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International Pesticide Policy Development 国际农药政策发展 Prepared for the High-Level Forum on China Pesticide Development International Pesticide Policy Development 国际农药政策发展 Prepared for the High-Level Forum on China Pesticide Development and Application 中国农药发展与应用高层论坛 Shanghai, 13 -15 October 2008 上海, 2008年 10月13 -15日 Harry van der Wulp Senior Policy Officer Plant Production and Protection Division Food and Agriculture Organization 高级政策官员 粮农组织植物生产和保护部门 1

Outline of Presentation 报告摘要 1. Issues related to pesticides. 与农药有关的议题 2. Relevant International Policies Outline of Presentation 报告摘要 1. Issues related to pesticides. 与农药有关的议题 2. Relevant International Policies – overview 相关的国际政策- 概述 3. Special attention for the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides 对《国际农药供销与使用行为守则》 特别的关注 4. Policy developments in key markets 主要市场的政策发展 5. General trends 总体发展方向 2

Global Market for Pesticides 国际农药市场(2007年,百万美元) Herbicides(除草剂) Insecticides(杀虫剂) Fungicides(杀菌机) Other(其 他) Total(共 计) 16, 115 Global Market for Pesticides 国际农药市场(2007年,百万美元) Herbicides(除草剂) Insecticides(杀虫剂) Fungicides(杀菌机) Other(其 他) Total(共 计) 16, 115 8, 016 8, 105 1, 154 33, 390 NAFTA(北美自由贸易区) Latin America(拉丁美洲) Asia(亚洲) Europe(欧洲) Near East/Africa(非洲) 7, 507 6, 170 7, 815 10, 568 1, 330 2007 In $ Million Source: Crop. Life (Phillips Mc. Dougall) 3

Benefits and Costs 收益与付出 People buy pesticides because of their benefits: - crop protection Benefits and Costs 收益与付出 People buy pesticides because of their benefits: - crop protection - vector control Governments regulate pesticides because they are toxic and pose risks (and costs) to: - farmers, the public, the environment and trade. 人们购买农药因为他们可以从下面两个方面得益: -植物保护 -细菌控制 政府管理农药因为它们有毒,且能对农民、公众、环境和贸易 构成风险 4

Concerns about pesticide use 有关农药使用的问题 Agronomic risks related to inappropriate use (overuse, abuse, wrong Concerns about pesticide use 有关农药使用的问题 Agronomic risks related to inappropriate use (overuse, abuse, wrong use)和不正当使用有关的农业经济风险(过度使用、 滥用和错误使用) Food safety and other public health risks (pesticide exposure; pesticide residues)食品安全和其他公共健康风险 (农药接触、农药残留) Environmental risks (water contamination, biodiversity)环境风险(水污染,生物多样性) Market access - Pesticide residue requirements are increasingly important in trade (Legal requirements and private GAP standards)市场接触-在贸易中对农 药残留的要求越来越高(法律要求和GAP标准) Pesticide quality - Illegal trade in pesticides; (substandard, counterfeit and fake products)农药质量-农药的非法贸易(质量不合格和假冒伪劣产品) 5

Regulatory control 农药管理 Serves to protect: 用于保护 Agricultural production 农业生产 Farmers 农民 Consumers 消费者 Regulatory control 农药管理 Serves to protect: 用于保护 Agricultural production 农业生产 Farmers 农民 Consumers 消费者 Environment 环境 But also to protect: 同时也保护 Interests of pesticide companies (fair competition)农药公司的利益(公平竞争) Access to international markets 进入国际市场的机会 Image as exporting country (national interest)出口国家的形象 (国家利益) 6

International Policy on Pesticide Management 与农药管理有关的国际政策 International instruments 指导文件 International Code of Conduct on International Policy on Pesticide Management 与农药管理有关的国际政策 International instruments 指导文件 International Code of Conduct on Distribution and Use of Pesticides 《国 际农药供销与使用行为守则》 Rotterdam Convention (Prior Informed Consent) 《鹿特丹公约》(PIC公约) Stockholm Convention (Persistent Organic Pollutants) 《斯德哥尔摩公约 》 (持久有机污染物) CODEX Alimentarius (pesticide residues) CODEX食品法典(农药残留) International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) 《国际植保公约》 ILO (Safety in the use of chemicals at work) 国际劳 组织( 作中使用化 学品的安全性) Others: Montreal protocol, GHS, SAICM 其他:《蒙特利尔公约》, 全球协调 体系(GHS),SAICM Trade requirements for agricultural produce与农产品有关的贸易方面的要求 MRLs 最大残留限量 GAP (public and private)良好农业规范( 公众的或私人的) 7

