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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE "POST-CRISIS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPEAN UNION AND BULGARIA" BULGARIANS IN THE LABOUR MARKET IN SPAIN Assist. prof. Irena Zareva Economic Research Institute, BAS

Bulgarians in Spain Nearly 70% of the Bulgarian immigrants in Spain are employed. The Bulgarians in Spain Nearly 70% of the Bulgarian immigrants in Spain are employed. The main part of them had no assured working place at their arrival in the country (76, 8%) and they accomplished their departures through invitations from relatives or without preliminary preparation.

Bulgarians in Spain Structure of Bulgarian immigrants by availability of assured working place at Bulgarians in Spain Structure of Bulgarian immigrants by availability of assured working place at arrival in Spain (%) 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 00 договор with employer contract с работодател устен agreement oral ангажимент договор with mediator contract с посредник съдействие на близки relatives' assistance няма none

Employment by economic activity • They work mainly in the sectors: hotels and restaurants, Employment by economic activity • They work mainly in the sectors: hotels and restaurants, household/family activities and other public and personal service activities, agriculture and construction; and least in: health and social work, public administration, education, mining and electricity, gas and water supply.

Социални activities Social дейности Преработваща Manufacturing промишленост Търговия Trade Транспорт Transport Строителство Construction Селско Социални activities Social дейности Преработваща Manufacturing промишленост Търговия Trade Транспорт Transport Строителство Construction Селско стопанство Agriculture Дейности, обслужващи Community services Service activities обществото Household activities Дейности на домакинства Хотелиand restaurants Hotel и ресторанти Employment by economic activity Structure of employed Bulgarian immigrants by economic activity (%) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

0 Жени Мъже Women Men Държавно управление Public administration Транспорт Transport Строителство Construction Образование 0 Жени Мъже Women Men Държавно управление Public administration Транспорт Transport Строителство Construction Образование Education Преработваща промишленост Manufacturing Здравеопазване Health Селско стопанство Agriculture Търговия, ремонт Trade Дейности, обслужващи Community activities Service services обществото Hotels andресторанти Хотели и restaurants Дейности на домакинства Household activities Employment by economic activity and gender Structure of Bulgarian employed immigrants by economic activity and gender (%) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5

0 in Bulgaria в България в Испания in Spain Дейности на домакинства Household activities 0 in Bulgaria в България в Испания in Spain Дейности на домакинства Household activities Държавно управление Public administration Образование Education Социални дейности Social activities Селско стопанство Agriculture Transport, communications Транспорт, съобщения Търговия, ремонт Trade Строителство Construction Дейности, обслужващи Community activities Service services обществото Hotels andресторанти Хотели и restaurants Преработваща промишленост Manufacturing Employment by economic activity in Bulgaria and in Spain Structure of the employed immigrants in Bulgaria and in Spain (%) 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2

Employment by occupations • Bulgarians work mainly as: service workers, unskilled workers and skilled Employment by occupations • Bulgarians work mainly as: service workers, unskilled workers and skilled manufacturing workers. Smallest is the share of the employed as clerks and professionals.

0 Помощен персонал Clerks Приложни Associated специалисти professionals Ръководни Managers служители Machine operators Оператори 0 Помощен персонал Clerks Приложни Associated специалисти professionals Ръководни Managers служители Machine operators Оператори на машини Квалифицирани Skilled workers работници Нискоквалифицира Low skilled ни Персонал, зает с Service workers услуги Employment by occupations Structure of Bulgarian immigrants by occupations in Spain (%) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5

0 Women Men Жени Мъже Аналитични Professionals специалисти Земеделски производители Agricultural workers Оператори на 0 Women Men Жени Мъже Аналитични Professionals специалисти Земеделски производители Agricultural workers Оператори на машини Machine operators Помощен персонал Clerks Associated специалисти Приложни professionals Квалифицирани работници Skilled workers Ръководни служители Managers Нискоквалифицирани Low skilled Персонал, зает с услуги Service workers Employment by occupations and gender Structure of employed by occupations and gender (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10

