Introduction Emerging problem of global warming GW as

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Introduction Emerging problem of global warming (GW) as a serious world problem has a Introduction Emerging problem of global warming (GW) as a serious world problem has a relatively short history first notion - (Arrhenius (1896) Global warming could be perceived both as global threat caused by human activity as same as the natural consequence of geological history of our planet. 1. global warming is not the serious problem, if any, it is natural oscillation of climate history. This good news for economists is supported by Bjorn Lomborg (2001); 2. On the opposite labeled as ecological or environmentalist we can find recently All Gore (2006) with his document An Inconvenient Truth.

WORLD Summits, conferences – history of international activities 1827 Fournier green house effet 1890 WORLD Summits, conferences – history of international activities 1827 Fournier green house effet 1890 Sweden chemic Svante Arhenius – C 02 in atmosphere could change the climate 1979 first climate conference in GENEVE 1992 Convenction of climate change in UN ( RIo de Janeiro) 1997 Kyoto Protocol decreasing of emission 2008 -2012 2000 – conference in Haag –preparation of ratification Kyoto 2005 Ratification of Kyoto - coming into reality Montrealconference after ratification of Kyoto 2009 Copenhagen international summit 2010 Cancún (Mexico) climate change conference

History of international activities 2001 - USA does not agree with Kyoto 2001 - History of international activities 2001 - USA does not agree with Kyoto 2001 - conference v Marakes - transfer technology and funds for supporting development states 1. 1. 2005 EU – market with trading permitions C 02 2005 November – Montreal- conference after ratification of Kyoto X delegace USA –refuse Konflikt mezi vládou USA a míněním občanů ( Bill Clinton v Montrealu se musel zaregistrovat jako nevládní organizace)

Global warming Global challenge with several dimensions Ecological– monitoring of changes and warning Legal Global warming Global challenge with several dimensions Ecological– monitoring of changes and warning Legal – agreements , protocols Ethical- equal rights of population Economic-solving instruments

Eological dimension Alarming facts • Growing speed of CO 2 production – 2000 -2005 Eological dimension Alarming facts • Growing speed of CO 2 production – 2000 -2005 3, 2% annualy x 1990 only 0, 8% annualy • Melting of Glaciers - melting speed is 170 km 3 per year • Encreasing level of oceans - 1, 5 až 2 mm annualy AOSIS – asociation of small islands states – 2005 approval of evacuation from Carter Islands – first official climate deserteres

Ethic dimension The Collaborative Program on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change http: //www. Ethic dimension The Collaborative Program on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change http: //www. globalecointegrity. net/pdf/samos/Brown_Don. pdf

Major Climate Change Ethical Issues Ethical issue one, the atmospheric stabilization question. Otázka života Major Climate Change Ethical Issues Ethical issue one, the atmospheric stabilization question. Otázka života a smrti – právo na život- nutnost snížit emise Issue two, the national equity question: všechny národy musí snížit emise stejně bez vyjímek a ne o 80% ale 90% Issue three, who will pay for damages? Malé ostrovy, oběti záplav a hurikánů, sucha, What does ethics have to say about the excuse that we can wait to new technologies will be invented What does ethics have to say about the excuse that no nation need to reduce its emissions until other nations reduce their emissions

Collaborative Program on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change • Launching in Buenos Aires Collaborative Program on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change • Launching in Buenos Aires in 2004 • Development of draft white paper (now 80 pages) • Meeting on draft white paper in Montreal in 2005 • Meeting with collaborators from global south in August 2006 in Rio de Janeiro • Workshop in Nairobi at Cop-12 in November 2006 • International conference in 2007/2008

Economic instruments - Trading permitions Economic instruments - Trading permitions

Pollution as costs EXTERNALITY EXTERNAL costs Positive externality Negative externality Pollution as costs EXTERNALITY EXTERNAL costs Positive externality Negative externality

Economic and physical pollution are there differences? ? ? Optimal pollution from economic point Economic and physical pollution are there differences? ? ? Optimal pollution from economic point of view What is the role of economy? ? ?

