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Introduction to Computer Science (I) Introduction T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Introduction to Computer Science (I) Introduction T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Information Technology in Our Lives • Digital Convergence – Converting whatever we can in Information Technology in Our Lives • Digital Convergence – Converting whatever we can in the physical and communications world to binary on/off signals, called bits • • Text Voice Picture Movie T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • At Home – Email, Internet shopping, virtual museum, banking transactions, news – • At Home – Email, Internet shopping, virtual museum, banking transactions, news – Small computers in VCRs, automobiles, airconditioning systems, washing machines, T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • At Play – Group chatting, games, songs and movies from Internet T. • At Play – Group chatting, games, songs and movies from Internet T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • At Work – Mobile worker – Office software, Database, ERP, SCM, CRM • At Work – Mobile worker – Office software, Database, ERP, SCM, CRM T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • At School or College – Computer-based courses, distance learning T. K. Yin, • At School or College – Computer-based courses, distance learning T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

The History of Computing • 3000 B. C. : The Abacus – The original The History of Computing • 3000 B. C. : The Abacus – The original mechanical counting device Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • 1623 -1662: Blaise Pascal – French mathematician and philosopher – Built the • 1623 -1662: Blaise Pascal – French mathematician and philosopher – Built the Pascaline in 1642 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • 1642: The Pascaline – A counting-wheel design • A single revolution of • 1642: The Pascaline – A counting-wheel design • A single revolution of one wheel would engage gears that turned the wheel one tenth of a revolution to its immediate left Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • 1801: Jacquard’s loom – Frenchman Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1753 -1871) – Weaving loom • 1801: Jacquard’s loom – Frenchman Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1753 -1871) – Weaving loom – The first significant use of binary automation Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

– Jacquard Loom Salesman’s Model Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. – Jacquard Loom Salesman’s Model Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • 1793 -1871: Charles Babbage – Envisioned a steam-powered difference engine and then • 1793 -1871: Charles Babbage – Envisioned a steam-powered difference engine and then an analytical engine Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • 1842: Bassage’s Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE • 1842: Bassage’s Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • Diagram Showing Method T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History • Diagram Showing Method T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • 1816 -1852: Lady Ada Augusta Lovelace – Punched cards could be prepared • 1816 -1852: Lady Ada Augusta Lovelace – Punched cards could be prepared to instruct Babbage’s engine to repeat certain operations – The first programmer T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //archive. computerhistory. org/

 • 1860 -1929: Herman Hollerith – Devised a punched-card tabulating machine to speed • 1860 -1929: Herman Hollerith – Devised a punched-card tabulating machine to speed up the 1890 U. S. census T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • 1890: Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine – Used a hand punch to enter data • 1890: Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine – Used a hand punch to enter data onto cards Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

– A Pantograph Punch Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org – A Pantograph Punch Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • 1874 -1956: Thomas Watson, Sr. – In 1896 Herman Hollerith founded the • 1874 -1956: Thomas Watson, Sr. – In 1896 Herman Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company, which merged in 1911 with several other company to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company. It was renamed the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) by company president Thomas J. Watson in 1924. T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • 1920 s-1950 s: The Electro-Mechanical Accounting Machine Era – Punched-card technology T. • 1920 s-1950 s: The Electro-Mechanical Accounting Machine Era – Punched-card technology T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • Punched Card Office Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. • Punched Card Office Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • 1903 -1995: Dr. John V. Atanasoff and His ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer) • 1903 -1995: Dr. John V. Atanasoff and His ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer) T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //archive. computerhistory. org/

 • 1942: The First Elecronic Digital Computer: The ABC Source: http: //archive. computerhistory. • 1942: The First Elecronic Digital Computer: The ABC Source: http: //archive. computerhistory. org/ T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • 1946: The Electronic ENIAC Computer – Dr. John W. Mauchly (middle) collaborated • 1946: The Electronic ENIAC Computer – Dr. John W. Mauchly (middle) collaborated with J. Presper Ecjert, Jr. (foreground) at the University of Pennsylvania to develop a machine that would compute trajectory tables for the U. S. Army. – Used vacuum tubes – ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • 1951: The UNIVAC I and the First Generation of Computers – Used • 1951: The UNIVAC I and the First Generation of Computers – Used vacuum tubes in the first generation of computers (1951 -1959) – The Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC I) was developed by Mauchly and Eckert for the Remington. Rand Corporation – The first commercially viable electronic digital computer T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //archive. computerhistory. org/

