International Operations MDWSC Georgia Nov Dec 2011 Colonel Andrew

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International Operations MDWSC Georgia Nov/Dec 2011 Colonel Andrew Cliffe International Section | Leadership & International Operations MDWSC Georgia Nov/Dec 2011 Colonel Andrew Cliffe International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Technology

Contents • • International Operations. Peace Support Operations. Stabilisation Operations. Expeditionary Operations. College of Contents • • International Operations. Peace Support Operations. Stabilisation Operations. Expeditionary Operations. College of Management and Technology

International Operations International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and International Operations International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Technology

Types of war • ‘The first, the supreme, the most far-reaching act of judgement Types of war • ‘The first, the supreme, the most far-reaching act of judgement that the statesman & commander have to make is to establish by that test the kind of war on which they are embarking; neither mistaking it for, nor trying to turn it into, something that is alien to its nature. This is the first of all strategic questions and the most comprehensive’. Carl von Clausewitz, On War College of Management and Technology

Operational Theme Fusion of concurrent activity Major Combat Operations Counter Irregular Activity Peace Support Operational Theme Fusion of concurrent activity Major Combat Operations Counter Irregular Activity Peace Support Operations Limited Intervention Peacetime Military Engagement Increasing violence College of Management and Technology

Decision to intervene • Impact on strategic interests: – – Impacts on national security Decision to intervene • Impact on strategic interests: – – Impacts on national security objectives. Has significant economic implications. Humanitarian crisis requiring intervention. Forces already deployed to theatre. • Ability to mitigate that impact by intervention: – – Likelihood/ability of the international community to act. Understanding of the conflict & likelihood of successful outcome. Ability to provide sufficient resources for the required duration. The impact of intervention on other crises & interests. College of Management and Technology

Military Responses • Armed Forces provide capabilities that support stability, tackle threats at source Military Responses • Armed Forces provide capabilities that support stability, tackle threats at source & respond to crises overseas before they impact upon national security. Prevent Restore Advisors Training Teams Individual Military Capabilities Regional Military Presence & Advice College of Management and Technology Joint Force Deployment

UK International Commitments College of Management and Technology UK International Commitments College of Management and Technology

Peace Support Operations International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management Peace Support Operations International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Technology

Peace Support Operations (PSO) • An operation that impartially makes use of diplomatic, civil Peace Support Operations (PSO) • An operation that impartially makes use of diplomatic, civil and military means, normally in pursuit of UN Charter purposes & principles, to restore or maintain peace. • May include conflict prevention, peacemaking, peace enforcement, peacekeeping, peace-building &/or humanitarian operations. College of Management and Technology

PSO Evolution • Post World War 2 (e. g. UNTSO). • The Cold War: PSO Evolution • Post World War 2 (e. g. UNTSO). • The Cold War: – Traditional or Nordic peace-keeping operations (e. g. UNFICYP). • Post Cold War: – Peace Enforcement (e. g. UNPROFOR). – Comprehensive Approach. • New Paradigm (e. g. Afghanistan/Iraq). College of Management and Technology

UN Truce Supervision Organisation (UNTSO) College of Management and Technology UN Truce Supervision Organisation (UNTSO) College of Management and Technology

UN Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) College of Management and Technology UN Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) College of Management and Technology

UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR) College of Management and Technology UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR) College of Management and Technology

New Paradigm • Removed previous assumptions about consent & impartiality. • Neither guidelines for New Paradigm • Removed previous assumptions about consent & impartiality. • Neither guidelines for classic COIN nor PSO are adequate for tackling contemporary challenges: – – – State fragility. Complex web of intervening actors. Smaller forces. Global networks. Complexity of hostile groups. Lethality of adversaries. College of Management and Technology

Stabilisation Operations International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Stabilisation Operations International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Technology

