Introduction of Confucianism 儒家 陳明德 Minder Chen

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Introduction of Confucianism (儒家 ) 陳明德 Minder Chen, Ph. D. Professor of MIS Martin Introduction of Confucianism (儒家 ) 陳明德 Minder Chen, Ph. D. Professor of MIS Martin V. Smith School of Business and Economics CSU Channel Islands Minder. [email protected] edu or [email protected] com http: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/ethics-chinese/ ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 1

Basic Assumptions • Where there are people, there is politics and management. • Nothing Basic Assumptions • Where there are people, there is politics and management. • Nothing prepared you for politics or business. • Use the wisdom from sages in the past to stimulate our thoughts and wisdom. • Management and leadership are applicable almost everything in the world. • Your management philosophies and leadership styles are partially influenced by Chinese culture and Confucianism has dominated Chines cultures for centuries. ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 2

愛新覺羅 ·毓鋆 Quotes • 以古人之智慧, 啟發今人之智慧。 • 勘破世情驚破膽 , 萬 般不與政事同。 • 中國學問都是治國平 天下的藥方。 愛新覺羅 ·毓鋆 Quotes • 以古人之智慧, 啟發今人之智慧。 • 勘破世情驚破膽 , 萬 般不與政事同。 • 中國學問都是治國平 天下的藥方。 • 書是死的,腦子是活的,須深入會用。 (〈 朱子治家格 言 〉 : 「子孫雖愚, 經書不可不讀。」) 曰 • 別人問我:「你是什麼學派的?」我說:「我是問心學 派。」任何事,先問自己的心有愧無愧?有愧,就不 要去做。 • 大人就是無我,無我、無私就是「公」(背私為公 ),故曰「大道 之行,天下為公」故又曰「大人者,不失其赤子之心。」 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 3

Dynasty Chinese 三皇五 帝 Xia Dynasty 夏 Shang Dynasty 商 Western Zhou Dynasty 西周 Dynasty Chinese 三皇五 帝 Xia Dynasty 夏 Shang Dynasty 商 Western Zhou Dynasty 西周 3 Sovereigns & the 5 Emperors Eastern Zhou Dynasty Divided into 東周 春秋 Spring & Autumn Period 戰國 Warring States Period Qin Dynasty 秦 Pinyin Period Years Sān Huáng Wǔ Dì 2500 -2070 BC 430 Xià 2070– 1600 BC 470 Shāng 1600– 1029 BC 571 Xī Zhōu 1029– 771 BC 275 Dōng Zhōu Chūnqiū Zhànguó 770– 256 BC 722– 476 BC 475– 221 BC 514 246 254 Qín 221– 206 BC 15 206 or 202 BC– 9 215 AD, 23 -25 AD Western Han Dynasty 西漢 Xī Hàn Xin Dynasty 新 東漢 三國 西晉 Xīn 9– 23 AD 14 Dōng Hàn 25– 220 195 Sān Guó 220– 265 or 280 45 Xī Jìn 265– 317 52 Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Western Jin Dynasty ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 4

Dynasty Chinese Southern and Northern 南北朝 Dynasties Pinyin Period Years Nán Běi Cháo 386 Dynasty Chinese Southern and Northern 南北朝 Dynasties Pinyin Period Years Nán Běi Cháo 386 or 420– 589 169 隋 Tang Dynasty 唐 Five Dynasties and Ten 五代十 Kingdoms 國 Northern Song Dynasty 北宋 Southern Song Dynasty 南宋 Liao Dynasty 遼 Jin Dynasty 金 Western Xia 西夏 Yuan Dynasty 元 Suí 581– 618 37 Táng 618– 907 289 Sui Dynasty Wǔ Dài Shí Guó 907– 960 53 Běi Sòng 960– 1127 167 Nán Sòng 1127– 1279 152 Liáo 907 or 916– 1125 209 Jīn 1115– 1234 119 Xī Xià 1038– 1227 189 Yuán 1271– 1368 97 Ming Dynasty 明 Míng 1368– 1644 or 1662276 Qing Dynasty 清 Qīng 1636 or 1644– 1911268 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Dynasties_in_Chinese_history Confucianism - 5

Hundred Schools of Thought 諸子百家 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Confucianism (儒家) Hundred Schools of Thought 諸子百家 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Confucianism (儒家) Taoism (道家) Mohism (墨家) Legalism (法家) School of the Military (兵家) School of Yin-yang (陰陽家) The School of Diplomacy or School of Vertical and Horizontal [Alliances] (縱橫家) 8. Logicians (名家) 9. The Miscellaneous School (雜家) 10. Agriculturalism (農家) 11. The School of Novelists (Storytelling) (小說家) Buddhism and Zen (佛學與禪宗 ) ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 6

Confucius • 551 ~ 479 B. C. • 孔子 • 孔夫子 • 大成至聖先師 • Confucius • 551 ~ 479 B. C. • 孔子 • 孔夫子 • 大成至聖先師 • 萬世師表 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 7

Confucian Canon (儒家經典 ) • The Four Books and Five Classics 四書五經 Sìshū Wŭjīng) Confucian Canon (儒家經典 ) • The Four Books and Five Classics 四書五經 Sìshū Wŭjīng) ( • The Five Classics: 《詩經》《書經》《易經》《禮記》《春秋》 – The Book of Songs (Odes) – The Book of History (Official government documents) – The Book of Changes – The Book of Rites (Culture affairs) – The Spring and Autumn Annals (Chronicle - records of history events - of Lu) • The Four Books: 《大學》《中庸》《論語》《孟子》 – The Great Learning (Higher Education) – The Doctrine of the Mean (Central Harmony) – The Analects of Confucius (Discourses and Sayings of Confucius) – Mencius ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 8

Four Books Title Great Learning 大學 Brief Description Originally one chapter in the Classic Four Books Title Great Learning 大學 Brief Description Originally one chapter in the Classic of Rites. It consists of a short main text attributed to Confucius and nine commentary chapters by Zeng Zi, one of Confucius's disciples. It is significant because it expresses many themes of Chinese philosophy and political thinking, and has therefore been extremely influential both in classical and modern Chinese thought. The ability to govern is linked to self cultivation. Doctrine of the Mean 中庸 It is a chapter in Classic of Rites, attributed to Confucius' grandson Zisi. The purpose of this small book is to demonstrate the usefulness of a golden mean to gain perfect virtue. It focuses on the "way" (道) that is prescribed by a heavenly mandate not only to the ruler but to everyone. To follow these heavenly instructions by learning and teaching will automatically result in a Confucian virtue. The Analects 論語 A compilation of speeches by Confucius and his disciples, as well as the discussions they held. Since Confucius's time, the Analects has heavily influenced the philosophy and moral values of China and later other East Asian countries as well. Mencius 孟子 A collection of conversations of the scholar Mencius with kings, other scholars, and his students of his time. In contrast to the sayings of Confucius, which are short and self-contained, the Mencius consists of long dialogues with extensive prose and arguments. (予豈好辯哉) ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 9