International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides 《国际农药供销与使用行为守则》 Established in International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides 《国际农药供销与使用行为守则》 Established in 1985, amended in 1989 to include the PIC procedure, revised in 2002. 1985年出版,1989年修改,加入了事先 知情同意程序(PIC 程序), 2002年修订。 Serves as the globally accepted standard and reference point for pesticide management by all stakeholders (i. e. governments, pesticide industry, public interest groups, farmer organizations) 对于所有的利益攸关者来说,可以作为全球范围内可以接受的农药管 理方面的标准和参考文献。 (例如政府,农药行业,公众利益组织, 农民组织等) Is a comprehensive approach to pesticide management that covers pesticides throughout their life-cycle 覆盖农药全部生命周期的农药管理是一个复杂的过程。 Aims to reduce risk目的是为了降低风险。 8

International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides 《国际农药供销与使用行为守则》 Although it International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides 《国际农药供销与使用行为守则》 Although it is a voluntary Code, it is based on broad, solid and long-term consensus among all stakeholders尽管它是一个自愿的 守则,也是在所有的利益攸关者之间,在广泛、深入、长期的协调 的基础上建立。 Important segments of the pesticide industry have pledged to abide by the Code. E. g. : Crop. Life explicitly made adherence to the Code a condition for membership. 农药行业中重要的部分已经保证要遵守准则。 例如:作物生命(croplife)明确要求将遵守准则作为成为其会员的 一个要求。 9

International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides 《国际农药供销与使用行为守则》 12 Articles International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides 《国际农药供销与使用行为守则》 12 Articles 12条 particularly address governments and the pesticide industry特别给政府和农药 行业提出建议 each article has a number of provisions that address the pesticide industry 每一条包含许多款为农药行业提出建议 the next slides provide a selection 下面的幻灯片将为大家选择性的介绍 Download from: http: //www. fao. org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/AGRICULT/AGPP/Pesticid/Default. HTM 10

Code of Conduct What is expected of the pesticide industry 行为守则 农药行业应该做些什么? Article 3 Code of Conduct What is expected of the pesticide industry 行为守则 农药行业应该做些什么? Article 3 – Pesticide Management 第 3条:农药管理 Pesticides whose handling and application require the use of personal protective equipment that is uncomfortable, expensive or not readily available should be avoided, especially in the case of small-scale users in tropical climates. 3. 5 应避免处置和施用需要使用不舒适、昂贵或不易 买到的人员保护衣具及设备的农药,对热带气候条 件下的小规模用户尤应如此。 11

Code of Conduct What is expected of the pesticide industry 行为守则 农药行业应该做些什么? Article 5: Code of Conduct What is expected of the pesticide industry 行为守则 农药行业应该做些什么? Article 5: Reducing health and environmental risks 第 5条:降低健康和环境风险 5. 2. 3 make every reasonable effort to reduce risks - Make less toxic formulations available - Introduce products in ready-to-use-packages - Use clear labelling in the proper language 为降低风险作出一切合理的努力: n 提供毒性较小的剂型; n 采用可现成使用的包装产品; n 使用语言正确的清晰的标签 - 5. 3. 1. together with government, promote the use of proper and affordable personal protective equipment. 和政府一起,促进采用适当的、可承受的人员保护设备 12

Code of Conduct What is expected of the pesticide industry 行为守则 农药行业应该做些什么? Article 6: Code of Conduct What is expected of the pesticide industry 行为守则 农药行业应该做些什么? Article 6: Regulatory and technical requirements 第 6条: 管理和技术要求 Provide national regulatory authorities with any new information that could change the regulatory status of the pesticide, as soon as it becomes available. 在条件 具备的情况下,向国家管理部门提供任何有可能改变农 药管理状态的信息。 verify the quality and purity of pesticides offered on sale. 确认供销售的农药的产品质量和纯度。 when problems occur, voluntarily take corrective action. 当问题发生的时候,自愿采取正确的行动。 13

