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Infusing Sustainability Into Your College Math Classes S 10 (9: 00 – 9: 50 Infusing Sustainability Into Your College Math Classes S 10 (9: 00 – 9: 50 AM) Tracey Clancy Onondaga Community College Syracuse, NY

n What is sustainability? n Why does it have a place in higher education? n What is sustainability? n Why does it have a place in higher education? n What are the numbers?

What is Sustainability? n In 1983, the United Nations Commission on Environment and Development What is Sustainability? n In 1983, the United Nations Commission on Environment and Development defined sustainability as: "A way of living that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. "

What is Sustainability? n It is curious to note that while we have difficulty What is Sustainability? n It is curious to note that while we have difficulty envisioning a sustainable world, we have no difficulty identifying what is unsustainable in our societies. ~ Rosalyn Mc. Keown, Ph. D. Energy, Environment and Resources Center University of Tennessee

More Than the Environment Economic - the financial impact on an individual’s income or More Than the Environment Economic - the financial impact on an individual’s income or spending, or on a company’s profits and losses. n Environmental - the impact on the air, water, land global climate. n Social - the impact on an individual’s happiness, health and productivity, or the impact on the community’s welfare. n http: //www. designworksarchitects. com/pdfs/Sustainability 101. pdf

More Than the Environment People Planet Sustainable Society Profits Dr. Jason Hamilton, Ithaca College More Than the Environment People Planet Sustainable Society Profits Dr. Jason Hamilton, Ithaca College -Dept. of Biology and Environmental Studies Program

Going Forward n We must have healthy business n Producing necessary products in a Going Forward n We must have healthy business n Producing necessary products in a responsible manner. n Providing jobs and economic drivers n We must have healthy governments n Providing citizens security and human rights n We must have a healthy planet n Providing biodiversity n Protecting habitats

What Changes Have We Seen? Muir Glacier, Alaska Photo by W. O. Field August What Changes Have We Seen? Muir Glacier, Alaska Photo by W. O. Field August 1941

What Changes Have We Seen? Muir Glacier, Alaska Photo by Bruce Molnia, USGS. August What Changes Have We Seen? Muir Glacier, Alaska Photo by Bruce Molnia, USGS. August 2004

Polar Ice Cap - Summer September 2007 – 4. 1 Million Sq km September Polar Ice Cap - Summer September 2007 – 4. 1 Million Sq km September 2005 – 5. 3 Million Sq km http: //nsidc. org/news/press/2007_seaiceminimum/20070810_index. html

Our Atmosphere 310 N 2 O (ppb) 250 360 CO 2 (ppm) 260 1750 Our Atmosphere 310 N 2 O (ppb) 250 360 CO 2 (ppm) 260 1750 CH 4 (ppb) 750 1000 1200 1400 1600 Year 1800 2000 Data from IPCC

Global Climate Change n According to NASA: The average temperature of the earth has Global Climate Change n According to NASA: The average temperature of the earth has risen by 1. 4º F since the Industrial Revolution n This has been the major cause of the 4 – 8 inch sea level rise over that same time. n n Although there are several competing theories: Scientists expect temperatures to rise 2 – 9 º F by 2050 n Sea levels are expected to rises between 1 – 18 feet by 2100. n The most popular estimate is a 1 m sea level rise. n http: //geology. com/sea-level-rise

Since 2000 n The growth of carbon emissions from fossil fuels has tripled compared Since 2000 n The growth of carbon emissions from fossil fuels has tripled compared to the 1990 s and is exceeding the predictions of the highest IPCC emission scenarios n Atmospheric CO 2 has grown at 1. 9 ppm per year (compared to about 1. 5 ppm during the previous 30 years)

This glacier was once the biggest in South America, but it is now disappearing This glacier was once the biggest in South America, but it is now disappearing at a rate of 200 meters per year. http: //www. effectofglobalwarming. com/global-warming-pictures. html

Rising Tides – Vanishing Coastline http: //www. effectofglobalwarming. com/global-warming-pictures. html Rising Tides – Vanishing Coastline http: //www. effectofglobalwarming. com/global-warming-pictures. html

Changing Ecosystems http: //www. effectofglobalwarming. com/global-warming-pictures. html Changing Ecosystems http: //www. effectofglobalwarming. com/global-warming-pictures. html