The Five Classics 五經 Title Classic of Poetry 詩經 Classic of History 尚書 Classic The Five Classics 五經 Title Classic of Poetry 詩經 Classic of History 尚書 Classic of Rites 禮記 Brief Description A collection of 305 poems divided into 160 folk songs, 105 festal songs sung at court ceremonies, and 40 hymns and eulogies sung at sacrifices to gods and ancestral spirits of the royal house. A collection of documents and speeches alleged to have been written by rulers and officials of the early Zhou period and before. It is possibly the oldest Chinese narrative, and may date from the 6 th century BC. It includes examples of early Chinese prose. Describes ancient rites, social forms and court ceremonies. The version studied today is a re-worked version compiled by scholars in the third century BC rather than the original text, which is said to have been edited by Confucius himself. Also known as I Ching or Book of Changes. The book contains a divination system consists of 64 hexagrams and it is still widely used for this purpose. It is the basis for all Chinese thoughts. Classic of Changes 易經 Spring and Also known as Līn Jīng (麟經), a historical record of the state of Lu, Autumn Annals Confucius's native state, 722– 481 BC, compiled by himself, the 春秋 usage of words reflects Confucius political philosophy and judgment. ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 10

Confucius • • • Confucius (551– 479 BC) Noble descent in the state of Confucius • • • Confucius (551– 479 BC) Noble descent in the state of Lu (魯國) Imperial rule of Chou dynasty was breaking down Great admirer of the Duke of Chou (周公) Taught a moral philosophy with people as the centerpiece. (以德為基、以人為本) • Emphasis on learning, thinking, and doing. • The central concept of his philosophy is benevolence (“ren” 仁 “zhong shu”忠恕 ) • Politics (management) is only an extension of morals and personal cultivation. ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 11

The Analects of Confucius • Analects: means “selected miscellaneous written passage”. • It is The Analects of Confucius • Analects: means “selected miscellaneous written passage”. • It is a collection of Confucius’ saying, compiled by his disciples & they reflect the extent to which Confucius held up a moral ideal for all the people. • Together they express a philosophy, or a moral code, by which Confucius, one of the most humane thinkers of all time, believed everyone should live and uphold the ideals of wisdom, love of other people, and courage. (三達德: 智仁勇) • He argued that the pursuit of virtue should be every individual's supreme goal. And, while following the Way, or the truth, might not result in immediate or material gain, Confucius showed that it could nevertheless bring its own powerful and lasting spiritual rewards. ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 12

論語 The Analects 論道之語,學思行用 活化經典,豐富人生 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 13 論語 The Analects 論道之語,學思行用 活化經典,豐富人生 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 13

《 論語 》 學而時習之 • The Analects Chapter 1 Section 1 [1. 1] [Chinese 《 論語 》 學而時習之 • The Analects Chapter 1 Section 1 [1. 1] [Chinese Text] • 子曰:「學而時習之,不亦說乎?有朋自遠方 來,不亦樂乎?人不知而不慍,不亦君子乎 ?」 • Confucius said, “It is indeed a pleasure to learn, and to apply acquired knowledge into practice when opportunities arise. It is even a greater joy to have friends who have common interests to come from afar to visit so that we can share experiences and knowledge with each other. A true gentleman does not get upset when people do not recognize his abilities or contributions. ” 背 悟問用 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 14

Translator’s Note 學(xué) is learning. It has the meaning of both knowing and doing. Translator’s Note 學(xué) is learning. It has the meaning of both knowing and doing. In Analects, Confucius considers the moral conducts of a person is more important than his knowledge. Jūn Zĭ (君子) has been translated as a superior man, a gentleman, or a wise man. In Analects the term has been used to refer to a person with high moral standard and in few occasion it specifically referred to people who were from a noble family (nobles). At Confucius time, nobles could become commoners (i. e. , common people or the masses) after several generations. At the same time, commoners through education and their own abilities could serve in the public sectors and became nobles. I use the term gentleman or gentlemen in a gender neutral way. It includes both ladies and gentlemen. http: //www. purpleculture. net/chinese-pinyin-converter/ this tool is used for creating Pin. Yin for Chinese characters. I choice using tone mark for the four tones. ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 15

Learning and Knowledge Management This section covers three major principles in knowledge management practices Learning and Knowledge Management This section covers three major principles in knowledge management practices in organizations: Encourage learning and practicing, form communities of practices, and willing to share knowledge and experience. Sharing knowledge and experience with others requires us taking time to summarize lessons learned in an organized fashion. People learned from us may not credit us for what they have learned. Therefore, people in organizations are less interested in sharing what they know. The critical success factors for implementing knowledge management system in an organization are: proper tracking people’s contribution and providing incentives for people to share. People who are willing to share without expecting anything back will benefit themselves. First, they have to go through a deep level thinking of what they know when sharing and such sharing process is a higher level of learning. Second, once you share what you know with others, you feel that you are not any better than your colleagues such that it will force you to learn more new knowledge and skills. ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 16

〈 學而 〉 篇第一章 1. 1 [1. 1]子曰:「學 而 時 習 之,不亦說 乎?有朋 自遠方來,不亦樂 〈 學而 〉 篇第一章 1. 1 [1. 1]子曰:「學 而 時 習 之,不亦說 乎?有朋 自遠方來,不亦樂 乎? 人 不知而不慍 ,不亦君子 乎?」 學:效法、覺悟、知行合一。 而:能夠。 時:找時機、機會。 習:應用、實踐所學。 說:音義同悅字。心中快樂。 朋:志同道合的朋友。 樂:愉悅的樣子。 慍:心中生悶氣。 君子:有德行的人。 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 背 悟 問用 Confucianism - 17

「學」字演變 甲骨文 金文 小篆 楷體 学 簡體 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 背 悟 問用 「學」字演變 甲骨文 金文 小篆 楷體 学 簡體 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 背 悟 問用 Confucianism - 18

「學」字說文解 表《 易經 》 卦象之爻、用以記事之繩結 (最早之文 字之一 )、計數之算籌、或小孩玩的積木玩具 背 悟 問用 表示動手建立模 型或實作,印証和 應用其所學。並且 「學」字說文解 表《 易經 》 卦象之爻、用以記事之繩結 (最早之文 字之一 )、計數之算籌、或小孩玩的積木玩具 背 悟 問用 表示動手建立模 型或實作,印証和 應用其所學。並且 與朋友、同學互相 討論學習,或由老 師手把手的示範 或戶外教學。 金文「學」字 表示房屋、教 室 (室內教學 ) 「子」代表少而學,學習得從娃娃抓起。 「 少而不學,長而無能。」《 荀子 》 。 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 19