Stabilisation • The process that supports states which are entering, enduring or emerging from Stabilisation • The process that supports states which are entering, enduring or emerging from conflict, in order to: – prevent or reduce violence; – protect the population & key infrastructure; – promote political processes & governance structures, • . . . leads to a political settlement that Establishes non-violent contests for power; & prepares for sustainable social & economic development. College of Management and Technology

Elements of a Stable State Security Political Settlement Economic & Infrastructure Development Governance & Elements of a Stable State Security Political Settlement Economic & Infrastructure Development Governance & Rule of Law Societal Relationships College of Management and Technology

Fragile and Failed States • Countries that have significant presence of irregular activity sit Fragile and Failed States • Countries that have significant presence of irregular activity sit within the spectrum: – Fragile State: viable host nation government, but reduced capability to secure, protect & govern the population. – Failed State: remnants of a host nation government may exist. However it does not have monopoly on use of force, cannot provide security or simple basic services, & is not sufficiently legitimate or effective to protect borders, citizens, or even itself. College of Management and Technology

Stabilisation • Security is the foundation on which stabilisation is built. • Some security Stabilisation • Security is the foundation on which stabilisation is built. • Some security challenges may be quickly contained; but in most demanding form may become a bloody insurgency. • The insurgent must have the initiative taken from him. • However, defeating an insurgency is merely treating the symptoms of the problem. • For long-term success, the campaign must address the root causes of the instability, & that requires an approach combining economic, governance & security measures; a comprehensive approach. College of Management and Technology

Influence College of Management and Technology Influence College of Management and Technology

Operational Guidance • Over long term cannot kill or capture way to victory. – Operational Guidance • Over long term cannot kill or capture way to victory. – Kinetic operations should be subordinate to measures to promote better government, economic programs & address grievances. • Patient accumulation of quiet successes over time to discredit & defeat extremist movements & their ideology. College of Management and Technology

9 Security Principles of Stabilisation • • • Primacy of Political Purpose. Understand the 9 Security Principles of Stabilisation • • • Primacy of Political Purpose. Understand the Context. Focus on the Population. Foster Host Nation Governance, Authority & Indigenous Capacity. Unity of Effort. Isolate & Neutralise Irregular Actors. Exploit Credibility to Gain Support. Prepare for the Long Term (Perseverance & Sustainability). Anticipate, Learn & Adapt. College of Management and Technology

Operational framework Emphasis of Activity Shape Secure Hold Develop Security College of Management and Operational framework Emphasis of Activity Shape Secure Hold Develop Security College of Management and Technology

Guide to Commanders • Accept ambiguity and embrace uncertainty by building a learning organisation. Guide to Commanders • Accept ambiguity and embrace uncertainty by building a learning organisation. • Tap into expertise. • Be robust but accountable. • Stay longer…& return. College of Management and Technology

J 2 - Intelligence • Stabilisation demands a far wider span of expertise than J 2 - Intelligence • Stabilisation demands a far wider span of expertise than conventional operations. – requires an understanding of the human dimension. College of Management and Technology

Expeditionary Operations International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Expeditionary Operations International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Technology

Relationships between levels of warfare College of Management and Technology Relationships between levels of warfare College of Management and Technology

Employ military capability Prime-minister & Cabinet Defence Crisis Management Organisation Chiefs of Staff Cttee Employ military capability Prime-minister & Cabinet Defence Crisis Management Organisation Chiefs of Staff Cttee Hd Office Permanent Joint HQ Home In Theatre Joint Task Force HQ Maritime Land College of Management and Technology Air

Campaigning • Analysis of situation. • Planning to reach desired outcome. • Execution of Campaigning • Analysis of situation. • Planning to reach desired outcome. • Execution of activities to change or improve the situation. • Assessment of progress. College of Management and Technology

Coalition operations • Command & Control: – – Lead nation. Operational control. Integrated staff. Coalition operations • Command & Control: – – Lead nation. Operational control. Integrated staff. C 4 ISR. • Multi-national planning: – Match resources to objectives – Logistic support. • • • Information disclosure & releaseability. Standardisation. Rules of Engagement. Civil-military interface. Pre-deployment training. College of Management and Technology