 • 1954: The IBM 650 – IBM’s first entry into the commercial computer • 1954: The IBM 650 – IBM’s first entry into the commercial computer market was the IBM 701 in 1953 – IBM 650, introduced in 1954, was designed as a logical upgrade to existing punched-card machines T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //archive. computerhistory. org/

 • 1907 -1992: “Amazing” Grace Murray Hopper – In 1959, Dr. Hopper led • 1907 -1992: “Amazing” Grace Murray Hopper – In 1959, Dr. Hopper led an effort that laid the foundation for the development of COBOL – Found the first “bug” in a computer—a real one. She repaired the Mark II by removing a moth that was caught in Relay Number II. T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //archive. computerhistory. org/

 • 1958: The First Integrated Circuit – The first integrated circuit, a phase-shift • 1958: The First Integrated Circuit – The first integrated circuit, a phase-shift oscillator, was invented in 1958 by Jack S. Kilby of Texas Instruments. T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • 1963: The PDP-8 Minicomputer – In 1963 Digital Equipment Corporation introduced the • 1963: The PDP-8 Minicomputer – In 1963 Digital Equipment Corporation introduced the PDP-8 – The first successful minicomputer T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //archive. computerhistory. org/

 • 1964: The IBM System/360 and the Third Generation of Computers – The • 1964: The IBM System/360 and the Third Generation of Computers – The third generation was characterized by computers built around integrated circuits – A family of computers with upward compatibility; when a company outgrew one model it could move up to the next model without worrying about converting its data T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • 1964: BASIC-More Than a Beginner’s Programming Language – Dr. Thomas Kurtz and • 1964: BASIC-More Than a Beginner’s Programming Language – Dr. Thomas Kurtz and Dr. John Kemeny of Dartmouth College developed a programming language that a beginner could learn and use quickly T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • 1969: ARPANET and the Unbundling of Hardware and Software – A U. • 1969: ARPANET and the Unbundling of Hardware and Software – A U. S. Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) sponsorship of a project, named ARPANET, was underway to unite a community of geographically dispersed scientists by technology – When IBM unbundled and sold software separately, the software industry began to flourish T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //archive. computerhistory. org/

 • 1975: Microsoft and Bill Gates – Bill gates and Paul Allen formed • 1975: Microsoft and Bill Gates – Bill gates and Paul Allen formed Microsoft Corporation, now the largest and most influential software company in the world T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //archive. computerhistory. org/

 • 1976: The Apple I – Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, along with • 1976: The Apple I – Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, along with Ronald G. Wayne formed the Apple Computer Company T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //apple. computerhistory. org/stories

 • 1981: The IBM PC – IBM tossed its hat into the personal • 1981: The IBM PC – IBM tossed its hat into the personal computer ring with its announcement of the IBM Personal Computer T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • 1982: Mitchell Kapor Designs Lotus 1 -2 -3 – In 1982, Kapor • 1982: Mitchell Kapor Designs Lotus 1 -2 -3 – In 1982, Kapor founded Lotus Development Company. Kapor and the company introduced an electronic spread -sheet product, Lotus 1 -2 -3 Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • 1984: The Macintosh and Graphical User Interfaces – Apple Computer introduced the • 1984: The Macintosh and Graphical User Interfaces – Apple Computer introduced the Macintosh desktop computer with a very friendly graphical user interface T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //archive. computerhistory. org/