「學」是什麼 ? 「學而時習之」的「學」是什麼?「學」有二義。其一,學者, 覺也 ;學有覺悟的意思。《白虎通‧辟雍》云:「學者,覺也。覺 悟所未知也。」(魏、何晏集解/宋、邢昺疏/清、阮元校勘《論語注 疏》)人為什麼要學?因為覺悟了自己有不知之事、不明之理,才知 道去學。覺是「知」的法門。在自修上,我們要有自知之明,能病 己之所病(知道自己的缺點是缺點)在教學上,做老師的要能激發學 生學習的動機。其二,學者,效也 ;學有效法的意思。效是「行 」的法門,「知行合一」才叫做學。學有行的意思可從《論語‧雍 也第六》哀公問孔子說:「弟子誰是好學的?」孔子回答說:「有 顏回這個學生是好學的,他有不如意的事時,能不遷怒於他人。犯 「學」是什麼 ? 「學而時習之」的「學」是什麼?「學」有二義。其一,學者, 覺也 ;學有覺悟的意思。《白虎通‧辟雍》云:「學者,覺也。覺 悟所未知也。」(魏、何晏集解/宋、邢昺疏/清、阮元校勘《論語注 疏》)人為什麼要學?因為覺悟了自己有不知之事、不明之理,才知 道去學。覺是「知」的法門。在自修上,我們要有自知之明,能病 己之所病(知道自己的缺點是缺點)在教學上,做老師的要能激發學 生學習的動機。其二,學者,效也 ;學有效法的意思。效是「行 」的法門,「知行合一」才叫做學。學有行的意思可從《論語‧雍 也第六》哀公問孔子說:「弟子誰是好學的?」孔子回答說:「有 顏回這個學生是好學的,他有不如意的事時,能不遷怒於他人。犯 了過錯,就知道改正,絕不第二次再犯同樣的過錯。很不幸他短命 英年早逝了!現在的學生則沒有像他這樣好學的,我也未曾聽聞像 他這樣好學的人了。」顏回能做到「不遷怒、不貳過」這是「行」。 由此可証明「學」有「行」的意思 。毓鋆師曰:「講經得有所本, 有證據,別人才搏不倒你。這就是『依經解經』的方法。無所本, 即是以己意解經,就是『臆說』。」 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 背 悟 問用 Confucianism - 20

學之義甚廣,不當作效字解 子曰:「學而時習之。」朱子註謂:「學之為言效也。」 余竊謂,學之義甚廣,不當作效字解,使後之為學者只求 其當然,而不求其所以然,所謂依樣畫葫蘆者是也。猶憶 中國乾嘉間,初弛海禁,有一西人身服之衣敝,當時又無 西人為衣匠者。無已,招華成衣至,問:「汝能制西式衣 否?」成衣曰:「有樣式即可以代辦。」西人檢舊衣付之, 成衣領去。越數日,將新制衣送來,西人展視,剪制一切 均無差,惟衣背後剪去一塊,復又補綴一塊。西人駭然問 故,成衣答曰:「我是照你的樣式做耳。」今中國銳意圖 新,事事效法西人,不求其所以然,而但行其所當然,與 此西人所剪之成衣又何以異與,噫! –來源: 辜鴻銘. 學之義甚廣,不當作效字解 子曰:「學而時習之。」朱子註謂:「學之為言效也。」 余竊謂,學之義甚廣,不當作效字解,使後之為學者只求 其當然,而不求其所以然,所謂依樣畫葫蘆者是也。猶憶 中國乾嘉間,初弛海禁,有一西人身服之衣敝,當時又無 西人為衣匠者。無已,招華成衣至,問:「汝能制西式衣 否?」成衣曰:「有樣式即可以代辦。」西人檢舊衣付之, 成衣領去。越數日,將新制衣送來,西人展視,剪制一切 均無差,惟衣背後剪去一塊,復又補綴一塊。西人駭然問 故,成衣答曰:「我是照你的樣式做耳。」今中國銳意圖 新,事事效法西人,不求其所以然,而但行其所當然,與 此西人所剪之成衣又何以異與,噫! –來源: 辜鴻銘. 《辜鴻銘講論語》,北京理 大學出版社, 2012 -12 -14 學習時要知其然 (what),更要知其所以然 (why)! 背 悟 問用 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 21

甲骨文的「習」 描寫幼鳥在鳥巢上或是白天時振動翅膀演練飛 行,或表示鳥類一旦遇到風吹草動,立即振翅 盤旋觀察形勢以趨吉避凶。學習就是領悟運用 古人及今人的智慧來解決問題、趨吉避凶。 甲骨文 金文 小篆 習 习 楷體 簡體 背 悟 甲骨文的「習」 描寫幼鳥在鳥巢上或是白天時振動翅膀演練飛 行,或表示鳥類一旦遇到風吹草動,立即振翅 盤旋觀察形勢以趨吉避凶。學習就是領悟運用 古人及今人的智慧來解決問題、趨吉避凶。 甲骨文 金文 小篆 習 习 楷體 簡體 背 悟 問用 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 22

《 說文 》 習,鳥數飛也。 背 悟 問用 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 23 《 說文 》 習,鳥數飛也。 背 悟 問用 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 23

「君」字解 君 甲骨文 金文 小篆 手執 筆或是 手執 權杖 口 君 楷體 簡體 代表以書面或口 「君」字解 君 甲骨文 金文 小篆 手執 筆或是 手執 權杖 口 君 楷體 簡體 代表以書面或口 頭發號施令, 表示 握 有 執政 的 權 柄。 《 白虎通 ‧號篇 》 「或稱君子何?道德之稱也。 君之為 言群也 ;子者,丈夫之通稱也。」 「君子」有二種不同的涵意:一指德行高尚的人,一指古時候世 襲的貴族、統治階級之人。在 《 論語 》 中「君子」之義以前者居多。 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 24

「羣」字中的「君」字解 羣原義為羊隻眾多之義,引伸為人或物以類似而相聚 成群。「君之為言群也」, 群德 是指能與人共處互助互 利的德行,有此德行的人稱為「君子」。 羣 群 專制治度下 ,君為羣之首。 民主環境下,君與群衆平起平坐。 群龍无首,自動自發、互助合作。 《 禮記 「羣」字中的「君」字解 羣原義為羊隻眾多之義,引伸為人或物以類似而相聚 成群。「君之為言群也」, 群德 是指能與人共處互助互 利的德行,有此德行的人稱為「君子」。 羣 群 專制治度下 ,君為羣之首。 民主環境下,君與群衆平起平坐。 群龍无首,自動自發、互助合作。 《 禮記 ‧學記 》 云:「三年視, 敬業樂羣 也。」樂群 是指要養成合群的精神並學會團隊合作的方 法,同儕間快樂地相互學習。 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 25

人不知而不慍 《論語正義》 魏何晏注,宋邢昺疏 人不知而不慍,不亦君子乎? 注: 慍,怒也。凡人有所不知,君子不怒。 疏: 云:「凡人有所不知,君子不怒」者, 其說有二: 求學是為自 一云古之學者為己,已得先王之道,含章內 己,不是用來 炫耀於他人。 映,而他人不見不知,而我不怒也。 人不知而不慍 《論語正義》 魏何晏注,宋邢昺疏 人不知而不慍,不亦君子乎? 注: 慍,怒也。凡人有所不知,君子不怒。 疏: 云:「凡人有所不知,君子不怒」者, 其說有二: 求學是為自 一云古之學者為己,已得先王之道,含章內 己,不是用來 炫耀於他人。 映,而他人不見不知,而我不怒也。 一云君子易事,不求備於一人,故為教誨之 學生愚鈍,教 道,若有人鈍根不能知解者,君子恕之而不 不會有耐心 也不生悶氣。 慍怒也。 子曰:「君子易事而難說也。說之不以道,不說也;及其使人也, 器之。小人難事而易說也。說之雖不以道,說也;及其使人也, 求備焉。」 論語・子路第十三 》 (《 ) ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 26