Uncharted Territory: Population 1950: 2. 5 Billion People 1970: 3. 7 Billion People 1990: Uncharted Territory: Population 1950: 2. 5 Billion People 1970: 3. 7 Billion People 1990: 5. 3 Billion People 2010: 6. 9 Billion People 2030: 8. 2 Billion People Copyright: Pearson Education Inc. 2050: 9. 2 Billion People

Environmental Refugees We now have more than 25 million Environmental Refugees as a result Environmental Refugees We now have more than 25 million Environmental Refugees as a result of drought, soil erosion, desertification, etc. This is more than war, political, and religious persecution combined.

Where Do We Come In? n As educators, what is our responsibility? n Colleges Where Do We Come In? n As educators, what is our responsibility? n Colleges and Universities are a significant portion of the global economy 4096 U. S. Colleges & Universities 14. 8 Million Students $277 Billion Dollars

Moral Obligation n As we educate tomorrow’s leaders it is clear that we want Moral Obligation n As we educate tomorrow’s leaders it is clear that we want nourish students as individuals, as we prepare them for the difficult tasks they will face in the “real world. ” n We are also educating tomorrow’s consumers – perhaps a much more important task.

Higher Education is Active n The Higher Education Associations Sustainability Consortium (HEASC) n Informal Higher Education is Active n The Higher Education Associations Sustainability Consortium (HEASC) n Informal network of higher education associations with a commitment to advancing sustainability in both their constituencies and in the system of higher education itself. n Seek to help higher education exert strong leadership in making education, research, and practice for a sustainable society a reality. http: //www 2. aashe. org/heasc/about. php

Higher Education’s Commitment The HEASC is just one of many on-campus and multi-campus organizations Higher Education’s Commitment The HEASC is just one of many on-campus and multi-campus organizations focused on sustainability n 659 American College and University Presidents have signed the President’s Climate Commitment n Commitment to reduce and eventually eliminate emissions n Accelerate the educational efforts to equip society to re-stabilize the earth’s climate. n

Higher Education’s Role n Higher education's leadership is critical to help businesses become sustainable; Higher Education’s Role n Higher education's leadership is critical to help businesses become sustainable; to have strong thriving and secure communities; and to provide economic opportunities for the broadest number of people while preserving the life support system on which all current and future generations depend. http: //www 2. aashe. org/heasc/about. php

How Can We Bring Sustainability Into a Math Class? Do it with the numbers! How Can We Bring Sustainability Into a Math Class? Do it with the numbers!

Percentages /Proportions n World population in 2005: 6, 451, 000 n US population in Percentages /Proportions n World population in 2005: 6, 451, 000 n US population in 2005: 296, 410, 000 n What percentage of the earth’s population is in the US? {~4. 6 %}

Percentages /Proportions n World energy consumption: 421. 51 Q n US energy consumption: 99. Percentages /Proportions n World energy consumption: 421. 51 Q n US energy consumption: 99. 74 Q n What percentage of the earth’s energy resources were used in the US? {~23. 7%} So the US is nearly 5% of the world population and we are using nearly ¼ of the world’s energy supply NOTE: (Q is 1015 Btu)

Percentages /Proportions n In the US, refrigerators alone use the electrical output of about Percentages /Proportions n In the US, refrigerators alone use the electrical output of about 25 large power plants. This is nearly 7% of the energy we use in this country. n If we use 3, 953 Billion k. Wh in the US, how much energy in Billion of k. Wh do we use in the US, just for our refrigerators? {276. 71 Bil k. Wh} Secondary Energy Infobook, 2007 NEED Project

Percentages /Proportions n With our typical power generation, 1. 5 lbs of CO 2 Percentages /Proportions n With our typical power generation, 1. 5 lbs of CO 2 is released into the atmosphere per k. Wh. n How many pounds of CO 2 are released into the earth’s atmosphere each year to keep our refrigerators cool? { ~415 Bil lbs. } So 415 Billion lbs of CO 2 go into the atmosphere each year to keep US residential refrigerators cool.