The role of economy is to say how to make the changes with the The role of economy is to say how to make the changes with the low costs for society In other words with the most effective way Economic efficiency = low cost = cheapest solution Example Steam train could be most ECONOMIC effective than electricity train If coal for steam production is cheaper ( lower price) than electricity for traffic

Command Control Economic instruments • Green Taxis • Trading permitions for C 02 • Command Control Economic instruments • Green Taxis • Trading permitions for C 02 • Subsidies ecological agriculture • Green energy support • Voluntary agreements

Different solution for decreasing pollution level pollution (C 02 t ) costs of cleaning Different solution for decreasing pollution level pollution (C 02 t ) costs of cleaning (for one ton Cars - C 20 000 5 EUR Households -H 30 000 10 Industry - I 40 000 20 Total pollution is 90 000 GOAL = decreasing of pollution from 90 000 t to 60 000 t CO 2 30 ton decreasing of pollution C 02

Command Control system 1. Each polluter can produce just 20 t of C 02 Command Control system 1. Each polluter can produce just 20 t of C 02 2. Each polluter decreases pollution in amount of 10 000 tons

1) Each producer is permitted to produce just 20 t of pollution Reality is 1) Each producer is permitted to produce just 20 t of pollution Reality is Cars… 20 t households…. . 30 t For decresing pollution Cars - C = Households H = Industry - I industry… 40 t 0 t 10 t 20 t Total decreasing is 30 t CO 2 What are the costs? Cars - C Households -H Industry - I 5 EUR per 1 t of CO 2 10 EUR 20 EUR C= 0 EUR H= 10 000 x 10 = 100 000 EUR I= 20 000 x 20 =400 000 EUR Total costs 500 000 EUR

2. Each polluter decreases pollution in amount of 10 000 tons Cars 10 000 2. Each polluter decreases pollution in amount of 10 000 tons Cars 10 000 x 5 = 50 000 Households 10 000 x 10 = 100 000 Industry 10 000 x 20 = 200 000 Total costs 350 000

Trading permitions of CO 2 Two companies emission A emissions are 5 t. CO Trading permitions of CO 2 Two companies emission A emissions are 5 t. CO 2 B emissions are 5 t. CO 2 TOTAL 10 tons of CO 2 pollution A cost for removing 1 t of pollution 20 EUR B cost for removing 1 t of pollution 30 EUR We need JUST 8 t C 02 Costs A 20 + B 30= 50 EUR 10 -2=8 t 2 t Trading permition A and B recive permition for 4 t CO 2 pollution = 8 t total pollution Trade with permitions market price for 1 t pollution is 24 EUR

Trading permition A and B recive permition for 4 t CO 2 pollution = Trading permition A and B recive permition for 4 t CO 2 pollution = 8 t total pollution Trade with permitions market price for 1 t pollution is 24 EUR A costs = 20 EUR per 1 ton C 02 B costs =30 EUR per 1 ton C 02 A could reduce 2 t of C 02 and B could buy 1 t of C 02 instead of reduction

Real costs A costs = 20 EUR per 1 ton C 02 Trade costs Real costs A costs = 20 EUR per 1 ton C 02 Trade costs 24 B costs =30 EUR per 1 ton C 02 Eur per 1 ton A costs for elimination of C 02 is 20 EUR < price for 1 t. CO 2 is 24 EUR B costs for elimination of C 02 is 30 EUR > price for 1 t. CO 2 is 24 EUR ¨ A decreases 2 tons - costs are 40 EUR BUT SELL one permition for price 24 EUR to. B A costs 40 -24 = 16 EUR total costs will be 16 ( instead of 20 for 1 ton decreasing) B will buy 1 permition from A for 24 EUR Costs without trade A costs 20 Total costs for society 50 Costs with trade A costs 16 B costs 24 Total costs for society B costs 30 40 total costs

Traing permition A costs = 20 EUR per 1 ton C 02 B costs Traing permition A costs = 20 EUR per 1 ton C 02 B costs =30 EUR per 1 ton C 02 A costs for elimination of C 02 is 20 EUR X price for 1 t. CO 2 is 24 EUR A decreases 2 tons - costs are 40 EUR X SELL one permition for price 24 EUR to A costs 40 -24 = 16 EUR B will buy 1 permition from A for 24 EUR Costs without trade A costs Total costs for society Costs with trade Total costs for society A saves 4 EUR 20 50 B costs 30 total costs A costs 16 B costs 24 40 total costs B saves 6 EUR

Perception of Global Warming International Comparative Study from CR, USA and New Zealand Perception of Global Warming International Comparative Study from CR, USA and New Zealand

Climate change – Global phenomenon Countries differ in the three main dimensions „CCR“ a) Climate change – Global phenomenon Countries differ in the three main dimensions „CCR“ a) Contribution of country to climate change ( Carbon footprint) b) Consequences of climate change for the country ( drinking water, see level etc. ) c) Responsibility o country-(How will the Kyoto Protocol coming into force affect by Country?