語譯 孔子說:「 學到的知識和技術之後,我能積極地利用機會、 適時地將其應用在做人做事上,若能有成效而 印証所學,這不是很令人快樂的事情嗎 ! 有志同道合的朋友從遠方來和我互相論道問學、 砌磋琢磨,大家的學識和眼見都增廣提升了, 這不是讓人很愉悅的事嗎 ! 分享所學或教授學生時,即使有人因此受益但 卻不知感謝,或是資質愚鈍而教不會,我也不 在意、不生悶氣,這才是君子用實學助人濟世 的真精神。」 語譯 孔子說:「 學到的知識和技術之後,我能積極地利用機會、 適時地將其應用在做人做事上,若能有成效而 印証所學,這不是很令人快樂的事情嗎 ! 有志同道合的朋友從遠方來和我互相論道問學、 砌磋琢磨,大家的學識和眼見都增廣提升了, 這不是讓人很愉悅的事嗎 ! 分享所學或教授學生時,即使有人因此受益但 卻不知感謝,或是資質愚鈍而教不會,我也不 在意、不生悶氣,這才是君子用實學助人濟世 的真精神。」 背 悟 問用 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 27

提問 • • • 這只是夫子自道 ? 還是適用於一般人 ? 什麼是學?學什麼? 什麼樣的學法最有效 ? 什麼是習 ? 如何習最有效 提問 • • • 這只是夫子自道 ? 還是適用於一般人 ? 什麼是學?學什麼? 什麼樣的學法最有效 ? 什麼是習 ? 如何習最有效 ? 時習之道為何?是時時溫習?還是因時機而實踐、實 習其所學? 觀察研究小鳥是如何學習飛行的 ? 母鳥是如何教小鳥 習飛 ? 友朋自遠方來找你做什麼?為何是悅人之事 ? 「人不知而不慍」,為何一般人「人不知」時會生氣 ? 背悟 問 用 不知什麼?不知你的學問、貢獻 ? 學問的目的是在求人知嗎 ? 說(悅 )、樂、不慍有何不同? 此章的三句話是否代表學習的過程或是不同層次 ? ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 28

用知識管理的觀點來解讀 先儒多以孔子自學、教人二方面來解讀此章,如此解釋過 於狹隘,因為不是每個人都要當老師。今從「組織學習」和 「知識管理」的角度來解讀這章。「學而時習」,指學了新知 識,要能隨時應用出來,以加深學習效果和心得。「有朋自 遠方來」是指要有志同道合的朋友,互相砌磋琢磨,形成 一學習成長的專業社群 (community of practice)。「人不知而不 慍」是指能與人共享所學,對社會團體有貢獻,雖不為他 人所認同感謝,也不生氣、不計較。我自己的經驗是與人 分享所學是讓自己再一次消化回味的機會,無形中做了一 次更深層的思考和學習。在教了人之後,自覺人皆知我之 用知識管理的觀點來解讀 先儒多以孔子自學、教人二方面來解讀此章,如此解釋過 於狹隘,因為不是每個人都要當老師。今從「組織學習」和 「知識管理」的角度來解讀這章。「學而時習」,指學了新知 識,要能隨時應用出來,以加深學習效果和心得。「有朋自 遠方來」是指要有志同道合的朋友,互相砌磋琢磨,形成 一學習成長的專業社群 (community of practice)。「人不知而不 慍」是指能與人共享所學,對社會團體有貢獻,雖不為他 人所認同感謝,也不生氣、不計較。我自己的經驗是與人 分享所學是讓自己再一次消化回味的機會,無形中做了一 次更深層的思考和學習。在教了人之後,自覺人皆知我之 所學,因而會督促自己,再接再厲 (註 : 厲,興作也 ) ,學習 新的東西。如果稍有學習的心得就敝帚自珍,不願與人分 享,自以為高人一等,則必將故步自封,自己也不再會有 所進步,同時對同儕或部屬也無所貢獻。能與人分享知識 的文化,是組織中推行知識管理成功的關鍵因素,也是自 背悟 問用 我學習成長的動力。 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 29

從學習的過程和境界解讀 1. 學而時習之, 不亦說乎? • 自學:自我學習 2. 有朋自遠方來, • 共學:共同研習 不亦樂乎? 3. 人不知而不慍, • 從學習的過程和境界解讀 1. 學而時習之, 不亦說乎? • 自學:自我學習 2. 有朋自遠方來, • 共學:共同研習 不亦樂乎? 3. 人不知而不慍, • 教學:分享所學 不亦君子乎? 學而不厭 終身學習 背悟 問用 誨人不倦 無私分享 毛奇齡 《 四書賸言 》 獨學、共學、教人以學,皆學中事。」 「 李充 《 論語集注 》 :「始於時習,中於講肄,終於教授者也。」 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 30

如何應用 • • • 養成終生學習和隨時隨地學習的習慣。 養成動手實踐的習慣,在做中學。 時常自問是否有將所學應用出來 ? 背悟問 用 是否常常找朋友論道問學 ? 組成學習小組互相砌磋所學。 與朋友、同儕、和一般大眾分享所學之心得,不 如何應用 • • • 養成終生學習和隨時隨地學習的習慣。 養成動手實踐的習慣,在做中學。 時常自問是否有將所學應用出來 ? 背悟問 用 是否常常找朋友論道問學 ? 組成學習小組互相砌磋所學。 與朋友、同儕、和一般大眾分享所學之心得,不 必敝帚自珍。教學相長,深化所學。 背悟問 用 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 習用所學後而深悟善問, 故能深化、內化所學。 Confucianism - 31

http: //stephenslighthouse. com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/learning_pyramid. jpg ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 32 http: //stephenslighthouse. com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/learning_pyramid. jpg ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 32

Bloom’s Learning Taxonomy Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) 1. Creating - designing, constructing, planning, Bloom’s Learning Taxonomy Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) 1. Creating - designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making 2. Evaluating - Checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, Experimenting, judging, testing, Detecting, Monitoring 3. Analyzing - Comparing, organizing, deconstructing, Attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating 4. Applying - Implementing, carrying out, using, executing 5. Understanding - Interpreting, Summarizing, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying 6. Remembering - Recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 33

學習方法及其效果 背悟問 平均 殘留的 學習效果 用 聽講課 多運用主動 學習方式自 學或教人。 被動的學習 閱讀 多媒體教材 示範 學習方法及其效果 背悟問 平均 殘留的 學習效果 用 聽講課 多運用主動 學習方式自 學或教人。 被動的學習 閱讀 多媒體教材 示範 主動的 學習 實際動手、應用 相互討論 教別人 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 34

