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Inclusive Education: Making Rhetoric a Reality in England November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson-UK 1 Inclusive Education: Making Rhetoric a Reality in England November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson-UK 1

In this presentation… • • Problems of nomenclature! Special educational Needs-SEN Inclusion- The making In this presentation… • • Problems of nomenclature! Special educational Needs-SEN Inclusion- The making of a legal framework The ‘noughties’ – Research, Reports and recommendations • Outcomes -Rhetoric becomes reality? • Support and Aspiration: A new approach to SEN and Disability 2011 University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 2

What’s in a name…? ‘That which we call a rose would by any other What’s in a name…? ‘That which we call a rose would by any other name smell as sweet’ (Romeo & Juliet II, ii, 1 -2) The problems of nomenclature -special educational needs and inclusion… University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 3

Special Educational Needs SEN • The term ‘Special Educational Needs’-SEN is a legal definition. Special Educational Needs SEN • The term ‘Special Educational Needs’-SEN is a legal definition. Children with a SEN all have learning difficulties or disabilities that make it harder for them to learn than most children of the same age. • These children may need extra or different help from that given to other children of the same age. – (Reference: Code of Practice -Special Educational Needs, 2002) University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 4

Special educational provision means: (a) for children of two or over, educational provision which Special educational provision means: (a) for children of two or over, educational provision which is additional to, or otherwise different from, the educational provision made generally for children of their age in schools maintained by the LEA, other than special schools, in the area (b) for children under two, educational provision of any kind (c) Ref: Section 312, Education Act 1996 University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 5

Children have special educational needs if they have a learning difficulty which calls for Children have special educational needs if they have a learning difficulty which calls for special educational provision to be made for them. Children have a learning difficulty if they: a) have a significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of children of the same age; or (b) have a disability which prevents or hinders them from making use of educational facilities of a kind generally provided for children of the same age in schools within the area of the local education authority (c) are under compulsory school age and fall within the definition at (a) or (b) above or would so do if special educational provision was not made for them. University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 6

A child is disabled if he is blind, deaf or dumb or suffers from A child is disabled if he is blind, deaf or dumb or suffers from a mental disorder of any kind or is substantially and permanently handicapped by illness, injury or congenital deformity or such other disability as may be prescribed. Ref: Section 17 (11), Children Act 1989 A person has a disability for the purposes of this Act if he has a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on his ability to carry out normal day-to day activities. Ref: Section 1(1), Disability Discrimination Act 1995 University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 7

‘Special educational needs -SEN discourse supports ‘within child’ deficit assumptions’ (Salt Report, 2010) ‘Educationally ‘Special educational needs -SEN discourse supports ‘within child’ deficit assumptions’ (Salt Report, 2010) ‘Educationally subnormal’ - term not used in UK / England after the 1970’s ‘Moderate Learning Difficulties’-MLD the generic term used ‘Retarded’ or ‘mentally retarded’ to be removed from new edition DSM-5’(pending 2012). New term ‘learning and cognition needs’ University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 8

Language of meeting needs in England… • • Remedial education Compensatory education Special classes Language of meeting needs in England… • • Remedial education Compensatory education Special classes Special treatment The whole school approach Differentiation Integration “INCLUSION” University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 9

 • Integration- child adapting to the host environment – Is politically neutral and • Integration- child adapting to the host environment – Is politically neutral and infers a model of service delivery – Gradually assimilating into a structured setting or environment – The ‘setting’ is not required to change to meet the needs of the child University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 10

Inclusion… • The host adapting in order to meet the needs of the child Inclusion… • The host adapting in order to meet the needs of the child • Framed within the ‘ecological paradigm’(Mitchell, 2001) • Has a strong ideological element • Reflects a shift in a paradigm from a ‘Needs’ base to a ‘Rights’ base (Lindsay, 2007) University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 11