Code of Conduct Prohibition of highly hazardous products 行为守则 禁止高危害产品 Article 7: Availability and Code of Conduct Prohibition of highly hazardous products 行为守则 禁止高危害产品 Article 7: Availability and use 第 7条:供应与使用 7. 5 Prohibition of the importation, sale and purchase of highly toxic and hazardous products, such as those included in WHO classes Ia and Ib, may be desirable if other control measures or good marketing practices are insufficient to ensure that the product can be handled with acceptable risk to the user. 如果其它控制措施或良好销售惯例不足以确保处置产 品对用户的风险可以接受,则最好禁止进口、出售和购 买剧毒和十分危险的产品,如世界卫生组织Ia和Ib类 (34)中所列的产品。 14

Code of Conduct What is expected of the pesticide industry 行为守则 农药行业应该做些什么? Article 8: Code of Conduct What is expected of the pesticide industry 行为守则 农药行业应该做些什么? Article 8: Distribution and trade 第 8条:供销与贸易 ensure that persons involved in the sale of pesticides are trained adequately and hold the necessary licenses. 确保农药销售人员受到足 够的培训,并拥有必要的许可证件。 ensure that pesticides entering international trade conform to relevant FAO and WHO specifications. 确保进入国际贸易的农药符合相关的 FAO和WHO的标准 recognise that a pesticide may need to be recalled by a manufacturer and distributor when its use, as recommended, represents an unacceptable risk to human and animal health or the environment, and act accordingly. 认识到当按照推荐的使用方法,农药的使用仍然对人类 和动物健康以及环境构成不可接受的风险时,需要由生产商和销售商回 收,或视情况采取其他相关行动。 15

Code of Conduct What is expected of the pesticide industry 行为守则 农药行业应该做些什么? Article 11: Code of Conduct What is expected of the pesticide industry 行为守则 农药行业应该做些什么? Article 11: Advertising 第 11条:广告 Advertisements do not contain any statement or visual presentation, which is likely to mislead the buyer, in particular with regard to the “safety” of the product. 广告中不含任何使买方误解的语句和 图象,特别是有关产品安全性方面的。 Advertisements and promotional activities should not include inappropriate incentives or gifts to encourage the purchase of pesticides. 广告和推 销材料不应包括鼓励购买农药的不适当奖励和礼物 16

Code of Conduct Monitoring and observance 行为守则 监督和遵守 Article 12: Monitoring 第 12条:监督 Interested Code of Conduct Monitoring and observance 行为守则 监督和遵守 Article 12: Monitoring 第 12条:监督 Interested parties are invited to monitor observance of the Code and report to FAO. 邀请有兴趣的团体监督准则的执行并向FAO报告 FAO then officially informs the government of the country concerned and the head office of the company. 然后FAO通过官方的渠道通知相关国家的政府和公 司负责人 Although the Code is a voluntary instrument, governments and pesticide industry generally expect that individual companies adhere to the standards set forth by the Code. 尽管准则是自愿的指导行为,政府和农药行业总体上希 望每个公司遵守准则制定的标准。 For further information: Guidelines on Monitoring and Observance of the Code http: //www. fao. org/ag/AGPP/Pesticid/Default. htm 17

The Code of Conduct is supported by a number of Technical Guidelines 行为守则得到大量技术标准的支持 Ø The Code of Conduct is supported by a number of Technical Guidelines 行为守则得到大量技术标准的支持 Ø Provide further guidance on specific subjects, such as Legislation; Registration; Labelling; Use; Monitoring; etc. 对特定的主题提供进一步的指导,例如立法、登记、 标签、使用、监督等。 Ø Drawn up with involvement of an Expert Panel 成立专 家小组起草相关标准。 Ø Play an important role in shaping national regulatory frameworks for the control of pesticides 在形成国家农 药管理框架方面发挥重要作用。 18

http: //www. fao. org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/AGRICULT/AGPP/Pesticid/Default. HTM 19 http: //www. fao. org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/AGRICULT/AGPP/Pesticid/Default. HTM 19

Rotterdam Convention 《鹿特丹公约》 Objective: To promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts among Parties in Rotterdam Convention 《鹿特丹公约》 Objective: To promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts among Parties in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals in order to protect human health and the environment from potential harm and to contribute to their environmentally sound use 目的:促进缔约方在某些危险化学品的国际贸易中分担责 任和开展合作,保护人类健康和环境免受此类化学品可 能造成的危害,并推动以环境友好的方式加以使用。 China ratified 22 March 2005 As of 24 September 2008 there are 124 parties 中国 2005年 3月22日批准实施,截至到 2008年 9月24日, 共有124个成员国。 20