學習認知的層次及分類 背悟問 理解 • 描述、解釋事物間的相關性 • 知其所以然 (能解答為什麼 ) 行 應用 隨時隨地提醒自己 • 分析 學習認知的層次及分類 背悟問 理解 • 描述、解釋事物間的相關性 • 知其所以然 (能解答為什麼 ) 行 應用 隨時隨地提醒自己 • 分析 運用所學去理解所 • 綜合、評估 遇之人事物,並且應 • 創造 (策劃、設計 ) 用所學解決面對的 ,篤 明辨 用 ,審 問, 慎思 , 博學 悟問 背 用 記誦之知識 問題。 • 記得基本事實 (人事時地物 )、 數據 http: //wiki. bssd. org/images_up/1/13/Bloom%27 s_Taxonomy. pdf  http: //zh. wikipedia. org/wiki/布鲁姆分类学 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 35

絕知此事要躬行 冬夜讀書示子聿 (yù) 古人學問無遺力, 少壯 夫老始成。 紙上得來終覺淺, 絕知此事要躬行。 --(南宋)陸遊 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 讀書學習客觀上是一個去粗取精、去偽存真 絕知此事要躬行 冬夜讀書示子聿 (yù) 古人學問無遺力, 少壯 夫老始成。 紙上得來終覺淺, 絕知此事要躬行。 --(南宋)陸遊 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 讀書學習客觀上是一個去粗取精、去偽存真 的過程,必須聯繫實際,知行合一,通過理 論的指導、利用知識的積累,來洞察客觀事 物發展的規律。古人講,“紙上得來終覺淺, 絕知此事要躬行”、 “ 耳聞之不如目見之, 目見之不如足踐之 ”, 說的就是這個道理。毛澤東同志說,讀書是 學習,使用也是學習,而且是更重要的學習, 講的也是同樣的道理。大凡有作為者,都註 重讀書與運用的結合,而不是讀死書、死讀 書。 …. 運用理論和知識解決實際問題的能力強 不強。…在以下三個方面努力很重要。壹是 要勇於實踐,把知識轉化為能力。知識向能 力的轉化,媒介就是實踐。領導幹部勇於實 踐,就要敢於面對實踐中的熱點、難點問題, 敢於探索新的實踐領域, … (link) Confucianism - 36

《論語 - The Analects》 • 顏淵 • 仲弓問仁。子曰:「出門如見大賓,使民如承大 祭。己所不欲,勿施於人 。 在邦無怨,在家 無怨。」仲弓曰:「雍雖不敏,請事斯語矣。」 • Zhong 《論語 - The Analects》 • 顏淵 • 仲弓問仁。子曰:「出門如見大賓,使民如承大 祭。己所不欲,勿施於人 。 在邦無怨,在家 無怨。」仲弓曰:「雍雖不敏,請事斯語矣。」 • Zhong Gong asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, “When you go out you always prepare yourself as if you are going to receive important guests. Employ the people as if you were residing an important sacrifice. Do not impose on others what yourself do not desire. As the result, you will be free from any complaints in the country and in the family. " Zhong Gong said, "Though I am not very smart, I will try my best according to what you have said. " ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 37

《論語 - The Analects》 • 衛靈公 • 子貢問曰:「有一言而可以終身行之者乎?」 子曰:「其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施於人。」 • Zi Gong asked, saying, 《論語 - The Analects》 • 衛靈公 • 子貢問曰:「有一言而可以終身行之者乎?」 子曰:「其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施於人。」 • Zi Gong asked, saying, "Is there one word which may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life? " The Master said, "Is not reciprocity such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others. " http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ethic_of_reciprocity ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 38

Golden Rules • “Look into your own heart, discover what it is that gives Golden Rules • “Look into your own heart, discover what it is that gives you pain and then refuse, under any circumstance whatsoever, to inflict that pain on anybody else. ” — Karen Armstrong • http: //www. ted. com/talks/karen_armstrong_let_ s_revive_the_golden_rule. html? quote=555 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 39

Altruism 利他主義 • Altruism, https: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Altruism ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - Altruism 利他主義 • Altruism, https: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Altruism ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 40

Key Concepts in the Analects • Ren仁 (benevolence, humanity, moral sense, perfect virtual, charity, Key Concepts in the Analects • Ren仁 (benevolence, humanity, moral sense, perfect virtual, charity, kindness, humaneness) • Jun. Zi 君子 (the superior man, gentleman, prince, exemplary person) • Zheng 政 (politics, governing, management) • Xiao 孝 (filial piety, be a good son or daughter) • Zhong忠(loyalty忠心, do your best盡己之謂忠) • Shu恕 (reciprocity, empathy, charity) • Li 禮 (propriety, ritual, rite, proper conduct, social order, manner, culture) • Xin 信(trust信認, honesty誠信) Yi 義(Righteousness) • Tian天 (heaven) • Zhong. Yong中庸 (doctrine of the mean, central harmony) • Xing 性 (human nature, consciousness) • Zheng. Ming 正名 (naming things correctly) ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 41

Translations of Analects • Ku Hung Ming (辜鴻銘), The Discourses and Sayings of Confucius, Translations of Analects • Ku Hung Ming (辜鴻銘), The Discourses and Sayings of Confucius, 1898. • James Legge’s (理雅各) translation http: //ctext. org/analects • William Edward Soothill, The Analects of Confucius, 1910. • Lionel Giles(翟林奈), The Sayings of Confucius, 1910. • Lin Yu-Tang(林語堂), The Wisdom of Confucius, 1938. (Chapter V: Aphorisms of Confucius) • D. C. Lau(劉殿爵), Confucius: The Analects, Penguin Classics, Penguin Books, 1979. ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 42

Examine Yourself to Free From Worries and Fears [12. 4]司馬牛 問「君子」。 曰:「君子不憂不懼。」 子 曰: Examine Yourself to Free From Worries and Fears [12. 4]司馬牛 問「君子」。 曰:「君子不憂不懼。」 子 曰: 「不憂不懼,斯謂之君子矣乎?」 子曰:「內省不疚,夫何憂何懼?」 Su-ma Niu asked about the how to be a virtuous person. gentleman. The Master said, “A virtuous person is free from worries and fears. ” “In that case, can a man be said to be a virtuous person simply because he is free from worries and fears? ” The Master said, “If, on examining oneself, a person finds nothing to reproach himself for, what worries and fears can he have? ” • 內省不疚 問心無愧 Moral compass • 道德 Morality • 良知 Conscience • 心底無私天地寬 (陶鑄 ) ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 43

Know People [12. 22] 樊遲問仁。子曰:「愛人。」 問知 (智 )。子曰:「知人。」樊遲未達。 子曰:「舉直錯諸枉,能使枉者直。」 … Fan Ch'ih asked about Know People [12. 22] 樊遲問仁。子曰:「愛人。」 問知 (智 )。子曰:「知人。」樊遲未達。 子曰:「舉直錯諸枉,能使枉者直。」 … Fan Ch'ih asked about benevolence. The Master said, “Love people. ” He asked about wisdom. The Master said, “Know people. ” Fan Ch'ih failed to grasp his meaning. The Master said, “Promote the straight and put them in charge of the crooked. This can make the crooked straight. ” ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 44