Milestones to inclusion • 1970 Handicapped Children Act • 1976 Act-Integration • 1978 Warnock Milestones to inclusion • 1970 Handicapped Children Act • 1976 Act-Integration • 1978 Warnock Report • 1981 Education Act • 1989 The Children Act • UNCROC-UK ratified 1991) • 1993 Education Act (Implemented 1994) • 1994 Salamanca (‘Inclusion’ Philosophy) • 1995 Disability Discrimination Act University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 12

Milestones to inclusion continued…. • • 1996 Education Act 1998 Human Rights Act 2001 Milestones to inclusion continued…. • • 1996 Education Act 1998 Human Rights Act 2001 Inclusive school design 2001 Special Educational Needs and Disability Act -SENDA ‘Duty’ (Part 1) • 2001‘Inclusive schooling’- Statutory Guidance • 2002 SENDA ACT (Part 2) Added responsibility on 1995 Act) • 2002 New Code of Practice for SEN • 2004 Children Act University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 13

‘Removing Barriers to Achievement’ (2004) A shift in responsibility…? • Every teacher should expect ‘Removing Barriers to Achievement’ (2004) A shift in responsibility…? • Every teacher should expect to teach children with special educational needs • Every teacher needs to be equipped with skills to do so effectively • Action to do so would be required at three levels University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 14

SPECIALIST SKILLS -in some local schools ADVANCED SKILLS-some teachers in ALL schools CORE SKILLS SPECIALIST SKILLS -in some local schools ADVANCED SKILLS-some teachers in ALL schools CORE SKILLS -for ALL teachers in ALL Schools Reference: Removing barriers to Achievement: Developing School workforce SEN skills. DFES (2004) p 56. University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 15

Every Child Matters (2003) • Reforms Supported by Children Act (2004) • Every child Every Child Matters (2003) • Reforms Supported by Children Act (2004) • Every child has the right to… – Be healthy – Stay safe – Enjoy & Achieve – Make a positive contribution – Achieve economic well-being Partnerships and Trusts established- ‘the child is given a voice’ University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 16

The Lamb Enquiry (2009) • Reviewed provision of SEN and disability support • Established The Lamb Enquiry (2009) • Reviewed provision of SEN and disability support • Established to investigate parental confidence in the SEN system of assessment and provision and how it might be improved • Found a ‘disparity’ of provision across England • Demonstrated that changes can work-10 pilot studies in 460 schools in England University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 17

Bercow Report (2009) • Looked at services and support for students with speech, language Bercow Report (2009) • Looked at services and support for students with speech, language and communication needs -SLCN(age 0 -19) • 10 months of extensive data gathering found – Lack of consistency in provision across Local Authorities and Primary Care Trusts – Needs not being met for the majority – Insufficient understanding / insufficient priority given to addressing SLCN – Acute shortage of therapists/ teaching staff not trained/ no therapy during school holidays University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 18

 • • • Bercow Report (2009) Outcomes… Five key themes identified Communication is • • • Bercow Report (2009) Outcomes… Five key themes identified Communication is crucial Early identification and intervention are essential A continuum of services designed around the family is needed Joint working is crucial The current system is characterized by high variability and lack of equity 40 Recommendations made within these five themes University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 19

Rose Report (2009) ‘Identifying and Teaching Children and Young People with Dyslexia and Literacy Rose Report (2009) ‘Identifying and Teaching Children and Young People with Dyslexia and Literacy Difficulties’ • As with Lamb review, this found parents had to ‘fight’ for support or assessment • Teacher knowledge and sufficient expertise was ‘lacking’ • Language development requires more stringent monitoring • Insufficient links to INCLUSION DEVELOPMENT PLAN(IDP) University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 20

Achievement for all… aims (2009) • to improve outcomes for all children and young Achievement for all… aims (2009) • to improve outcomes for all children and young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) • to improve the engagement of parents of children and young people with SEND with their school; and • to improve the wider outcomes of children and young people with SEND University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 21