Rotterdam Convention Prevents unwanted trade 《鹿特丹公约》阻止不需要的贸易 Importing Parties have a responsibility to make informed Rotterdam Convention Prevents unwanted trade 《鹿特丹公约》阻止不需要的贸易 Importing Parties have a responsibility to make informed decisions regarding future import of chemicals listed in Annex III 进口成员国有责任就列在附录 3的化学品未来的进口作出进口决定 Exporting Parties have a responsibility to ensure that exports do not occur contrary to the import decisions of importing Parties 出口成员国有责任确保出口不违反进口成员国的进口决定。 Exporters need to comply with the decisions 出口商需要遵守这些决定。 In addition: Notification prior to export of banned or severely restricted products not listed in Annex III 另外:对于没有列入附录 3的,禁止或严格限用的化学品的出口要在 出口前发出出口通知。 21

Policy development in key markets European Union 1 欧盟主要市场的政策走向 1 New rules on pesticide Policy development in key markets European Union 1 欧盟主要市场的政策走向 1 New rules on pesticide residues in food Regulation (EC) 396/2005 came into force on 1 sep 2008 欧盟新的食品农药残留管理规定((EC)396/2005)从2008年 9月1日开始实施。 - consolidates set of earlier Directives 结合了以前的法令 - harmonization of MRLs 欧盟范围内 MRL值的协调 - Level Of Detection, if no MRL has been set 如果没有设立MRL值,其最高残留限量即为检测极限 http: //ec. europa. eu/food/plant/protection/pesticides/index_en. htm Review of registered pesticides under Directive 91/414 根据 91/414法令对已登记的农药进行重新评估 http: //ec. europa. eu/food/plant/protection/evaluation/index_en. htm 22

Policy development in key markets European Union 2 欧盟主要市场的政策走向 2 Proposal for a new Policy development in key markets European Union 2 欧盟主要市场的政策走向 2 Proposal for a new Regulation on placing on the market of plant protection products 就植物保护产 品的市场化提出新的管理规定 - To replace Directive 91/414/EC 取代 91/414/EC法令 - Streamline registration process 理顺登记程序 - Hazard cut-off criteria 风险中断制度 Is still under review 提议仍然在评估当中。 http: //ec. europa. eu/food/plant/protection/evaluation/index_en. htm 23

Policy development in key markets European Union 3 欧盟主要市场的政策走向 3 Proposal for a Directive Policy development in key markets European Union 3 欧盟主要市场的政策走向 3 Proposal for a Directive on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides 就农药的可持续使用建立法规 - Action Plans for risk reduction, including 风险降 低的执行计划,包括: - Promotion of IPM 促进有害生物综合治理 - Training 培训 - Use in sensitive areas 在敏感区域的使用 - Protecting the aquatic environment 保护水环境 - Aerial application 航空施药 http: //ec. europa. eu/environment/ppps/home. htm 24

Policy development in key markets United States 美国市场的政策走向 Review of MRLs: Assessing cumulative risk Policy development in key markets United States 美国市场的政策走向 Review of MRLs: Assessing cumulative risk with special consideration for vulnerable groups MRLs 值的重新评估:通过对敏感人群的特殊关注,评估累 积风险 http: //www. epa. gov/pesticides/regulating/tolerances. htm Review of registered pesticides (re-registration) 已经登记的农药进行重新评价(再登记) 对 http: //www. epa. gov/oppsrrd 1/reevaluation/ Endocrine disruptor screening program 内分泌紊乱筛选项目 http: //www. epa. gov/endo/pubs/regaspects/index. htm 25

OECD Some of the current developments OECD正在建设的项目 Pesticides Programme 农药项目 Towards harmonizationcollaboration in areas OECD Some of the current developments OECD正在建设的项目 Pesticides Programme 农药项目 Towards harmonizationcollaboration in areas of: 协调/合作的领域 - Pesticide registration, 农药登记 - Bio. Pesticide registration 生物农药登记 - Testing and assessment (hazard/risk), 检测和评估( 危害/风险) - Risk reduction, 风险降低 - Minor uses 小作物使用 http: //www. oecd. org/topic/0, 3373, en_2649_34383_1_1_37401, 00. html 26