[11. 22 因 材 施教 ] 子路問:「聞斯行諸?」子曰:「有父 兄在,如之何其聞斯行之?」冉有問:「聞斯行諸?」子 曰:「聞斯行之。」公西華曰:「由也問聞斯行諸,子曰 『 有父兄在 』 ;求也問聞斯行諸,子曰 『 [11. 22 因 材 施教 ] 子路問:「聞斯行諸?」子曰:「有父 兄在,如之何其聞斯行之?」冉有問:「聞斯行諸?」子 曰:「聞斯行之。」公西華曰:「由也問聞斯行諸,子曰 『 有父兄在 』 ;求也問聞斯行諸,子曰 『 聞斯行之 』 。赤也 惑,敢問。」子曰:「求也退,故進之;由也兼人,故退之 」 • [teaching students based on their characters] Zi Lu asked “Should one immediately put into practice what one has heard? ” The Master said, "As your father and elder brothers are still alive, you are hardly in a position immediately to put into practice what you have heard? " Ran Yu asked the same question “Should one immediately put into practice what one has heard? ” The Master answered, “Yes, you should immediately put into practice what you have heard. " The third student, Gong Xi Hua said, " Zi Lu asked whether he should put immediately into practice what one has heard, and you said, “There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted. ” Qiu asked whether he should immediately put into practice what he has heard, and you said, ‘Put it immediately into practice. ' I am confused, and venture to ask you for an explanation. " The Master said, "Qiu is very passive; therefore I urged him to move forward. Yu (Zi Lu) is too aggressive and daring; therefore I tried to hold him back. " ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 45

因材施教 (from a student) 子路 想到一个好的方案, 是否可以立即去做 ? 遇事轻率:抑制 请教父兄,再做 冉有 子路 遇事畏缩:鼓励 马上做 因材施教 (from a student) 子路 想到一个好的方案, 是否可以立即去做 ? 遇事轻率:抑制 请教父兄,再做 冉有 子路 遇事畏缩:鼓励 马上做 孔子 冉有 甲:具备做某事的能力 可以做某事 岗前、在岗培训 乙:不具备做某事的能力 制程 装配 难易 包装 可以做另一件事 测试 < 装配 包装 < 测试 有经验的作业员 无经验的作业员 SHUMBA GL 12 PT 3 G 13 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 2013 Summer 第拾叁组 张永胜 Confucianism - 46

Appreciate Others and Develop Your Own Abilities [1. 16] 子 曰:「 不患人之不己知 , 患不知人也 Appreciate Others and Develop Your Own Abilities [1. 16] 子 曰:「 不患人之不己知 , 患不知人也 。」 The Master said, “It is not the failures of others to appreciate your abilities that should trouble you, but rather your failure to appreciate theirs. ” (You should be worried about not recognizing other people’s virtue and talent. ) 《 論語 ‧憲問 》 子曰:「不患人之不己知,患其不能也。」 The Master said, “I am not concerned about not knowing by others, but I am worried I don’t have the right abilities (to be known). ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 47

The Last Section of the Last Chapter in the Analects • 《 論語 ‧堯曰 The Last Section of the Last Chapter in the Analects • 《 論語 ‧堯曰 》 [20. 3] 子曰:「不知命,無以為君子也。 不知禮,無以立也。 不知言,無以知人也 。」 • [20. 3] Confucius said, “ • Without understanding your destiny (purpose of life); one cannot become a virtuous person. • Without knowing the culture and social protocols, one cannot establish (conduct) oneself in the society. • Without knowing what a person is saying (know what their real intentions based on what have been said), one cannot assess him correctly. ” ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 48

e ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 《大學衍義》南宋真德秀的政治哲学著作 Confucianism - 49 e ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 《大學衍義》南宋真德秀的政治哲学著作 Confucianism - 49

用人不疑,疑人不用 ? ? • 管理者 如果将 “疑人不用 ”奉为经纶的话,必将无人可用;如果 “用人 不疑 ”的话,人就容易恃宠生娇,最终的结局就是害人害己、玉石 俱焚。生活的常识是:如果我们毫不怀疑地去相信一个人,那结果 只有两种,要不就得到一生的知己,要不就得到一生的教训 。 用人不疑,疑人不用 ? ? • 管理者 如果将 “疑人不用 ”奉为经纶的话,必将无人可用;如果 “用人 不疑 ”的话,人就容易恃宠生娇,最终的结局就是害人害己、玉石 俱焚。生活的常识是:如果我们毫不怀疑地去相信一个人,那结果 只有两种,要不就得到一生的知己,要不就得到一生的教训 。 • 疑人要用,但必须要 控制 使用,用人要疑,要建立 监督 稽查 机制 使 用。 • 张 瑞敏 先生说过一句话: “用人不疑,疑人不用 ”是 小农经济 的思想 产物,是对 市场经济 的反动,是中国传统 文化 的糟粕,更是一种 管 理 低能。所以,疑人不用,用人不疑,只是管理的初级阶段。也是 管理的最低能。敢用疑人,会用疑人,才是技高一筹,智高一筹 。 • 孔子窮乎陳、蔡之間,藜羹不斟,七日不嘗粒,晝寢。顏回索米,得 而爨之,幾熟。孔子望見顏回攫其甑中而食之。選間,食熟,謁孔 子而進食。孔子佯為不見之。孔子起曰:「今者夢見先君,食潔而後 饋。」顏回對曰:「不可。嚮者煤室入甑中,棄食不祥,回攫而飯之。 」孔子歎曰:「所信者目也,而目猶不可信;所恃者心也,而心猶不 足恃。弟子記之,知人固不易矣。」故知非難也,孔子之所以知人難 也 。 --《 呂氏春秋 》 -- http: //news. mbalib. com/story/88059 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 50

Central Harmony 中庸 天命之謂性,率性之謂道,修道之謂教。 道也者,不可須臾離也。可離,非道也。 是故君子戒慎乎其所不睹,恐懼乎其所不聞。 莫見乎隱,莫顯乎微,故君子慎其獨也。 喜怒哀樂之未發,謂之中; 發而皆中節,謂之和。 中也者,天下之大本也; 和也者,天下之達道也。 致中和,天地位焉, 萬物育焉。 ©Minder Central Harmony 中庸 天命之謂性,率性之謂道,修道之謂教。 道也者,不可須臾離也。可離,非道也。 是故君子戒慎乎其所不睹,恐懼乎其所不聞。 莫見乎隱,莫顯乎微,故君子慎其獨也。 喜怒哀樂之未發,謂之中; 發而皆中節,謂之和。 中也者,天下之大本也; 和也者,天下之達道也。 致中和,天地位焉, 萬物育焉。 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 (link) Confucianism - 51