‘Identifying and teaching young children with dyslexia and literacy difficulties’ (Rose 2009) found… • ‘Identifying and teaching young children with dyslexia and literacy difficulties’ (Rose 2009) found… • Parents had to fight for their child’s assessment and support • Teacher knowledge of dyslexia ‘lacking’ • Provision of support disproportionate across England • Fundamental change in the approach to providing for students with dyslexia and reading difficulties needed University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 22

Salt Review (2010) ‘Review of Teacher supply for pupils with severe learning difficulties(SLD) and Salt Review (2010) ‘Review of Teacher supply for pupils with severe learning difficulties(SLD) and profound and Multiple Learning difficulties (PMLD)’ Found…. • Average of current staff could mean an exit through retirement - workforce potentially a serious shortage • Expertise sharing between mainstream and special schools ‘weak’ University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 23

Outcomes and recommendations… • • • Lamb Review (2008) Bercow Review (2009) Rose Review Outcomes and recommendations… • • • Lamb Review (2008) Bercow Review (2009) Rose Review (2009) Achievement for All (2009) Salt Review (2010) University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 24

Lamb(2008) Review Outcomes… * 51 recommendations made * ‘parents need to be listened to’ Lamb(2008) Review Outcomes… * 51 recommendations made * ‘parents need to be listened to’ * £ 4 m set aside to take recommendations forward * ‘Fully funded’ NASENCO mandatory course University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 25

Bercow Review (2009) Outcomes… * £ 52 million allocated to implement recommendations. (£ 41. Bercow Review (2009) Outcomes… * £ 52 million allocated to implement recommendations. (£ 41. 2 m ‘Every Child a Talker’-ECa. T- project) (£ 12 m to SLCN up to 2011) * 2011 National Year of Speech, Language and Communication * Established communication Trust http: //www. thecommunicationtrust. org. uk * Appointment of Jean Gross - ‘A Communication Champion’ * The ‘Hello’ Campaign-to increase understanding of how important it is for children and young people to develop good communication skills www. hello. org. uk University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 26

Rose (2009 19 recommendations made • All accepted, £ 20 million set aside to Rose (2009 19 recommendations made • All accepted, £ 20 million set aside to fund • 4000 funded places to train mainstream teachers as ‘specialists’ • Share expertise between groups of schools • Specialist to Conduct in-house in-service training • Head teacher and Governors should audit provision regularly to ensure ‘needs being met’. University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 27

Salt (2010) recommendations • Aging teacher population-Recruitment and retention urgently needed • Raise incentives Salt (2010) recommendations • Aging teacher population-Recruitment and retention urgently needed • Raise incentives to boost the entry into this sector of teaching • 28, 000 SLD/PMLD pupils in Special schools • 9500 included in mainstream schools (England) • Remove barriers to qualification-open routes to non graduates • Strengthen parent choice University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 28

Achievement for all (2009) • Radical scheme Achievement for all successfully piloted in some Achievement for all (2009) • Radical scheme Achievement for all successfully piloted in some 500 schools across 10 local authorities since launched in 2009 • Where piloted, it has reduced the number of SEN pupils by 10 per cent (Source: Director of the scheme Professor Sonia Blandford) • 450, 000 children were being wrongly labeled as requiring special needs teaching ! (Ofsted Report) University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 29