Comparing Flow Rates n If you have a typical showerhead you use about 5 Comparing Flow Rates n If you have a typical showerhead you use about 5 gallons of water per minute in the shower. A low flow shower head costs about $10 more and uses only 1. 5 gallons per minute. If a typical family of four all take a 7 minute shower today, how many gallons of water would they use with the regular showerhead? {140 gallons} n How many gallons with the low flow showerhead? {42 gallons} n Secondary Energy Infobook, 2007 NEED Project

Comparing Flow Rates n How about for the year? n How many gallons of Comparing Flow Rates n How about for the year? n How many gallons of water would be saved over a year by using the low flow showerhead? {51, 100 – 15, 330 = 35, 770 gallons. } n Note bigger savings for longer showers! n Where are the savings? n It is not just saving water. n Heating water is 16% of an average energy bill.

1993 Percentage Breakdown of US Residential Hot Water Energy Use http: //www. homeenergy. org/archive/hem. 1993 Percentage Breakdown of US Residential Hot Water Energy Use http: //www. homeenergy. org/archive/hem. dis. anl. gov

Linear Equations n Cost of operation for 10, 000 hours of light (1600 lumens) Linear Equations n Cost of operation for 10, 000 hours of light (1600 lumens) n Incandescent Light (IL): fixed cost of $3. 20 and variable cost of 1000 k. Wh times the electricity cost /k. Wh y 1 = 1000 x + 3. 20 n Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL): fixed cost of $7. 97 and variable cost of 230 k. Wh time the electricity cost /k. W y 2 = 230 x + 7. 97

IL vs. CFL (continued) Graph the equations and determine at what electricity cost (per IL vs. CFL (continued) Graph the equations and determine at what electricity cost (per k. Wh) does the investment in a CFL make financial sense? {Less than a penny!} n Based on 9¢ per k. Wh electricity costs what is the cost to operate a IL and a CFL for 10, 000 hours? {IL $93. 20 & CFL $28. 67 life cycle costs. } n What is the life cycle savings for the CFL over the IL (assuming 10, 000 hours of operation? ) {A $64. 53 savings over the life of a typical CFL. } n Secondary Energy Infobook, 2007 NEED Project

Same Equations Different Variable Assuming the cost of electricity is 9¢ per k. Wh. Same Equations Different Variable Assuming the cost of electricity is 9¢ per k. Wh. n Cost of IL in dollars: n n n Cost of CFL in dollars : n n where x is hours of operation. You can graph to find the number of hours for break-even. You can have them alter the 9 ¢ per k. Wh cost to see the result.

Exponential Growth n Assume that the current world population is 6. 6 billion (based Exponential Growth n Assume that the current world population is 6. 6 billion (based on a 2007 estimate) and that it is increasing at 1. 1% per year? Given that the population P (in billions) grows exponentially as described by: P(t ) = 6. 6 e 0. 011 t , determine what the world population will be just 30 years from now. {9. 18 Billion, that is an increase of about 2. 6 billion people in 30 years!}

Contemporary Math Class n We lack equation solving, so I got creative. n I Contemporary Math Class n We lack equation solving, so I got creative. n I introduce sustainability during our chapter on routing problems. n How much carbon our “route” added to the atmosphere? (19. 4 lbs of CO 2/gallon of gas. ) n I also introduce sustainability in our chapter on voting theory.

Plastic Bags → Reusable Bags n n n 99% of the plastic bags in Plastic Bags → Reusable Bags n n n 99% of the plastic bags in the US are NOT recycled 2007 Data: US uses 380 billion plastic bags annually n Equivalent to 12 million barrels of oil. Plastic bags kill sea animals. The petroleum from 14 plastic bags could drive a car one mile. One plastic bag could take up to 1000 years to decompose. In CA alone, it costs $20. 5 million to collect and landfill plastic bag waste each year.

Plastic Bag Solutions? n n n In 2002, Ireland imposed a € 0. 15 Plastic Bag Solutions? n n n In 2002, Ireland imposed a € 0. 15 per bag tax (about 20¢) n Result: 90% reduction in plastic bags. Australia started a voluntary program to encourage reusable bags. n From 2002 -2006, they reduced bag use by 45% Other programs and bans have been started in South Africa, Rwanda, Hong Kong, and Toronto. n Could you buy three or four reusable bags and use them for half of your purchases? Vote A Stats taken from www. pluspackaging. com and the EPA

Plastic Bottles → Reusable Bottles n In 2006 alone, Americans, on average, consumed 167 Plastic Bottles → Reusable Bottles n In 2006 alone, Americans, on average, consumed 167 bottles of water person. 23% of the bottles were recycled. n 38 billion water bottles went into a landfill in 2006. n n It takes over 1. 5 billion barrels of oil to manufacture a year’s supply of bottled water. n n n That is enough to fuel 100, 000 cars. In 2007, we spent $16 Billion on bottled water. Plastic bottles do not BEGIN to decompose for 700 years.