English Translation What Heaven has conferred is called The Nature; an accordance with this English Translation What Heaven has conferred is called The Nature; an accordance with this nature is called The Path of duty; the regulation of this path is called Instruction. The path may not be left for an instant. If it could be left, it would not be the path. On this account, the superior man does not wait till he sees things, to be cautious, nor till he hears things, to be apprehensive. There is nothing more visible than what is secret, and nothing more manifest than what is minute. Therefore the superior man is watchful over himself, when he is alone. While there are no stirrings of pleasure, anger, sorrow, or joy, the mind may be said to be in the state of Equilibrium. When those feelings have been stirred, and they act in their due degree, there ensues what may be called the state of Harmony. This Equilibrium is the great root from which grow all the human actings in the world, and this Harmony is the universal path which they all should pursue. Let the states of equilibrium and harmony exist in perfection, and a happy order will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be nourished and flourish. ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 52

Great Learning 大學 大學之道,在明明德,在親民,在止於至善。 知 止 而後有 定 ,定而後能 靜 ,靜而後能 安 , 安而後能 Great Learning 大學 大學之道,在明明德,在親民,在止於至善。 知 止 而後有 定 ,定而後能 靜 ,靜而後能 安 , 安而後能 慮 ,慮而後能 得 。 物有本末,事有終始,知所先後,則近道矣。 Translation • The Great Learning is the pathway of learning to be a great person. The path to be a great person consists of three basic tenets which we have to bear in mind all the time: – Enlighten your own bright human nature, – Build a close relationship with other people to renew their spirits and virtues, and – Work relentlessly towards the goal of perfection and kindness. ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 53

Translations (continued) • Knowing the purpose of one’s life, a person can determine the Translations (continued) • Knowing the purpose of one’s life, a person can determine the goals of his pursuit; – Once the goals are set, he can reach a state of tranquility; – When tranquility of the mind is reached, he feels calm and at ease with his surroundings; – When he attains calmness, he can be very thoughtful and insightful in deliberation; – With careful deliberation, he can easily devise a path to achieve his goals. • Things, just like trees, have their root and their branches. Affairs have their ends and proper beginnings. Knowing the precedence among various tasks and their priority will lead us towards Tao(Way) as taught in the Great Learning. ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 54

Know Where You Are Going! ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland Know Where You Are Going! ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland Confucianism - 55

The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I— I took the one less traveled by, And that has ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 made all the difference. Confucianism - 56

If I had only changed myself first When I was young and free and If I had only changed myself first When I was young and free and my imagination had no limits, I dreamed of changing the world. As I grew older and wiser, I discovered the world would not change, so I shortened my sights somewhat and decided to change only my country. But it, too, seemed immovable. As I grew into my twilight years, in one last desperate attempt, I settled for changing only my family, those closest to me, but alas, they would have none of it. And now, as I lie on my death bed, I suddenly realize: If I had only changed myself first, then by example I would have changed my family. From their inspiration and encouragement, I would then have been able to better my country, and who knows, I may have even changed the world. -- inscription on the tomb of an Anglican Bishop in Westminster Abbey (may not be true) Quoted in Chicken Soup For The Soul ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 57

內聖外王的功夫與次第 格物 致知 誠意 正心 修身 齊家 治國 平天 下 讀書學習是領導幹部加強黨性修養、堅定理想信念、提 升精神境界的壹個重要途徑。我們國家歷來講究讀書修 來源: link 內聖外王的功夫與次第 格物 致知 誠意 正心 修身 齊家 治國 平天 下 讀書學習是領導幹部加強黨性修養、堅定理想信念、提 升精神境界的壹個重要途徑。我們國家歷來講究讀書修 來源: link 身、從政立德。傳統文化中,讀書、修身、立德,不僅 是立身之本,更是從政之基。古人講,治天下者先治己, ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 58

The Great Learning Men in old times when they wanted to further the cause The Great Learning Men in old times when they wanted to further the cause of enlightenment and civilization in the world began first by securing good government in their country. When they wanted to secure good government in their country, they began first by putting their house in order. When they wanted to put their house in order, they began first by ordering their conversation aright. When they wanted to put their conversation aright, they began first by putting their minds in a proper and well- ordered condition. When they wanted to put their minds in a proper and well-ordered condition, they began first by getting true ideas. When they wanted to have true ideas, they began first by acquiring knowledge and understanding. The acquirement of knowledge and understanding comes from a systematic study of things. ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 59

The Great Learning After a systematic study of things, and only then, knowledge and The Great Learning After a systematic study of things, and only then, knowledge and understanding will come. When knowledge and understanding have come, and only then, will men have true ideas. When men have true ideas, and only then, will their minds be in a proper and well-ordered condition. When men’s minds are in a proper and well-ordered condition, and only then, will their conversation be ordered aright. When men’s conversations are ordered aright, and only then, will their houses be kept in order. When men’s houses are kept in order, and only then, will there be good government in the country. When there is good government in all countries, and only then, will there be peace and order in the world. ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 60

禮運大同篇 • 大道之行也,天下為公;選賢與能,講信修睦; • 故人不獨親其親,不獨子其子; • 使老有所終,壯有所用,幼有所長; • 鰥寡孤獨廢疾者,皆有所養; • 男有分,女有歸; • 貨惡其棄於地也,不必藏於己; • 禮運大同篇 • 大道之行也,天下為公;選賢與能,講信修睦; • 故人不獨親其親,不獨子其子; • 使老有所終,壯有所用,幼有所長; • 鰥寡孤獨廢疾者,皆有所養; • 男有分,女有歸; • 貨惡其棄於地也,不必藏於己; • 力惡其不出於身也,不必為己; • 是故謀閉而不興,盜竊亂賊而不作, • 故外戶而不閉,是謂大同。 – 孔子(西元前 551~479 年) 禮記卷七,禮運第九 》 《 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 61

Confucius’ Ideal of a Commonwealth State* – a Great Utopia • When the Great Confucius’ Ideal of a Commonwealth State* – a Great Utopia • When the Great Dao (Tao, perfect order) prevails, the world is like a Commonwealth State shared by all, not a dictatorship. Virtuous, worthy, wise and capable people are chosen as leaders. • Honesty and trust are promoted, and good neighborliness cultivated. • All people respect and love their own parents and children, as well as the parents and children of others. The aged are cared for until death; adults are employed in jobs that make full use of their abilities; and children are nourished, educated, and fostered. • Widows and widowers, orphans and the old without children, the disabled and the diseased are all well taken care of. Every man and woman has an appropriate role to play in society and in the family. They hate to see resources lying idle or cast away, yet they do not necessarily keep them for themselves. • They hate not to make use of their abilities, yet they do not necessarily work for their own self-interest. Thus intrigues and conspiracies do not arise, and thievery and robbery do not occur; herefore doors need never be locked. • This is the ideal world – a perfect world of equality, fraternity, harmony, welfare, and justice. This is the world called “Da-Tong (Dah-Torng)”. • Li-Yun-Da-Tong (Li-Yun-Dah-Torng) Section, the Record of Rites, Book 9, by Confucius (BC 551~479) © * This is the state • Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 “of the people, by the people, and for the people” Confucianism - 62