Key element of risk reduction: Reduce reliance on pesticide 风险降低的重要内容:降低对农药的依赖 Pesticides are just one Key element of risk reduction: Reduce reliance on pesticide 风险降低的重要内容:降低对农药的依赖 Pesticides are just one tool in crop protection. 农药只是植物保护 的一种 具 In many countries, strong reliance on pesticides led to: 在许多国家, 对农药较强的依赖导致了: - unnecessary high levels of pesticide use, 不必要的高剂量的 农药使用 - associated adverse effects on health and the environment, 对健康和环境的负面影响 - farmers wasting their money. 浪费农民的钱 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) helps prevent the development of pests and diseases and reduces the need for pesticides. 有害生物综合治理可以帮助阻止有害生物和病害的发展, 降低对农药的需求。 27

Growing attention for IPM 对IPM越来越多的关注 Concerns about adverse effects of pesticides, notably on food Growing attention for IPM 对IPM越来越多的关注 Concerns about adverse effects of pesticides, notably on food safety, and growing recognition that agricultural intensification needs to be sustainable 因为对农药负面影响的担心,特别是在食品安全方面,以及逐渐认识到加强 农业是一个需要持续发展的过程,导致了: Increased attention to IPM 对IPM越来越多的关注 As reflected in: 反映在 International policies (FAO, World Bank, IFCS) 国际政策(FAO,世界 银行,IFCS) National policies (EU and many individual countries) 国家政策(欧盟和 许多其他国家) Commercial operations – private sector (food industry and crop protection industry). 商业运作-私人部门 (食 品行业和植保行业) 28

The role of IPM in FAO Policy IPM在FAO政策中的作用 Implementation of the Code of Conduct The role of IPM in FAO Policy IPM在FAO政策中的作用 Implementation of the Code of Conduct 行为守则的执行 Revision of 2002 puts more emphasis on IPM 在 2002年 的修订版中给与了IPM重点关注 Mainstreaming principles of IPM in all work on plant production and protection. 在植物生产和保护方面要 将IPM作为主要的准则 IPM is now considered an integral part of pesticide risk reduction. IPM现在被认为是降低农药风险不可或 缺的一部分 29

General trends 总体方向 Concerns about food safety (pesticide residues): 有关食品安全方面的问题(农药残留) Review/tightening of MRLs (评价/加强MRLs) General trends 总体方向 Concerns about food safety (pesticide residues): 有关食品安全方面的问题(农药残留) Review/tightening of MRLs (评价/加强MRLs) Strict enforcement of MRLs (严格执行MRLs) GAP (良好农业规范) Other health concerns: 其他健康问题 Phasing out of highly toxic products 消减高毒产品 Cut off points for chronic health hazards 消除慢性健康风险 Implications for pesticide use in countries exporting agricultural produce在农产品出口国家使用农药蕴含的问 题 30

General trends 总体方向 Characteristics of tomorrows products 将来产品的 特性 selective, pest-specific (limited damage to General trends 总体方向 Characteristics of tomorrows products 将来产品的 特性 selective, pest-specific (limited damage to beneficials) 有选择性的,防治特定目标的 (限制对有益生物的危害) low acute human toxicity 对人类的急性毒性低 no long term health effects 没有长期的健康影响 degrade into innocuous components 降解成无毒 的成分 31

Tomorrow’s products. . Are these more expensive? 未来的产品会更贵吗? Relative costs 相关的费用 Old products 老产品 Tomorrow’s products. . Are these more expensive? 未来的产品会更贵吗? Relative costs 相关的费用 Old products 老产品 New products新产品 Direct 直接的 Low低 High高 Indirect 间接的 High低 Low高 Indirect costs include: 间接的费用包括 cost for PPE:个人防护装备的费用 health costs 健康费用 costs associated with water contamination 和水污 染有关的费用 32

Tomorrow’s products. . Are these more expensive? 未来的产品会更贵吗? So, newer, less hazardous products - Tomorrow’s products. . Are these more expensive? 未来的产品会更贵吗? So, newer, less hazardous products - Tend to be more expensive for the user - Tend to involve less costs for the public Regulation serves to minimize public cost 于是,新的、毒性更低的产品 ---趋向于对使用者来说更贵 --- 而对公众来说,涉及的费用会更低 管理的目的就是降低公众的费用 33

Thank You 谢谢 34 Thank You 谢谢 34