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International, Part IV • The Culturally Customized Web Site, Part III MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, International, Part IV • The Culturally Customized Web Site, Part III MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Chapter 4—Cultural Customization: Individualism. Collectivism • The extent to which goals of the individual, Chapter 4—Cultural Customization: Individualism. Collectivism • The extent to which goals of the individual, as opposed to the group, are valued • Extent to which individual differences in behavior are accepted and/or encouraged MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Country Examples • High – – – • Low U. S. Australia U. K. Country Examples • High – – – • Low U. S. Australia U. K. Netherlands Canada New Zealand • Middle – – India Japan Argentina “Arab World” MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV – – – – – Guatemala Ecuador Panama Venezuela Columbia Indonesia China Pakistan Indonesia Taiwan Lars Perner, Instructor

Authors’ Caveats • Numbers represent averages • Web sites which happen to portray individualist Authors’ Caveats • Numbers represent averages • Web sites which happen to portray individualist and/or collectivist values may do so without actually having sought to customize for the particular culture • Other variables are important MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Suggestions for Sites for Collectivist Societies • Clubs • Links to local web sites Suggestions for Sites for Collectivist Societies • Clubs • Links to local web sites – May be “offline”—sense of belonging – Chat rooms • Emphasis on community relations • Family (“we”) theme – Demonstration of connection to local community • Symbols/pictures of national identity – Family bonds • Loyalty programs – To company or brand – Japanese: amae—loyalty to the group MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV – – Flags Architecture Important buildings Local role models Lars Perner, Instructor

Suggestions for Sites for Individualist Societies • Independence theme – “I-consciousness” – Individual determinism Suggestions for Sites for Individualist Societies • Independence theme – “I-consciousness” – Individual determinism – “Invest on your terms” – Personal product recommendations • Strong privacy statement • Personalization and product uniqueness – Unique content (e. g. , selfselected news, features, adjustment of view) – Personalized products, if applicable MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Chapter 5—Uncertainty Avoidance • Relative importance of predictable environment, defined structure, order vs. acceptance Chapter 5—Uncertainty Avoidance • Relative importance of predictable environment, defined structure, order vs. acceptance of risk taking, reduced structure, and acceptance of ambiguity • Extent of acceptance of new ways of doing things if not known • Valuing conservatism and “traditional” beliefs • Example: Mexican beverage company explicitly lists behaviors expected from employees MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Countries • High – – – – • Low Greece Portugal Guatemala Uruguay El Countries • High – – – – • Low Greece Portugal Guatemala Uruguay El Salvador Belgium Japan – – – – Singapore Jamaica Denmark Hong Kong Sweden Ireland U. S. • Medium – – Germany Thailand Iran Finland MKTG 476 Note that no clear geographic patterns are evident. INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Suggestions for Sites for High Uncertainty Avoidance Societies • Customer service – Personnel positioned Suggestions for Sites for High Uncertainty Avoidance Societies • Customer service – Personnel positioned as experts – Easily accessible on the site • Guided navigation • Traditional theme • Connection to local stores • Free – Trials – Downloads • Transaction security • Testimonials – Depictions – Ability to return merchandise • Local terminology MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Suggestions for Sites for High Uncertainty Avoidance Societies • None listed. Ideas? MKTG 476 Suggestions for Sites for High Uncertainty Avoidance Societies • None listed. Ideas? MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Chapter 6—Cultural Customization: Power Distance • Extent to which hierarchy and status are emphasized Chapter 6—Cultural Customization: Power Distance • Extent to which hierarchy and status are emphasized as opposed to a preference for more “distributed” power and decision making • High sensitivity to those older, with seniority, and in authority • Tendency to obey “suggestions” from authority figures MKTG 476 • Preference for face-to-face contact for display of respect • Emphasis on hierarchical structures • Emphasis on organization charts INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Countries • High – – – • Low Malaysia Panama Guatemala Philippines Mexico “Arab Countries • High – – – • Low Malaysia Panama Guatemala Philippines Mexico “Arab World” – – – Austria Israel Denmark New Zealand Ireland Norway • Middle – – Taiwan Iran Spain Poland MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Suggestions for High Power Distance Societies • • Hierarchy information Picture of CEO and Suggestions for High Power Distance Societies • • Hierarchy information Picture of CEO and other “important” people Use of proper titles Quality assurance – “Superior quality” • Awards • Vision statement by CEO MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Suggestions for Low Power Distance Societies • None specifically listed. Ideas? MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, Suggestions for Low Power Distance Societies • None specifically listed. Ideas? MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Chapter 7—Cultural Customization: Masculinity. Femininity • Value of achievement, assertiveness, ambition vs. nurturance, care Chapter 7—Cultural Customization: Masculinity. Femininity • Value of achievement, assertiveness, ambition vs. nurturance, care for others • Masculine societies • Feminine societies – Tendency toward clear gender roles – “Success orientation” – Decisiveness – Directness (depending on levels of collectivism, power distance) MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV – – “Oneness with nature” Service orientation Harmony Modesty Lars Perner, Instructor

Countries • High masculinity – – – • High Femininity Japan Hungary Austria Venezuela Countries • High masculinity – – – • High Femininity Japan Hungary Austria Venezuela Switzerland Mexico – – – Sweden Norway Netherlands Denmark Costa Rica Finland • Middle: – – – Malaysia Brazil Singapore Israel West Africa MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Recommendations for Masculine Societies • Indication of product effectiveness • Quizzes, games (competitive element) Recommendations for Masculine Societies • Indication of product effectiveness • Quizzes, games (competitive element) • “Realism” theme – Decisiveness vs. fantasy, imagery – “Rational”/performance appeals • Clear depiction of gender roles and segregation – E. g. , female section of Japanese search engine MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Recommendations for Masculine Societies • • Similar considerations to “high context” societies Harmony Aesthetics Recommendations for Masculine Societies • • Similar considerations to “high context” societies Harmony Aesthetics Soft sell MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV Lars Perner, Instructor

Chapter 8—Cultural Customization: High-Low Context • Importance of “context” in communication style— important information Chapter 8—Cultural Customization: High-Low Context • Importance of “context” in communication style— important information may be “embedded” in society as opposed to being more detailed and explicit with unambiguous explanation. • High context societies • Low context societies – Politeness/indirectness are emphasized – Soft sell approach – Aesthetics MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV – Hard sell – Superlative word usage – Emphasis on rank and prestige of company – Explicit terms and conditions – Emphasis on logical, “linear” thinking – Action orientation – Emphasis on rationality Lars Perner, Instructor

Countries • High Context – – – • Low context Asia (generally) Africa South Countries • High Context – – – • Low context Asia (generally) Africa South America Parts of Middle East Japan China Spain Thailand Turkey Taiwan Philippines MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV – – – Most of Northern Europe North America New Zealand Australia U. K. Lars Perner, Instructor

Recommendations • For High Context Societies – – • For Low Context Societies Aesthetics Recommendations • For High Context Societies – – • For Low Context Societies Aesthetics Politeness Indirectness “Soft-sell” approach MKTG 476 INTERNATIONAL, PART IV – – – Harder sell Terms and conditions Rank Prestige Superlatives Lars Perner, Instructor