OUR QUESTION The important fact is “picture of perception” of global warming by society OUR QUESTION The important fact is “picture of perception” of global warming by society Hypothesis : Solution of the global problems like global warming require some elements of Global consciousness –Global knowledge Global consciousness is open thinking phenomenon relatively independent on geographic as well as social and political conditions. DOES IT EXIST IN OUR GLOBAL WORLD OR NOT ?

Case study : three groups of students from three countries - Czech Republic (CZ), Case study : three groups of students from three countries - Czech Republic (CZ), New Zealand (NZ) and the United State of America (USA). These countries could serve as representatives of three regions according IPCC (1997). Europe Asia America

Ad a) with all consideration to the simplification we used footprint indicator to compare Ad a) with all consideration to the simplification we used footprint indicator to compare our regions (see Table 1). Footprint Tab. 1: Footprints Portion of CO 2 in footprint CZ 4, 9 gha 2, 56 gha NZ 5, 9 gha 1, 6 gha USA 9, 8 gha 5, 68 gha Source: http: //www. carbonfootprint. com

Sociological sample The number of respondent was approximately 200 of students in each country. Sociological sample The number of respondent was approximately 200 of students in each country. The age of students was within the interval of twenty and thirty years. Age ratio of gender was balanced As same as the representation of subjects of study especially the rate between social and natural sciences.

Logical division of our questionnaire into three parts. Fear - Responsibility and Information. 1. Logical division of our questionnaire into three parts. Fear - Responsibility and Information. 1. Fear of population in terms of GW impact - Consequences

Order Czech Students Place Score Students NZ Changes Students USA Place Changes Score 1. Order Czech Students Place Score Students NZ Changes Students USA Place Changes Score 1. Decreasing drinking water resources (water) 4, 16 1. (water) 3, 95 1. (water) 3, 71 2. Increasing risk of sunbathing (sunbathing) 3, 79 2. Increased economic costs (costs) 3, 71 2. costs 3, 53 3. Changing of drought and flood season (flood) 3, 58 3. Appearance of new diseases (disease) 3, 16 3. (disease) 3, 51 4. Accelerated species extinction (extinction) 3, 39 4. (flood) 3, 13 4. (flood) 3, 23 5. Total change of scenery and landscape (landscape) 3, 36 5. (landscape) 3, 04 5. (season) 3, 05 6. Delay in changing of year’s seasons (season) 6. Regulated limits on business activities (limits) 3, 03 6. Total change of scenery and landscape (landscape) 2, 96 7. Appearance of new diseases (disease) 3, 28 7. Delay in changing of year’s seasons (seasons) 3, 03 7. (limits) 2, 95 8. Migration from endangered areas (migration) 2, 86 8. (extinction) 2, 91 8. (extinction) 2, 81 9. Increased economic costs (costs) 2, 76 9. (tax) 2, 90 9. (sunbathing) 2, 62 10. Implementing of a climate tax (tax) 2, 67 10. (sunbathing) 2, 86 10. (migration) 2, 59 11. Regulated limits on business activities (limits) 2, 52 11. (migration) 2, 74 11. (tax) 2, 56 3, 30 Consequences (Order of importance 05)

The Earth is round. Elvis is dead. Climate change is happening The Earth is round. Elvis is dead. Climate change is happening

The number of views and spectrum of dimensions connected with climate changes and their The number of views and spectrum of dimensions connected with climate changes and their consequences are apparent also among countries. a) How does the country contribute to climate change? b) How does climate change affect the country? c) How will the Kyoto Protocol coming into force affect by Country?