Plastic Bottles – Solutions? n If everyone in NYC gave up bottled water for: Plastic Bottles – Solutions? n If everyone in NYC gave up bottled water for: 1 week → save 24 million bottles from our landfills n 1 month → save 103 million bottles n 1 year → save 1. 3 billion bottles n n Could you use a reusable bottle for half of your “water on the go? ” Vote B Stats taken from www. earth 911. com and the EPA

Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) n n n Average life of a CFL is 8 Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) n n n Average life of a CFL is 8 to 15 times of IL. For a given light output, CFLs use only 20% to 30% of the power of an IL. n Lighting accounts for 9% of a US household bill. The cost for CFLs is typically 3 to 10 times greater. CFLs can also reduce cooling costs (lower heat output. ) As compared to an IL, over a CFL's lifetime it can n Save over $50 in electricity costs n Save 2000 times its own weight in greenhouse gases.

CFL → Solutions? n If every American home replaced just one light bulb: Save CFL → Solutions? n If every American home replaced just one light bulb: Save n n n Enough energy to light more than 3 million homes for a year More than $600 million in annual energy costs Prevent greenhouse gases equivalent to more than 800, 000 cars. n If a household replace 3 frequently used light bulbs with CFLs they would save 300 lbs of CO 2 and $60 per year n Within the next year could you replace 3 light bulbs in your house with CFLs? Vote C Stats taken from www. energystar. gov

Vote with Preference Ballot n Vote A: you buy three or four reusable bags Vote with Preference Ballot n Vote A: you buy three or four reusable bags and use them for half of your purchases? n Vote B: you use a reusable bottle for half of your “water on the go” n Vote C: within the next year you replace 3 light bulbs in your house with CFLs

Preference Schedule # of Voters 1. ) Plurality Winner 1 st Choice 2. ) Preference Schedule # of Voters 1. ) Plurality Winner 1 st Choice 2. ) Borda Count Winner 2 nd Choice 3 rd Choice 3. ) Plurality with Elimination Winner (IRV)

Does the New York State Returnable Container Law Work Today? Assuming law makers determined Does the New York State Returnable Container Law Work Today? Assuming law makers determined that a 5¢ deposit was the necessary amount of money to encourage someone to return a can in 1983, how has that motivation changed over 26 years? n How much buying power would a 5¢ deposit from 1983 have in 2009? (Average annual inflation rate of 3%) n How much is our 2009 nickel worth in “ 1983 dollars” (or cents)? n Recall: n

Does the New York State Returnable Container Law Work Today? n Does our law Does the New York State Returnable Container Law Work Today? n Does our law work? present today? Is the same motivation n Should we raise the deposit or should we raise children who seek to recycle?

More Numbers! n n n The average refrigerator in 1973 was about 30% efficient, More Numbers! n n n The average refrigerator in 1973 was about 30% efficient, today they are around 90% efficient. New front loading washing machines use 40 percent less water and 60 percent less energy. On average oil refineries consume 9% of the energy in the crude oil they refine. On a per barrel basis, today’s refineries use about 25% less energy than those in 1973 In the US, on average we generate, 4. 4 lbs of waste per day. Germans only create 2. 0 lbs of waste per day. Secondary Energy Infobook, 2007 NEED Project

Did you know. . . n n n For every ton of paper that Did you know. . . n n n For every ton of paper that is recycled, the following is saved: 7, 000 gallons of water; 380 gallons of oil; and enough electricity to power an average house for six months. You can run a TV for six hours on the amount of electricity that is saved by recycling one aluminum can. By recycling just one glass bottle, you save enough electricity to power a 100 -watt bulb for four hours. http: //gogreeninitiative. org/content/Why. Go. Green/

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