May 2010 General Election… …Change of Government …Conservative/Liberal Coalition …Change of policy … Financial May 2010 General Election… …Change of Government …Conservative/Liberal Coalition …Change of policy … Financial constraints…Recession! University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 30

http: //www. education. gov. uk/schools/pupilsupport/sen/types The Salt review This page may not reflect Government http: //www. education. gov. uk/schools/pupilsupport/sen/types The Salt review This page may not reflect Government policy. More information. Information and recommendations from the Salt review, which reviewed the training needs of teachers looking after children with severe learning difficulties. General article 21 September 2010 The Bercow Review This page may not reflect Government policy. More information. A review of services for children and young people with speech, language and communication needs, led by John Bercow MP. General article 21 September 2010 The Rose Review This page may not reflect Government policy. More information. Outcomes and recommendations from the Rose Review, a report on the provision of education for children with dyslexia. General article 21 September 2010 Lamb Inquiry - SEN and parental confidence This page may not reflect Government policy. More information. Information about the Lamb Inquiry, which was established to identify ways in which parental confidence in the SEN assessment could be improved. Dr 2010 University of Otago General article 19 August. Judith Hudson: UK New Zealand November 2011 31

“Michael Gove cuts special needs register for children by 170, 000” (Source: Daily Mail “Michael Gove cuts special needs register for children by 170, 000” (Source: Daily Mail March 2011) • Schools have wrongly labeled too many pupils as 'special needs' to cover up poor teaching • SEN label was introduced under legislation that decreed that any pupil with a ‘Greater difficulty in learning’ than the majority of the same age had a ‘Special educational Need’ • Currently a fifth of all children in England are identified as having SEN - 21 per cent or 1. 7 million out of a total school roll of 8. 5 million ‘children that are just naughty’ University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 32

What Inclusion studies have shown… • ‘anything which divides pupils in a school, particularly What Inclusion studies have shown… • ‘anything which divides pupils in a school, particularly in terms of cognitive abilities, is virtually guaranteed to produce school failures’ (Blaug, 2001 pp 42 -43) University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 33

What the research tells us… • Effects of inclusion are not huge but they What the research tells us… • Effects of inclusion are not huge but they are positive (Lindsay 2007) • Students’ perform better in regular mainstream classes (Baker, Wang & Walberg, 1994) • Effect for students of different achievement levels ‘close to zero’ (Slavin, 1993) • Students ‘seldom enjoy high levels of acceptance in integrated classrooms but social competence and academic achievement benefits’ (Freeman & Alkin, 2000) University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 34

Inclusion… …is not simply about where a child is taught; it is about the Inclusion… …is not simply about where a child is taught; it is about the quality of a child’s experience of school life, including both the formal and informal curriculum, in and beyond the classroom • It’s a distinctive value position • Conceptualizing ‘difference’ as an issue in the schooling of ALL children University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 35

Inclusion can be seen as… Giving rise to genuinely new forms of practice (Ainscow, Inclusion can be seen as… Giving rise to genuinely new forms of practice (Ainscow, 1999) Concerning the rights of marginalized pupils and building a particular sort of ‘inclusive’ society… … and making a real advance in special educational needs. University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 Dr Judith Hudson: UK 36

References Baker, E. T; Wang, M. C. & Walberg, H. J (1994) The effects References Baker, E. T; Wang, M. C. & Walberg, H. J (1994) The effects of Inclusion on learning’ Educational Leadership December 1994/January 1995, 33 -35 Dyson A. ‘Special Needs in the twenty-first century: where we’ve been and where we’re going’. British Journal of Special Education 28. (1) (March 2001) 24 -29. Freeman, S. F. N. & Alkin, M. C (2000) ‘Academic and Social attainments of children with mental retardation in general education and special settings’ Remedial and Special Education 21 (1), 3 -18. Lindsay, G. (2003) ‘Inclusive education: a critical perspective’ British Journal of Special Education 30 (1), 3 -12 Myklebust, J. O (2006) ‘Class placement and competence attainment among students with special educational needs’ British Journal of Special Education. Vol 33, No 2 76 -81. Blaug, M (2001) ‘What are we going to do about school leavers? ’ European Journal of Vocational Training 22. 40 -46 Mitchell, D. (2001). "Paradigm Shifts in and around Special Education in New. Zealand " Cambridge Journal of Education 31(3): 319 -335. Dr Judith Hudson: UK University of Otago New Zealand November 2011 37