Relationship between actors in a Potential Crisis College of Management and Technology Relationship between actors in a Potential Crisis College of Management and Technology

Civil Actors • Other Government Departments. – Other nations. • International Organisations (IO). – Civil Actors • Other Government Departments. – Other nations. • International Organisations (IO). – International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). • Non Government Organisations (NGO). • Donor Organisations. • Commercial Sector. – Private Security Companies. • Local authorities & populace. – Dislocated civilians. International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Technology

Comprehensive Approach (1) • The co-ordination of civil & military planning is a basic Comprehensive Approach (1) • The co-ordination of civil & military planning is a basic tenet of the Comprehensive Approach. • CIMIC is a practical application of the Comprehensive Approach at the operational & tactical levels. • It is necessary throughout the spectrum of tension & conflict. – shaping the operational environment to the mutual benefit of both military & civil actors. • CIMIC should be an integral part of the Campaign Plan – from the outset of the planning process. International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Technology

Comprehensive Approach (2) Cabinet Foreign Office MOD Dept for Intl Dev Diplomacy Defence Development Comprehensive Approach (2) Cabinet Foreign Office MOD Dept for Intl Dev Diplomacy Defence Development Stabilisation Unit PJHQ UK Theatre Embassy Mil HQ Dev Office Civil-military cooperation International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Technology

Differing Cultures Foreign Office MOD Dept for Intl Dev “Observe & report” “Influence & Differing Cultures Foreign Office MOD Dept for Intl Dev “Observe & report” “Influence & destroy” “Humanitarian principles” International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Technology

Permanent Joint HQ (PJHQ) • Current major operations are commanded by the Chief of Permanent Joint HQ (PJHQ) • Current major operations are commanded by the Chief of Joint Operations & run from PJHQ in Northwood, Middlesex. PJHQ Mission: As part of Defence Crisis Management Organisation, provide politically aware military advice to inform strategic commitment of UK forces to overseas joint & combined operations. When directed by CDS, exercise command of UK forces assigned to overseas joint & combined operations, either led by the UK or another nation, in order to achieve UK’s strategic objectives. College of Management and Technology

Stabilisation Unit (1) • Mission: – To co-ordinate & support cross-government stabilisation planning & Stabilisation Unit (1) • Mission: – To co-ordinate & support cross-government stabilisation planning & execution. – To ensure the rapid & integrated delivery of targeted expertise in a cross-government approach. – To lead on stabilisation lesson-learning & assist with implementation. International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Technology

Stabilisation Unit (2) • Role: – – – Develop integrated planning. develop an early Stabilisation Unit (2) • Role: – – – Develop integrated planning. develop an early understanding of the issues. shape the strategic approach. develop a coherent, prioritised set of realistic objectives. provide mechanisms for coordinated delivery. advise on specific thematic issues, such as Security Sector Reform. – lead on the collation and dissemination of cross-government stabilisation lessons. UK Civilian Stabilisation Group International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Technology

Expeditionary logistics • Early planning. – Demand, Duration, Distance. • Multi-national logistics: – Framework Expeditionary logistics • Early planning. – Demand, Duration, Distance. • Multi-national logistics: – Framework nation. – Benefits & challenges. • Inter & Intra-Theatre movement. – Security. • Infra-structure. • Host Nation Support. College of Management and Technology

Camp BASTION Water-Bottling Plant College of Management and Technology Camp BASTION Water-Bottling Plant College of Management and Technology

Public Support College of Management and Technology Public Support College of Management and Technology

International Operations MDWSC Georgia Nov/Dec 2011 Colonel Andrew Cliffe International Section | Leadership & International Operations MDWSC Georgia Nov/Dec 2011 Colonel Andrew Cliffe International Section | Leadership & Management Division | College of Management and Technology




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