In our case study we choose three groups of students from three countries - In our case study we choose three groups of students from three countries - Czech Republic (CZ), New Zealand (NZ) and the United State of America (USA). These countries could serve as representatives of three representative regions according IPCC (1997). New Zealand (NZ) Czech Republic (CZ), United State of America

Ad a) with all consideration to the simplification we used footprint indicator to compare Ad a) with all consideration to the simplification we used footprint indicator to compare our regions (see Table 1). Tab. 1: Footprints Portion of CO 2 in footprint Footprint CZ NZ USA 4, 9 gha 5, 9 gha 9, 8 gha Source: http: //www. carbonfootprint. com 2, 56 gha 1, 6 gha 5, 68 gha

Design of our hypotheses The important fact is “picture of perception” of global changes Design of our hypotheses The important fact is “picture of perception” of global changes by society Hypothesis : the global problems like global warming requires some elements of global consciousness. Global consciousness is open thinking phenomenon relatively independent on geographic as well as social and political conditions.

Sociological sample The number of respondent was approximately 200 of students in each country. Sociological sample The number of respondent was approximately 200 of students in each country. The age of students was within the interval of twenty and thirty years. Age ratio of gender was balanced As same as the representation of subjects of study especially the rate between social and natural sciences.

Studenti ČR Soubory - charakteristika Studenti NZ Studenti USA Studenti ČR Soubory - charakteristika Studenti NZ Studenti USA

Studenti ČR Studenti NZ Studenti USA Studenti ČR Studenti NZ Studenti USA

Studenti ČR Studenti NZ Studenti USA Studenti ČR Studenti NZ Studenti USA

STUDENTI CZ Agroekologie Biologie Ekologie a ochrana prostředí Ekologie lesa Ekonomika a management Fyziologie STUDENTI CZ Agroekologie Biologie Ekologie a ochrana prostředí Ekologie lesa Ekonomika a management Fyziologie lesa Humanitní environmentalistika Krajinná a aplikovaná ekologie Krajinné inženýrství Kulturologie Lesnictví Management ochrany přírody Obchodní podnikání Péče o ŽP Půdní biologie Romistika Sociální a kulturní ekologie Strukturální politika EU Účetnictví a finanční řízení podniku Učitelství Zahradní a krajinná tvorba Zoologie-ekologie živočichů STUDENTI US Business, accounting, finance Education Engineering General liberal arts Humanities and Arts Law, journalism Medical professions Physical, biological an natural sciences Social Sciences STUDENTI NZ Accountancy Agribusiness Agricultural Science, Economics Animal Science Anthropology, Museum Studies/Art Applied Economy Applied Science Aviation Biochemistry&Genetics Biochemistry, Physiological & Molecular Plant Biology, Economics Biotechnology Business - Information Systems, Economics Business Studies Computer Science Decision Science Earth Science Economics English STUDENTI NZ Environmental Science, Financial Economics Food Technology Geography History Horticulture Chemistry Japanese Management Marketing Mathemathics Media Studies Natural Resource And Environmental Economics Natural Resource Management Nurse Photography Politics Property Valuation & Economics Psychology Resource And Environmental Planning Science Social Anthropology Sport And Exercise Science Vet Nursing Zoology

Logical division of our questionnaire into three parts. Fear Responsibility Information. 1. Fear of Logical division of our questionnaire into three parts. Fear Responsibility Information. 1. Fear of population in terms of CC impact

Tab. 2: Interest in GW How would you rate your level of interest in Tab. 2: Interest in GW How would you rate your level of interest in global climate change? Very moderately only a little undecided not interested CZ 6% 11% 2% NZ 71% 12% 11% 6% USA Tab. 3: Likely change of temperature within next 50 years 81% 61% 18% 15% 6% The likely increase or decease in overall global temperature over next 50 years CZ USA 0, 1 - 2°C 39% 21% 39% 2 - 4 °C 36% 23% 22% 4 - 6 °C 15% 23% 10% Don t know 4% 20% 22% Decrease 1% 3% 1% No change Tab. 4: Appearance of catastrophes as a result of climate change Increase NZ 1% 2% 3% When we will see catastrophes as a result of global climate changes Don t know have already appeared/within the next 5 yrs CZ 2% 51% NZ 19% 45% USA 21% 31% Source: Czech Carbo, 2006, n=571 Remark: selected data

Studenti NZ Studenti NZ

Studenti USA Studenti USA

Studenti ČR Studenti ČR

Tab. 5: . GW consequences (Order of importance 0 -5) Order Czech Students Order Tab. 5: . GW consequences (Order of importance 0 -5) Order Czech Students Order NZ Group 1 Place Score Changes Order USA Group 1 Place Changes Score 1. (water) 3, 95 1. (water) 3, 71 2. Increasing risk of sunbathing (sunbathing) 3, 79 2. (costs) 3, 71 2. costs 3, 53 3. Changing of drought and flood season (flood) 3, 58 3. (disease) 3, 16 3. (flood) 3, 23 4. Accelerated species extinction (extinction) 3, 39 4. (flood) 3, 13 4. (disease) 3, 51 1. Decreasing drinking water resources 4, 16 (water) Group 2 5. Total change of scenery and landscape (landscape) 3, 36 5. (landscape) 3, 04 5. (season) 3, 05 6. Delay in changing of year’s seasons (season) 6. (limits) 3, 03 6. (landscape) 2, 96 7. (seasons) 3, 03 7. (limits) 2, 95 3, 30 7. Appearance of new diseases (disease) 3, 28 Group 3 8. Migration from endangered areas (migration) 2, 86 8. (extinction) 2, 91 8. (extinction) 2, 81 9. Increased economic costs (costs) 2, 76 9. (tax) 2, 90 9. (sunbathing) 2, 62 10. Implementing of a climate tax (tax) 2, 67 10. (sunbathing) 2, 86 10. (migration) 2, 59 11. Regulated limits on business activities (limits) 2, 52 11. (migration) 2, 74 11. (tax) 2, 56 Legend: Black background/white letters: all are in accordance with placing importance of change in group and place Grey background/black letters: all are in accordance with placing importance of change in group not place Grey background/white letters: just two students groups are in accordance with location of change in a group Without color: there is no accordance with place or group among all these three groups of students

2. Responsibility The second part of our questionnaire labeled “responsibility” could be described in 2. Responsibility The second part of our questionnaire labeled “responsibility” could be described in frame of following questions:

Tab. 6: Influence of state on GW Do you agree that your country reduction Tab. 6: Influence of state on GW Do you agree that your country reduction of CO 2 has impact on global warming? yes do not agree do not know CR 27% 6% NZ 38% 41% 20% USA Tab. 7: Personal influence on 67% 75% 10% 14% Do you agree that you personally could influence global warming? global warming yes do not agree do not know CR 29% 15% NZ 52% 21% 26% USA Tab. 8: The proper societal group to be addressed in case of 56% 47% 25% Which societal group do you believe could do the most to reduce CO 2 emissions? decreasing global warming businessmen local authority citizens CZ 13% 27% NZ 59% 29% 8% USA Tab. 9: The best approach to decreasing CO 2 emissions 59% 57% 12% 20% What would be the best approach to decreasing CO 2 emissions? CZ law economics citizens personal duty CZ 38% 50% 1% 7% NZ 44% 39% 12% 0% USA 45% 34% 4% 16% Source: Czech Carbo, 2006, n=571 Remark: The rest of % to fit the total of 100% are missing answers

3. Information Q 11. Is the amount of public information on CO 2 emissions 3. Information Q 11. Is the amount of public information on CO 2 emissions and their impacts sufficient? Tab. 10: Public information Level of agreement (%) Strongly agree CZ NZ USA 3 3 6 17 13 13 8 20 26 Somewhat disagree 39 39 39 Strongly disagree 33 21 15 Somewhat agree Undecided

Results About half of our addressed respondents suppose that future increase of temperature within Results About half of our addressed respondents suppose that future increase of temperature within the period of 50 ty will be about 4 degree of Celsius Future anticipated changes are perceived mostly as negative (40% -60%), about 30% of our respondents could not make a decision. All respondents within our whole sample agree that businessmen are the most influenced social group as to the responsibility of GW. In spite of this fact there is a high ratio of personal responsibility our cases considered to have. Czech students evidently differs from NZ and US students. On the second place following threat of drinking water appears the threat of environmental disaster, afterwards personal fitness and at the last place are the economic disadvantages.

Conclusions Results show global consciousness like some waking-up phenomenon: 1 hungry for the new Conclusions Results show global consciousness like some waking-up phenomenon: 1 hungry for the new and relevant information concerns global climate changes 2. taking responsibility for the anthropogenic background of global climate changes 4. understanding of the ethical role of individual in this process of CC 5. witness of practical economic worries follows CC.

Thank you for your attention Thank you for your attention




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