0 в България in Bulgaria в Испания in Spain Производители в селското Agricultural workers 0 в България in Bulgaria в Испания in Spain Производители в селското Agricultural workers стопанство Аналитични Professionals специалисти Ръководни служители Managers Помощен персонал Clerks Оператори на машини Machine operators Associated специалисти Приложни professionals Нискоквалифицирани Low skilled Квалифицирани работници Skilled workers Персонал, зает с услуги Service workers Employment by occupations in Bulgaria and in Spain Structure of Bulgarian immigrants in Bulgaria and in Spain by occupations (%) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5

Employment according to the acquired qualification • More than half of the immigrants work Employment according to the acquired qualification • More than half of the immigrants work at places which require qualification similar to the qualification they have acquired, but 42, 1% work at places which require lower qualification. There are disparities between the previous employment in Bulgaria and the present in Spain, especially for the qualified and highly qualified specialists, which demonstrates that Bulgarian immigrants lose qualification.

Employment according to the acquired qualification Structure of employed immigrants according to the qualification Employment according to the acquired qualification Structure of employed immigrants according to the qualification they have acquired and the needed qualification for the working places in Spain (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 по-ниска lower сходна similar по-висока higher

Employment by type of contract • The prevailing part of the immigrants are insured Employment by type of contract • The prevailing part of the immigrants are insured and work with temporary or permanent employment contract, or as self employed. Not a small part of them, however, work without a contract (most of which women), in the grey sector of the Spanish economy, and 23, 1% are unemployed.

Employment by type of contract Structure of immigrants by type of employment contract (%) Employment by type of contract Structure of immigrants by type of employment contract (%) самонает self employed 16% без contract without договор 13% временен договор temporary contract 32% постоянен contract permanent договор 39%

безработен unemployed agricultural producer земеделски производител самонает self employed собственbusiness own бизнес ает вemployee безработен unemployed agricultural producer земеделски производител самонает self employed собственbusiness own бизнес ает вemployee inфирма държавна state company employee фирма нает в частнаin private company Employment status Structure of immigrants by employment status (%) 50 50 45 45 40 40 35 35 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0

Employment of Bulgarians abroad • The results from the survey show that there are Employment of Bulgarians abroad • The results from the survey show that there are no substantial differences between the status of the employed Bulgarians on the Spanish and other countries’ labour market.

Employment by economic activities of the return migrants in Bulgaria 30. 0 25. 0 Employment by economic activities of the return migrants in Bulgaria 30. 0 25. 0 20. 0 15. 0 10. 0 Trade Transport, Other community Other service communications and personal activities services жващи Manufacturing ния Household activities т Agriculture леност Hotels and restaurants ти Construction нства . 0. 0 топанство 5. 0

Employment by occupations of the return migrants in Bulgaria 40. 0 35. 0 30. Employment by occupations of the return migrants in Bulgaria 40. 0 35. 0 30. 0 25. 0 20. 0 15. 0 10. 0 5. 0 Нискоквалифицирани Персонал, зает с услуги Low skilled workers Service workers работници на населението Квалифицирани Skilled manufacturing производствени workers работници Оператори на машини и Machine operators Mashine транспортни средства Производители в Agricultural producers Agricultural workers селското стопанство Приложни professionals Associated professionals Ръководни служители Associated специалисти Managers

Employment according to the acquired qualification of the return migrants in Bulgaria 50 50 Employment according to the acquired qualification of the return migrants in Bulgaria 50 50 45 45 40 40 35 35 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 Lower По-ниска Similar Сходна По-висока Higher

Bulgarians abroad • Despite that a large part of the Bulgarians abroad lose qualification, Bulgarians abroad • Despite that a large part of the Bulgarians abroad lose qualification, that many of them work in the grey sector of the economy or are unemployed, they prefer to live and/or work abroad.