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Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion A Cube / With Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion A Cube / With different colours on each side Colours on the cube represent different problems / People see problems from different angles /

Introduction Problem Statement Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion The Science Introduction Problem Statement Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion The Science lesson conducted for class 4 A by the new, untrained relief teacher was a failure

Assumptions Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 /No buddy system Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Assumptions Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 /No buddy system Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /Incident happens during the first half of the Science lesson

Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 What/Who constituted to the failure? / by Celeste Problem Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 What/Who constituted to the failure? / by Celeste Problem 3 / the Science teacher ? by Bee Lian Problem 4 Conclusion the School ? / the Head of Department ? by Kenny / the Relief teacher ? by Sumathi

Introduction Our Discussion Problem 1 Problem 2 Assumptions Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion focus Introduction Our Discussion Problem 1 Problem 2 Assumptions Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion focus Problems resolve Solutions

Introduction Conclusion Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /Summary (conclude the Introduction Conclusion Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /Summary (conclude the presentation) by Sumathi

Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Problem 1: The School Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Problem 1: The School

Introduction Assumption Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /Relief teachers should Introduction Assumption Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /Relief teachers should not be allowed to conduct any lessons in the science laboratories

Problems Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 / Despite being new and inexperienced, the relief Problems Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 / Despite being new and inexperienced, the relief teacher was allowed access to the science laboratory / Poses a threat to the well-being of students Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion

Introduction Theory to support Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Alan Introduction Theory to support Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Alan C. (2004), Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved Steptember 26, 2007, from http: //www. businessballs. com/maslow. htm

Solutions Introduction Problem 1 / The school should have been more stringent in their Solutions Introduction Problem 1 / The school should have been more stringent in their approval of access to the science laboratories / The relief teacher should have been briefed beforehand that he was not allowed access to the science laboratories / The school could set up security system for the laboratories / Buddy system Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion

Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Problem 2: The Science Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Problem 2: The Science teacher who was absent

Assumptions Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 /The Science teacher would be away Assumptions Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 /The Science teacher would be away for a few days and had informed the HOD in advance Problem 4 Conclusion /The Science teacher had prepared a lesson plan

Problems Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /The lesson plan Problems Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /The lesson plan was not a detailed one /The lesson plan was unsuitable for the relief teacher /The relief teacher misunderstood the “Scientific discovery”

Introduction Theory to support Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /The Introduction Theory to support Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /The Science teacher has an external locus of control /The Science teacher did not make an effort to prepare an alternative lesson plan /As a result, the lesson was a failure

Solutions Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /There should be Solutions Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /There should be a backup plan /Backup plan should be given to the HOD or a buddy teacher before the Science teacher went on leave

Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Problem 3: The HOD Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Problem 3: The HOD

Assumptions Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Liaises and briefs the Assumptions Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Liaises and briefs the relief teacher on: 1. 2. Conclusion 3. Administrative matters and school procedures The lesson plan provided by the actual teacher (absent) Provide support for the relief teacher when he is in doubt

Problems Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 /The HOD has not provided adequate Problems Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 /The HOD has not provided adequate support and information to the relief teacher to enable him to carry out his class duties effectively Problem 4 Conclusion /It may not be appropriate for the relief teacher to be conducting the lesson, without the guidance of a buddy teacher or without further instructions from the HOD

Introduction Theory to support Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /Vygotsky’s Introduction Theory to support Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development /HOD may have failed in bridging the gap between what and how much the relief teacher should do in this lesson. /HOD had not scaffold the delivery of the lesson plan, as prepared by the teacher (absent) /The poor relief teacher was left to make the most of the time given to him

Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Solutions /Communication: The HOD Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Solutions /Communication: The HOD can arrange for a short meeting with the relief teacher /Scaffolding: The HOD can assign an experienced Science teacher to mentor the relief teacher /Encouragement: The HOD can also provide feedbacks and offer empathy for the relief teacher in distress

Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Problem 4: The Relief Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Problem 4: The Relief teacher

Assumptions Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 /Lesson plan was available Assumptions Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 /Lesson plan was available /‘Scientific /2 Discovery’ periods with recess break in between Conclusion /Main topic was on Magnets /Lesson activity was more of after examination

Facts Introduction Problem 1 /Topic : Mixture Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Facts Introduction Problem 1 /Topic : Mixture Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /New relief teacher /Planned /The telief lesson did not go as planned /Relief teacher was disappointed /Spoke to experienced teachers who advised him

Problems Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /No rapport /No Problems Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /No rapport /No Schema or Prior Learning /Concrete- Operational Stage /No Scaffolding /Expected Analysis Task: /Jean Piaget/ Brunner /Lev Vygotsky/ Robert Gagne /Benjamin taxonomy Bloom

Problems Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /No Group Discussion Problems Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion /No Group Discussion /Zone Proximal Development /Teacher- Centered /Safety & Self. Esteem /Did not know his Audience /Vygotsky & Jean Piaget /Constructivism /Maslows

Solutions Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 /Better RT communication between Solutions Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 /Better RT communication between HOD and /Lesson /Buddy was to kindle interest in Science teacher Conclusion /Science syllabus /Student-Centered /Approach

Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Solutions : 2 nd Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion Solutions : 2 nd Lesson /Build Rapport (Share something on himself) /Science is not just getting the facts but the process of investigation and learning is crucial /Student-Centered /5 Es : engage, explore, explain, extend, evaluate /Group sharing

Summary Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 /Engage Science our students especially so Summary Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 /Engage Science our students especially so in /To really impact students during a lesson a teacher could remember CAP Problem 4 Conclusion /C- Connections by prior knowledge /A - Arouse through hand – on/minds-on activities /P – Predict through higher-order questions /Educational System

Conclusion Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion / Who is Conclusion Introduction Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Conclusion / Who is the key person at fault ?

References /Books /Tan, O. S. Parksons, R. D. Hinson, S. L, Sardo. Brown, D. References /Books /Tan, O. S. Parksons, R. D. Hinson, S. L, Sardo. Brown, D. (2003). Educational Psychology: A Practitioner Approach (Asian Edition): Thomas Learning /Peters, J. M. , Stout, D. L. (2006). Science in Elementary Education: methods, concepts and inquiries: Pearson Prentice Hall. /Santrock, J. W. , (2008). Educational Psychology: Ma. Graw-Hill International Edition.

References /Journals /How Children Learn Science /Web Pages /www. businessballs. com; alan chapman 2001 References /Journals /How Children Learn Science /Web Pages /www. businessballs. com; alan chapman 2001 -4 /Others /Lecture notes by Dr. Angeline Khoo