 • 1985 -Present: Microsoft Windows – Microsoft introduced Windows, a GUI for IBM • 1985 -Present: Microsoft Windows – Microsoft introduced Windows, a GUI for IBM PCcompatible computers in 1985 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • 1989: The World Wide Web – Berners-Lee and a small team of • 1989: The World Wide Web – Berners-Lee and a small team of scientists conceived HTML (the language of the Internet), URLs (Internet addresses), and put up the first server supporting the neq World Wide Web format Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • 1993: The Internet Browser – The development in 1993 of the graphical • 1993: The Internet Browser – The development in 1993 of the graphical browser Mosaic by Marc Andreesen and his team at the National Center For Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) made the web accessible to everyone. – Marc Andreesen and entrepreneur Jim Clark founded Netscape in 1994 to create a web browser based on the Mosaic project. T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

 • 1996: The Handheld Computer – The Palm. Pilot handheld computer was introduced • 1996: The Handheld Computer – The Palm. Pilot handheld computer was introduced by Palm Computing, Inc. T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http: //www. computerhistory. org

Problem Transformation into Calculations • Many real problems can be transformed into calculations. Then, Problem Transformation into Calculations • Many real problems can be transformed into calculations. Then, these calculations can be conducted in computers. – Examples: Image processing, optimization, ciphering and deciphering, simulations in dynamic systems T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Personal Computers to Supercomputers • Personal Computer (PC) – Desktop PC T. K. Yin, Personal Computers to Supercomputers • Personal Computer (PC) – Desktop PC T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

– Notebook PC T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE – Notebook PC T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

– Tablet PC T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE – Tablet PC T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

– Wearable PC T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //www. spectrum. ieee. org/publicfeature/oct 00/wear. – Wearable PC T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //www. spectrum. ieee. org/publicfeature/oct 00/wear. html

 • Handheld Computer T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE • Handheld Computer T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • Workstation – To visualize and solve complex, technical problems. T. K. Yin, • Workstation – To visualize and solve complex, technical problems. T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • Server Computers – Applications in business financial, customer management solutions, decision support • Server Computers – Applications in business financial, customer management solutions, decision support data warehouse, e-commerce, and enterprise resource planning T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • Supercomputer – In a six-game match, a chess-playing IBM computer known as • Supercomputer – In a six-game match, a chess-playing IBM computer known as Deep Blue defeats chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov - the first time a reigning world champion loses a match to a computer opponent in tournament play. Deep Blue is an IBM RS/6000 SP supercomputer capable of calculating 200 million chess positions per second. T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //www-1. ibm. com/ibm/history/year_1997. html

Information Systems • Data processing systems – Transaction handling, record keeping – Primarily for Information Systems • Data processing systems – Transaction handling, record keeping – Primarily for clerical personnel and operationallevel managers T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //www. lockheedmartin. com

 • Management information system – Uses an integrated database and supports a variety • Management information system – Uses an integrated database and supports a variety of functional areas – Structured information (for example, a weekly inventory status report with predefined content and format) – Applications in hospitals (patient accounting, point-of-care processing), insurance (claimsprocessing systems, policy administration, actuarial statistics), and colleges (student registration, placement) T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • Decision support system – Helps the decision makers, especially those at the • Decision support system – Helps the decision makers, especially those at the tactical and strategic levels, in the decisionmaking process – Interactive system T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //cdss. state. co. us

 • Executive information system – Subset of DSS – Supports decision making at • Executive information system – Subset of DSS – Supports decision making at the executive levels of management, primarily the tactical and strategic levels T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //www. tzuchi. com. tw/medinfo 99/3 -3 -41. htm

 • Artificial intelligence – Expert systems, simulation of human sensory capabilities, neural networks, • Artificial intelligence – Expert systems, simulation of human sensory capabilities, neural networks, intelligent agents, robots and robotics Source: http: //asimo. honda. com/index. asp T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

 • Virtual reality – Combines computer graphics with special hardware to immerse users • Virtual reality – Combines computer graphics with special hardware to immerse users in an artificial threedimensional world T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Source: http: //human-factors. arc. nasa. gov

References • A Short History of Computing – Tim Bergin, Computing History Museum American References • A Short History of Computing – Tim Bergin, Computing History Museum American University, http: //www. computinghistorymuseum. org/ • Computer History Museum – http: //www. computerhistory. org • Computers – Larry Long & Nancy Long, Twelfth Edition, Pearson Education, Inc. • http: //archive. computerhistory. org/ T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE