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Introduction § Blueprint for a Secure Energy Future § § § § Reduces amount Introduction § Blueprint for a Secure Energy Future § § § § Reduces amount of imported oil Strengthens the nation’s reliance on alternative fuels Helps grow the economy with new clean energy jobs Works to make international bioenergy sustainable Can be used in most existing diesel vehicles Biodiesel = promising alternative fuel option Biodiesel use with existing infrastructure/equipment Biodiesel blends 2

Lesson 1: Introduction to Biodiesel 3 Lesson 1: Introduction to Biodiesel 3

Objectives § Describe what biodiesel is and how to identify it § Explain the Objectives § Describe what biodiesel is and how to identify it § Explain the basic history of biodiesel § Describe how biodiesel may help public health § Explain how biodiesel may help stimulate the economy § Describe what energy security is and how to use biodiesel to attain it 4

Definition of Biodiesel § Biodiesel is: § Domestically produced § Renewable fuel § Eligible Definition of Biodiesel § Biodiesel is: § Domestically produced § Renewable fuel § Eligible for certain state and federal tax credits § Carbon-neutral § Meets requirements of ASTM standard D 6751 Figure 1: Biodiesel. Source: NAFTC. 5

Biodiesel Feedstocks § Biodiesel is manufactured from materials such as: § Oils § Animal Biodiesel Feedstocks § Biodiesel is manufactured from materials such as: § Oils § Animal fat § Recycled organic waste Figure 2: U. S. biodiesel feedstock supply. Source: NREL. 6

Chemical Properties of Biodiesel § Pure biodiesel (B 100) has a slightly lower energy Chemical Properties of Biodiesel § Pure biodiesel (B 100) has a slightly lower energy content than conventional diesel (12. 5% less per pound, 8% less per gallon) § Biodiesel produces less carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), and other emissions when compared to conventional diesel 7

Special Note: It is important to know that biodiesel is NOT straight vegetable oil Special Note: It is important to know that biodiesel is NOT straight vegetable oil (SVO) or waste vegetable oil (WVO). 8

§ Biodiesel Color § Water white § Biodiesel Smell § Blends that are 5% § Biodiesel Color § Water white § Biodiesel Smell § Blends that are 5% conventional diesel or more begin to smell like conventional diesel § Biodiesel Identification § Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) § Color and viscosity 9

Biodiesel Blends § Pure biodiesel = B 100 § Most common blend = B Biodiesel Blends § Pure biodiesel = B 100 § Most common blend = B 20 (20% biodiesel) § B 5 (5% biodiesel, 95% diesel) § B 2 (2% biodiesel, 98% diesel) § Splash Blending – biodiesel and conventional diesel are loaded into vessel separately, mixed by agitation of transport § In-line Blending – biodiesel is added to a stream of conventional diesel as it travels through a pipe or hose 10

Cold Weather § May gel at low temperatures like conventional diesel § Varies depending Cold Weather § May gel at low temperatures like conventional diesel § Varies depending upon the blend § B 5 and conventional diesel perform similarly in cold weather situations § B 2 has the best cold weather characteristics Special Note: See www. biodiesel. org/using-biodiesel/handling-use/cold-weather-guide for a cold weather guide. 11

Basic History of Biodiesel § First diesel engines provided more power than gasoline engines Basic History of Biodiesel § First diesel engines provided more power than gasoline engines § Extremely large and heavy § Industrial and stationary applications § Rudolph Diesel § Compression-ignited fuel § First engine fueled by peanut oil Figure 3: Rudolph Diesel. Source: NAFTC. 12

Basic History of Biodiesel § Important moments and people in the history of biodiesel: Basic History of Biodiesel § Important moments and people in the history of biodiesel: § First diesel engine company in the U. S. – 1898 § Busch-Zulzer Brothers § Clessie Cummins § Prosper l’Orange § First production passenger vehicle powered by a diesel engine – 1936 Figure 4: Early diesel engine. Source: NAFTC. 13

Biodiesel Today § 75 years of diesel vehicles § B 5 and B 20 Biodiesel Today § 75 years of diesel vehicles § B 5 and B 20 engine approvals § Most biodiesel applications = heavy- and medium-duty vehicles § Biodiesel fueling of light-duty vehicles is less common Figure 5: Diesel vehicle. Source: NAFTC. 14

Figure 6: Biodiesel and diesel facts and figures. Source: NAFTC. 15 Figure 6: Biodiesel and diesel facts and figures. Source: NAFTC. 15

Differences Between Biodiesel, Diesel and Gasoline § § Diesel engines = compression-ignited (CI) Gasoline Differences Between Biodiesel, Diesel and Gasoline § § Diesel engines = compression-ignited (CI) Gasoline engines = spark-ignited (SI) More torque Most diesel engines can run on biodiesel blends of 5% to 20% with little or no modification 16

Figure 7: Overall compression ignition process. Source: NREL. 17 Figure 7: Overall compression ignition process. Source: NREL. 17

Biodiesel and Lubricity § Lubricity – the measure of the reduction in friction of Biodiesel and Lubricity § Lubricity – the measure of the reduction in friction of a lubricant § Diesel injection systems require lubrication for small, close moving parts § Sulfur as a lubricant in diesel § Esters in biodiesel are a natural lubricant 18

Biodiesel and Cetane § Cetane – the measure of a fuel’s ability to auto-ignite Biodiesel and Cetane § Cetane – the measure of a fuel’s ability to auto-ignite § Higher cetane number = shorter ignition delay, enhanced engine performance, fewer emissions § Cetane Numbers: § Most diesel: 40 § Pure biodiesel: 65 19

Technological Advances § Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles § Similar to gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles § Vehicle Technological Advances § Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles § Similar to gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles § Vehicle components: § Internal combustion engine (compression ignited) § Electric motor/generator (MG) § High-voltage battery pack § Transmission § Fuel storage system Figure 8: Diesel-electric hybrid school bus. Source: NAFTC. 20

Why Consider Biodiesel? § Cleaner-burning fuel § Domestically produced from renewable resources § Promotes Why Consider Biodiesel? § Cleaner-burning fuel § Domestically produced from renewable resources § Promotes energy self-sufficiency § Creation of jobs in agricultural sector § Almost any diesel vehicle can use biodiesel with little or no modification § Easiest fuel to implement due to existing infrastructure and blending 21

Biodiesel Compared to Diesel Figure 9: Biodiesel compared to diesel. Source: Fueleconomy. gov. 22 Biodiesel Compared to Diesel Figure 9: Biodiesel compared to diesel. Source: Fueleconomy. gov. 22

Biodiesel Benefits § There are many benefits of using biodiesel to fuel vehicles: § Biodiesel Benefits § There are many benefits of using biodiesel to fuel vehicles: § § Betterment of health and environment Benefits to the U. S. economy National energy security Reduce dependence on foreign oil 23

Health Benefits § Biodegradable and nontoxic § Exhaust not as strong smelling as conventional Health Benefits § Biodegradable and nontoxic § Exhaust not as strong smelling as conventional diesel § No threat to human health § Reduces emissions that cause respiratory illness § In 2000, biodiesel became only alternative fuel in U. S. to complete EPA health effects testing under the Clean Air Act 24

Environmental Benefits § Carbon-neutral § Plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere § Made Environmental Benefits § Carbon-neutral § Plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere § Made from plant material Figure 10: Clean air quality. Source: NAFTC. § GHG emissions are reduced because biodiesel releases carbon dioxide that crops originally removed § According to EPA, biodiesel can reduce GHG emissions § Can be used with SCR aftertreatment systems to reduce NOx, which leads to acid rain 25

Did You Know? Biodiesel is less toxic than table salt and biodegrades as fast Did You Know? Biodiesel is less toxic than table salt and biodegrades as fast as sugar. Source: National Biodiesel Board, 2011 26

Figure 11: Emission reductions achieved by the use of biodiesel blends. Source: NBB. 27 Figure 11: Emission reductions achieved by the use of biodiesel blends. Source: NBB. 27

Economic Benefits § Supports U. S. agriculture and rural communities § According to National Economic Benefits § Supports U. S. agriculture and rural communities § According to National Biodiesel Board, the biodiesel industry is expected to create an additional 74, 000 jobs by 2015 § Will increase household income by $4 billion § Will generate nearly $7. 3 billion in GDP 28

Energy Security Benefits § U. S. is one of the greatest agricultural product exporters Energy Security Benefits § U. S. is one of the greatest agricultural product exporters § Increased demand for transportation § Dependency on foreign oil to meet transportation demand § Use of existing agricultural production and infrastructure 29

Figure 12: U. S. gasoline prices versus crude oil prices. Source: EIA. 30 Figure 12: U. S. gasoline prices versus crude oil prices. Source: EIA. 30

Renewable Benefits § Renewable = can be produced and replenished § Energy balance = Renewable Benefits § Renewable = can be produced and replenished § Energy balance = ratio of energy required to produce/distribute fuel compared to the amount of energy released when used § Very high energy balance compared to other fuels § 3. 2 units of renewable energy § Compared to diesel = 0. 83 units 31

Upon completing this lesson, can you: § Describe what biodiesel is and how to Upon completing this lesson, can you: § Describe what biodiesel is and how to identify it? § Explain the basic history of biodiesel? § Describe how biodiesel may help public health? § Explain how biodiesel may help stimulate the economy? § Describe what energy security is and how to use biodiesel to attain it? 32

Test Your Knowledge 1. Who patented the diesel engine in 1892? 2. True or Test Your Knowledge 1. Who patented the diesel engine in 1892? 2. True or False: Biodiesel is derived from various feedstock sources including vegetable oil, soybean oil, and canola oil. 3. True or False: The most common blend of biodiesel is B 20 (20% biodiesel). 4. True or False: ALL types of vehicles and engines can use biodiesel without any modification. 33

Lesson 2: Biodiesel Manufacturing, Infrastructure, and Sustainability 34 Lesson 2: Biodiesel Manufacturing, Infrastructure, and Sustainability 34

Objectives § Describe what biodiesel is made from – biomass and feedstock § Explain Objectives § Describe what biodiesel is made from – biomass and feedstock § Explain how biodiesel is manufactured and produced § Describe how biodiesel is transported § Explain how biodiesel is distributed § Describe the sustainability of biodiesel – its future and cost efficiency 35

Renewable Fuel Sources § Renewable – describes a fuel that can be produced and Renewable Fuel Sources § Renewable – describes a fuel that can be produced and replenished by some action that might be taken § The U. S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy identifies the following as renewable fuels: § § § Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Solar Wind 36

Biomass § Biomass – biological or organic matter available on a renewable basis § Biomass § Biomass – biological or organic matter available on a renewable basis § Bioenergy Feedstock § Feedstock – preliminary product that can be made into a fuel (i. e. soybeans) Figure 13: Soybeans. Source: NAFTC. 37

Considerable modifications must be made to use these oils: § Straight vegetable oil (SVO) Considerable modifications must be made to use these oils: § Straight vegetable oil (SVO) § Waste vegetable oil (WVO) Neither Engine Manufacturer’s Association (EMA) nor National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recommend use 38

Did You Know? New research finds that summer kelp, rich with energy-dense carbohydrates and Did You Know? New research finds that summer kelp, rich with energy-dense carbohydrates and soluble sugars, may offer a new source of biofuel. Source: Society for Experimental Biology in Scotland, 2011 39

Manufacturing and Production § Transesterification = process to produce biodiesel from renewable oils § Manufacturing and Production § Transesterification = process to produce biodiesel from renewable oils § Catalyst and alcohol are added § Mixture produces biodiesel which is washed and dried for quality § By product of glycerol can be used by soap industry 40

Algae Biodiesel Production § Up to 300 times more oil per acre than conventional Algae Biodiesel Production § Up to 300 times more oil per acre than conventional crops § Harvest cycle: 1 to 10 days § Lands unsuitable for food crops Figure 14: Examining algae for oil content. Source: NREL. 41

Open Pond Method – water is circulated around a shallow trench to expose the Open Pond Method – water is circulated around a shallow trench to expose the algae to as much sunlight as possible Covered Pond Method – algae pond is enclosed; a greenhouse offers greater productivity and safety Figure 15: Open pond method. Source: NREL. 42

Vertical Enclosed Method – the algae is grown in a fully controlled, highly monitored Vertical Enclosed Method – the algae is grown in a fully controlled, highly monitored environment Figure 16: Inspecting samples in an algae library. Source: NREL. 43

Waste Vegetable Oil § Edible cooking oils – peanut, sunflower, olive § Curbside oil Waste Vegetable Oil § Edible cooking oils – peanut, sunflower, olive § Curbside oil recycling programs in some states, Georgia for example § Oil poured down drains Animal Fats § Most common types used: tallow, lard, grease § Additives 44

Did You Know? Restaurants and large hotels produce around 3 -5 billion gallons of Did You Know? Restaurants and large hotels produce around 3 -5 billion gallons of waste oil per year. That’s enough to fill tanker trucks that span from California to D. C. and back. Source: EPA. 45

Brown Grease § Brown Grease – grease that is collected from sewer systems that Brown Grease § Brown Grease – grease that is collected from sewer systems that is often contaminated with water, trash, wasted food, and unwanted materials § Is a viable low-cost option if feedstock prices continue to rise 46

Transport and Distribution § § Truck, train, and barge Biodiesel pipeline Pure form Pre-mixed Transport and Distribution § § Truck, train, and barge Biodiesel pipeline Pure form Pre-mixed blends Figure 17: Biodiesel distribution system. Source: NAFTC. 47

Transporters § Bulk shipments § Same handling procedures as conventional diesel Figure 18: Hazardous Transporters § Bulk shipments § Same handling procedures as conventional diesel Figure 18: Hazardous material description identification number UN 1993 placard. Source: USDOT, PHMSA. 48

Infrastructure § The use of biodiesel does not require significant changes to the existing Infrastructure § The use of biodiesel does not require significant changes to the existing conventional diesel infrastructure § Production facilities must be built Figure 19 (left): Biodiesel fueling pump. Figure 20 (right): Biodiesel fueling pump. Source: NAFTC. 49

Fueling Stations § Additional pumps § Specialized tanks Biodiesel Fueling Station Safety Systems Figure Fueling Stations § Additional pumps § Specialized tanks Biodiesel Fueling Station Safety Systems Figure 21: Biodiesel fueling station. Source: NREL. § Includes: remote emergency shutdown switch, internal valves in fuel supply tank, excess flow valves, breakaway coupling in fuel hose, manual shutoff valve, and excess-flow valve § Other features are available 50

Identifying Biodiesel Hazard Placards § Identify biodiesel at stationary facilities § Help emergency crews Identifying Biodiesel Hazard Placards § Identify biodiesel at stationary facilities § Help emergency crews Figure 22 (left): NFPA 704 hazard placard for B 100 biodiesel. Figure 23 (right): NFPA 704 hazard placard for conventional diesel. Source: NFPA. 51

Biodiesel Sustainability § Cost Efficiency § Relatively low switching costs § Vehicle modifications are Biodiesel Sustainability § Cost Efficiency § Relatively low switching costs § Vehicle modifications are minimal § Usually least costly strategy for alternative fuel implementation § Fleets, school districts § Compliance with state and federal regulations 52

The Future of Biodiesel § § § Technological advances Eventual use of higher blends The Future of Biodiesel § § § Technological advances Eventual use of higher blends Switch from B 2 to B 20 Manufacturer warranty standard changes 50 million gallon per year capacity 53

Upon completing this lesson, can you: § Describe what biodiesel is made from – Upon completing this lesson, can you: § Describe what biodiesel is made from – biomass and feedstock? § Explain how biodiesel is manufactured and produced? § Describe how biodiesel is transported? § Explain how biodiesel is distributed? § Describe the sustainability of biodiesel – its future and cost efficiency? 54

Test Your Knowledge 1. What state allows curb-side pick up for waste vegetable oil? Test Your Knowledge 1. What state allows curb-side pick up for waste vegetable oil? 2. True or False: Straight vegetable oil (SVO) is the best type of biodiesel to use in a vehicle. 3. True or False: Blends with higher concentrations of biodiesel can freeze in cold weather. 4. True or False: The existing distribution system for petroleum can be used to transport biodiesel. 55

Lesson 3: Biodiesel Vehicles 56 Lesson 3: Biodiesel Vehicles 56

Objectives § Explain the differences between biodiesel vehicles and conventional vehicles § Describe the Objectives § Explain the differences between biodiesel vehicles and conventional vehicles § Describe the components of biodiesel vehicles § Describe the performance of biodiesel vehicles § Explain how to maintain biodiesel vehicles § Describe the biodiesel vehicles used today 57

Differences Between Biodiesel and Conventional Vehicles § Compression-ignited (CI) vs. spark-ignited (SI) § Use Differences Between Biodiesel and Conventional Vehicles § Compression-ignited (CI) vs. spark-ignited (SI) § Use of heat for combustion § Diesel combusts immediately § Diesel engines do not mix air with fuel before combustion – only air is compressed § Use of 20% biodiesel (B 20) without modification 58

§ Thermal Efficiency – the ratio of useful work performed to the total energy § Thermal Efficiency – the ratio of useful work performed to the total energy content of the fuel consumed § Thermal Efficiency: § Conventional diesel engine: 40% § Gasoline engine: 25% § Advanced technologies Figure 24: Cummins diesel engine from a Dodge Ram. Source: NAFTC. 59

Biodiesel Vehicle Components § The main components of a biodiesel vehicle are: § Internal Biodiesel Vehicle Components § The main components of a biodiesel vehicle are: § Internal combustion engine (ICE) § Converts diesel, biodiesel, or a blend of both into mechanical energy; usually the same size as the ICE found in a conventional diesel vehicle § Transmission § Changes the gear ratio between the ICE and the drive wheels as the vehicle accelerates § Drivetrain § Includes the vehicle’s brakes and differentials 60

Did You Know? Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to have fully completed the Did You Know? Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to have fully completed the health effects testing requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Biodiesel that meets ASTM D 6751 and is legally registered with the EPA is a legal engine fuel for sale and distribution. Source: EPA. 61

What is a Biodiesel Vehicle? § Most vehicles that use conventional diesel can use What is a Biodiesel Vehicle? § Most vehicles that use conventional diesel can use biodiesel § Some modifications maybe required § Biodiesel can be used: § If the car was manufactured after 1994 and the car has a diesel engine Figure 25: Audi A 3 TDI (diesel vehicle). Source: NAFTC. 62

Did You Know? The use of conventional diesel leaves a deposit in the bottom Did You Know? The use of conventional diesel leaves a deposit in the bottom of fuel lines, tanks, and delivery systems over time. The use of biodiesel can dissolve this sediment and result in the need to change filters more frequently when first using biodiesel until the whole system has been cleaned of the deposits left by the conventional diesel. Source: National Biodiesel Board, 2011 63

Vehicle Modifications and Conversions § § Manufacturer approved biodiesel blends Cleaning nature of biodiesel Vehicle Modifications and Conversions § § Manufacturer approved biodiesel blends Cleaning nature of biodiesel Residue particles will quickly clog the fuel filter Certain seals and rings may need to be replaced Special Note: Since biodiesel is a good solvent, it can, if left on a painted surface long enough, dissolve certain types of paint. Therefore, it is recommended to wipe any biodiesel or biodiesel blend spills from painted surfaces immediately. 64

Biodiesel Vehicle Performance § Virtually the same as conventional vehicle performance § 8% less Biodiesel Vehicle Performance § Virtually the same as conventional vehicle performance § 8% less energy by volume § Cleaner burning § May solidify in cold environments, similar to conventional diesel § Fuel heater may be needed 65

Biodiesel Vehicle Safety § § Flash point = 266°F Less flammable than conventional diesel Biodiesel Vehicle Safety § § Flash point = 266°F Less flammable than conventional diesel Bright white flame Does not produce smoke Figure 26: Biodiesel flame. Source: NAFTC. 66

Did You Know? Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline engines. This means that Did You Know? Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline engines. This means that a diesel engine of the same displacement will have better fuel economy (or 30% less carbon dioxide emissions). Biodiesel can reduce emissions even more. Source: National Biodiesel Board, 2011. 67

Biodiesel Vehicle Maintenance § Biodiesel vehicle maintenance is nearly identical to conventional diesel vehicle Biodiesel Vehicle Maintenance § Biodiesel vehicle maintenance is nearly identical to conventional diesel vehicle maintenance § Fuel filters will need to be replaced after conversion 68

Biodiesel Vehicles in Use Today § Several different applications § Vehicle weight classes: § Biodiesel Vehicles in Use Today § Several different applications § Vehicle weight classes: § Heavy-duty § Medium-duty § Light-duty 69

Biodiesel Vehicles in Use Today Figure 27: Medium-duty diesel vehicle. Source: AFDC. Figure 28: Biodiesel Vehicles in Use Today Figure 27: Medium-duty diesel vehicle. Source: AFDC. Figure 28: Heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Source: AFDC. 70

Biodiesel Vehicles in Use Today § School bus conversions § Improved air quality § Biodiesel Vehicles in Use Today § School bus conversions § Improved air quality § Arizona, New York, Hawaii Figure 29: School bus that utilizes biodiesel. Figure 30: There are several biodiesel options for fleets; however, public transportation and, in this image, school buses are common and efficient. Source: NREL. 71

Upon completing this lesson, can you: § Explain the differences between biodiesel vehicles and Upon completing this lesson, can you: § Explain the differences between biodiesel vehicles and conventional vehicles? § Describe the components of biodiesel vehicles? § Describe the performance of biodiesel vehicles? § Explain how to maintain biodiesel vehicles? § Describe the biodiesel vehicles used today? 72

Test Your Knowledge 1. 2. 3. 4. When compared to conventional diesel, biodiesel has Test Your Knowledge 1. 2. 3. 4. When compared to conventional diesel, biodiesel has about ____% less energy by volume. True or False: Most diesel engines can run on biodiesel blends, up to 20% (B 20) without engine modification. True or False: Biodiesel burns with a bright purple flame and is visible in daylight. True or False: Biodiesel blends (a blend of diesel and biodiesel) are already being used in a number of heavyduty vehicles as well as in buses, military support vehicles, and farm equipment. 73