm – Saint Pierre and Miquelon. pn – Pitcairn Island. pr – Puerto Rico. ps – Palestinian Territory, Occupied. pt – Portugal. pw – Palau. py – Paraguay. qa – Qatar. re – Reunion Island. ro – Romania. rs – Serbia. ru – Russian Federation. rw – Rwanda. sa – Saudi Arabia. sb – Solomon Islands. sc – Seychelles. sd – Sudan. se – Sweden. sg – Singapore. sh – Saint Helena. si – Slovenia. . su – Soviet Union (being phased out). sv – El Salvador. sy – Syrian Arab Republic. sz – Swaziland. tc – Turks and Caicos Islands. td – Chad. tg – Togo. th – Thailand. tj – Tajikistan. tk – Tokelau. tl – Timor-Leste. tm – Turkmenistan. tn – Tunisia. to – Tonga. tp – East Timor. tr – Turkey. tt – Trinidad and Tobago. tv – Tuvalu. tw – Taiwan. tz – Tanzania. ua – Ukraine. ug – Uganda. uk – United Kingdom. um – United States Minor Outlying Islands. us – United States. uy – Uruguay. uz – Uzbekistan. va – Holy See (Vatican City State). vc – Saint Vincent and the 19

Domain Names Domain Name Resolution Domain names are resolved from right to left www. Domain Names Domain Name Resolution Domain names are resolved from right to left www. jsu. edu EDU JSU That’s why this is called the Top Level Domain or TLD. Domain name bestows ownership on items to the left. 20

Domain Names www. scu. edu 21 Domain Names www. scu. edu 21

Domain Names www. scu. edu. au 22 Domain Names www. scu. edu. au 22

Domain Names Video on the Internet continues to grow and users are seeking new Domain Names Video on the Internet continues to grow and users are seeking new methods of finding multimedia content on the Web. The. tv domain name provides a global opportunity for users to find a media-rich Web site of their choice. By using a. tv Web address, companies and individuals can offer online viewers a simple and easily recognizable gateway to finding rich media content on the Internet. Source: Veri. Sign 23

Domain Names Source: Veri. Sign Domain Name Industry Brief, December 2008 24 Domain Names Source: Veri. Sign Domain Name Industry Brief, December 2008 24

Domain Names Country Code Domains: LY – CO – TV – 25 Domain Names Country Code Domains: LY – CO – TV – 25

Domain Names http: //newgtlds. icann. org/en/announcements-and-media/video/overview-en 26 Domain Names http: //newgtlds. icann. org/en/announcements-and-media/video/overview-en 26

This Concludes Today’s Presentation Thank you for your attention 27 This Concludes Today’s Presentation Thank you for your attention 27