Mencius: 萬物皆備於我矣 孟子曰:「 萬物皆備於我矣。 反身而誠,樂莫大焉。 強恕而行,求仁莫近焉。」 《 孟子 • 盡心篇 》 Mencius said, “All Mencius: 萬物皆備於我矣 孟子曰:「 萬物皆備於我矣。 反身而誠,樂莫大焉。 強恕而行,求仁莫近焉。」 《 孟子 • 盡心篇 》 Mencius said, “All things are already complete inside us. There is no greater delight than to be conscious of sincerity on self-examination. If one force oneself to act according to the law of reciprocity, nothing can be closer than this in achieving benevolent. ” ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 63

King Hui of Liang and Mencius 孟子見梁惠王 • 孟子見梁惠王。王曰:「叟不遠千里而來,亦將有以 利吾國乎?」 • Mencius went to King Hui of Liang and Mencius 孟子見梁惠王 • 孟子見梁惠王。王曰:「叟不遠千里而來,亦將有以 利吾國乎?」 • Mencius went to see King Hui of Liang. The King said: “My good man, since you haven't thought one thousand li too far to come and see me, may I presume that you have something with which I can profit my kingdom? ” • 孟子對曰:「王何必曰利?亦有仁義而已矣。王曰 『 何 以利吾國 』 ?大夫曰 『 何以利吾家 』 ?士庶人曰 『 何以 利吾身 』 ?上下交征利而國危矣。萬乘之國弒其君者, 必千乘之家;千乘之國弒其君者,必百乘之家。萬取 千焉,千取百焉,不為不多矣。苟為後義而先利,不 奪不饜。未有仁而遺其親者也,未有義而後其君者 也。王亦曰仁義而已矣,何必曰利?」 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 64

 • Mencius said: “Why must you speak of profit? What I have for • Mencius said: “Why must you speak of profit? What I have for you is humaneness and righteousness, and that's all. If you always say ‘how can I profit my kingdom? ’ your top officers will ask, ‘how can we profit our clans? ’ The elites (shi) 1 and the common people will ask: ‘How can we profit ourselves? ’ Superiors and inferiors will struggle against each other for profit, and the country will be in chaos. ” • “In a kingdom of ten thousand chariots, the murderer of the sovereign is usually from a clan of one thousand chariots. In a thousand-chariot kingdom, the murderer of the sovereign is usually from a clan of one hundred chariots. Now, to have a thousand in ten thousand, or one hundred in a thousand is not a small number. But if you put due-giving last and profit first, no one will be satisfied unless they can grab something. ” • “There has never been a humane man who neglected his parents, and there has never been a just man who put his prince last in his priorities. King, can't we limit our conversation to humaneness and righteousness? Why must we discuss profit? ” ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 65

Feel compassion for someone else's suffering 惻隱之 心 • 孟子曰:「人皆有不忍人之心。…今人乍見孺子將入 於井,皆有怵惕惻隱之心。 …惻隱之心,仁之端也;羞 惡之心,義之端也;辭讓之心,禮之端也;是非之心, 智之端也。 Feel compassion for someone else's suffering 惻隱之 心 • 孟子曰:「人皆有不忍人之心。…今人乍見孺子將入 於井,皆有怵惕惻隱之心。 …惻隱之心,仁之端也;羞 惡之心,義之端也;辭讓之心,禮之端也;是非之心, 智之端也。 …凡有四端於我者,知皆 擴而充之 矣 …。」 • Mencius said: “All people have a heart which cannot stand to see the suffering of others. … if an infant were about to fall into a well, anyone would be upset and concerned. … The sense of concern for others is the starting point of humaneness. The feeling of shame and disgust is the starting point of fairness. The sense of humility and deference is the starting point of Propriety and the sense of right and wrong is the starting point of Wisdom. … Since all people have these four basic senses within themselves, they should all understand how to enhance and develop them. ” Source: http: //www. acmuller. net/con-dao/mencius. html#div-4 ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 66

海爾的三綱 • 記者:對海爾的採訪中,我發現海爾有著濃厚的中國 傳統文化的特色,在建設一個國際化企業的過程中, 海爾企業文化的精髓是什麼? • 張:中國傳統哲學的核心是 “內聖外王 ”,我們把它改 為 “外王內聖 ”。外王就是要創世界名牌,內聖就是提 高自身的素質。當然是因為 “外王 海爾的三綱 • 記者:對海爾的採訪中,我發現海爾有著濃厚的中國 傳統文化的特色,在建設一個國際化企業的過程中, 海爾企業文化的精髓是什麼? • 張:中國傳統哲學的核心是 “內聖外王 ”,我們把它改 為 “外王內聖 ”。外王就是要創世界名牌,內聖就是提 高自身的素質。當然是因為 “外王 ”而提高自身素質, 並不是提高素質給誰看。有時候我認為把中國傳統 文化運用好就不錯, 《 大學 》 裡的 “三綱八目 ”,三綱就 是 “明明德 ”, “親民 ”、 “至於至善 ”。 “明明德 ”就是我這 個當頭兒的要以身作則,整個團隊的人際關系也是 透明的,而 “親民 ”就是每個員 即 SBU都能夠創新, “ 至於至善 ”就體現在我們企業的精神上 ─追求卓越。 來源: 張瑞敏詮釋海爾 20年:從不回頭欣賞自己的腳印 at http: //www. people. com. cn/BIG 5/jingji/1039/2623092. html ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 67

海爾張瑞敏對 《 大學 》 三綱的創造性解讀 我们能够发展到今天,取决于领导的关心支持和员 的 努力,另外很大的一方面就是我们的企业文化被大家认 同了,我们的 企业文化核心就是创新 。但是我们原来的 企 业文化是植根于中国传统文化当中的 ,而且面对的是中 海爾張瑞敏對 《 大學 》 三綱的創造性解讀 我们能够发展到今天,取决于领导的关心支持和员 的 努力,另外很大的一方面就是我们的企业文化被大家认 同了,我们的 企业文化核心就是创新 。但是我们原来的 企 业文化是植根于中国传统文化当中的 ,而且面对的是中 国的员 ,大家有共同语言。中国的传统文化,很多东西 都被我们吸收了,比如 “三纲 ”,可能就是我们这个文化的 基础。三纲第一条就是 “明明德 ”,现在中国很多企业、单 位都不存在的一个氛围:就是透明的人际关系,所有人的 上升、提拔都靠竞争,所有东西都是公开透明的。其实中 国人希望有这么一个环境,而现在其实很多企业做不好, 就是因为有小帮派。但开拓国际市场所有的都是靠竞争, 所有都是公开竞争,人们很心情舒畅地 作。第二个是 “ 亲民 ”,每个人都要有创新。第三个是 “止于至善 ”,目标无 止境。我们是以这三条制定海尔不同的发展战略,制定海 尔的精神,也保证了海尔能够在中国这块土地上得到员 的认同。 來源: http: //zhidao. baidu. com/question/53072458. html ©Minder Chen, 2012 -2016 Confucianism - 68




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