Скачать презентацию Information Systems for Competitive Advantage Businesses continually seek Скачать презентацию Information Systems for Competitive Advantage Businesses continually seek

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Information Systems for Competitive Advantage Businesses continually seek to establish competitive advantage in the Information Systems for Competitive Advantage Businesses continually seek to establish competitive advantage in the marketplace. There are eight principles: l l l The first three principles concern products. The second three principles concern the creation of barriers. The last two principles concern establishing alliances and reducing costs. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 1

Figure 2 -1 Principles of Competitive Advantage © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 2 Figure 2 -1 Principles of Competitive Advantage © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 2

Information System that Creates a Competitive Advantage ABC invested heavily in information technology. ABC Information System that Creates a Competitive Advantage ABC invested heavily in information technology. ABC led the shipping industry in the application of information systems for competitive advantage. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 3

How this System Creates a ABC, Inc Competitive Advantage ABC information system provides the How this System Creates a ABC, Inc Competitive Advantage ABC information system provides the following: l l l Enhances an existing product Differentiates the ABC package delivery product from competitors Lock’s customers into the ABC system Raises the barrier to market entry Reduces costs © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 4

Information Systems for Problem Solving Information systems can be used to solve problems. Problem Information Systems for Problem Solving Information systems can be used to solve problems. Problem definition l l l A problem is a perceived difference between what is and what is not. A problem is a perception. A good problem definition defines the differences between what is and what ought to be by describing both the current and desired situations. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 5

Information Systems for Problem Solving Problem definition (continued) l Different problem definitions require the Information Systems for Problem Solving Problem definition (continued) l Different problem definitions require the development of different information systems. l All personnel in the organization must have a clear understanding of which definition of the problem the information system will address. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 6

A Customer Relationship Management System A Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system is an information A Customer Relationship Management System A Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system is an information system that maintains data about customers and all of their interactions with the system. CRM systems vary in their size and complexity. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 7

Knowledge Management System A knowledge management system (KMS) is an information system for storing Knowledge Management System A knowledge management system (KMS) is an information system for storing and retrieving organizational knowledge. This knowledge can be in the form of data, documents, or employee know-how. KMS goal is to make the organization knowledge available to l l l Employees Vendors Customers Investors Press and who else who needs the knowledge © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 8

Figure 2 -8 Example Customer Relationship Management (CRM) System © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. Figure 2 -8 Example Customer Relationship Management (CRM) System © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 9

Figure 2 -9 Customer Support Knowledge Management System © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 Figure 2 -9 Customer Support Knowledge Management System © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10

A Manufacturing Quality-Control Information System Many organizations believe that the optimal way to provide A Manufacturing Quality-Control Information System Many organizations believe that the optimal way to provide customer service is to eliminate the need for it. One way to improve customer service is to improve manufacturing quality. The type of system to develop depends on the way the organization defines the problem. Before developing the system, the organization must have a complete, accurate, and agreed-upon problem definition. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 11

Information Systems for Decision Making Developing an information system is to facilitate decision making. Information Systems for Decision Making Developing an information system is to facilitate decision making. Decision making in organizations is varied and complex. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12

Decision Level Decisions occur at three levels in organizations. Operational decisions concern day-to-day activities. Decision Level Decisions occur at three levels in organizations. Operational decisions concern day-to-day activities. l Information systems that support operational decision making are called transaction processing systems (TPS). © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 13

Decision Level (Continued) Managerial decisions concern the allocation and utilization of resources. l Information Decision Level (Continued) Managerial decisions concern the allocation and utilization of resources. l Information systems that support managerial decision making are called management information systems (MIS). Strategic decision making concern broaderscope organizational issues. l Information systems that support strategic decision making are called executive information systems (EIS). © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 14

Decision-Making Dimensions Figure 2 -10 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15 Decision-Making Dimensions Figure 2 -10 © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 15

The Decision Process Two decision processes (method by which a decision is to be The Decision Process Two decision processes (method by which a decision is to be made) are structured and unstructured. l l Structured decision process is one for which there is an understood and accepted method for making the decision. Unstructured process is one for which there is no agreed on decision making process. The terms structured and unstructured refers to the decision process-not the underlying subject. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 16

Figure 2 -11 Relationship of Decision Level and Decision Type Figure © 2007 Prentice Figure 2 -11 Relationship of Decision Level and Decision Type Figure © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 17

Different Types of Information Systems for Different Types of Decisions Automated information systems are Different Types of Information Systems for Different Types of Decisions Automated information systems are those by which the computer hardware and program components do most of the work. l Humans start the programs and use the results. Augmentation information systems are those in which humans do the bulk of the work. l These systems augment, support, or supplement the work done by People (email, instant messaging, video-conferencing, etc) to aid in decision making. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 18

Figure 2 -12 Automated vs. Augmentation IS © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 19 Figure 2 -12 Automated vs. Augmentation IS © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 19

Figure 2 -13 How Decision Level, Decision Type and IS Type Are Related © Figure 2 -13 How Decision Level, Decision Type and IS Type Are Related © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 20

Information Systems and Decision Steps A way to examine the relationship between information systems Information Systems and Decision Steps A way to examine the relationship between information systems and decision making is to consider how an information system is used during the steps of the decision making process. There are five steps l l l Intelligence gathering Alternative formulation Choice Implementation Review © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 21

Figure 2 -14 Decision-Making Steps © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 22 Figure 2 -14 Decision-Making Steps © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 22

Summary Organizations develop and use information systems to gain competitive advantage, to solve problems, Summary Organizations develop and use information systems to gain competitive advantage, to solve problems, and to assist in decision making Figure 2 -1 lists eight principles of competitive advantage. A problem is a perceived difference between what is and what ought to be. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 23

Summary (Continued) Decisions can be made at the operational (TPS), managerial (MIS), and strategic Summary (Continued) Decisions can be made at the operational (TPS), managerial (MIS), and strategic (EIS) levels. Decisions vary according to whether a structured or unstructured process is used to make them. Automated information systems are those in which the computer and program side of the five components do most of the work. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 24

Summary (Continued) Augmentation information systems are those in which humans do most of the Summary (Continued) Augmentation information systems are those in which humans do most of the work. Another way to consider information systems and decision making is to consider the steps of the decision process. Different types of information systems are used for different steps of the decision process as summarized in Figure 2 -14. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 25

Key Terms and Concepts Augmentation information systems Automated information systems Customer relationship management (CRM) Key Terms and Concepts Augmentation information systems Automated information systems Customer relationship management (CRM) Executive information systems (EIS) Knowledge management systems (KMS) Management information systems (MIS) Managerial decision Manufacturing information systems Operational decision Principles of competitive advantage Problem Strategic decision Structured decision Switching costs Transaction processing systems (TPS) Unstructured decision © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 26

Key Terms and Concepts (Continued) Structured decision Switching costs Transaction processing systems (TPS) Unstructured Key Terms and Concepts (Continued) Structured decision Switching costs Transaction processing systems (TPS) Unstructured decision © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. 27