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In-flight Calibration using Natural Targets Calibration over Oceanic Sites Bertrand Fougnie (DCT/SI/MO) Centre National In-flight Calibration using Natural Targets Calibration over Oceanic Sites Bertrand Fougnie (DCT/SI/MO) Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales - Toulouse - France GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010

In-flight Calibration using Natural Targets • Historically, methods using natural targets were developed in In-flight Calibration using Natural Targets • Historically, methods using natural targets were developed in order to validate/adjust the pre-flight calibration of instruments – including sensors equipped with on-board calibration device • Main aspects of in-flight calibration are : • Methods using acquisitions over selected natural targets were developed to assess these aspects • OK, … it’s still not perfect ! – absolute calibration : bias in interpretation – multi-temporal calibration : error in temporal trends – multi-angular calibration : noise on synthesis – cross-calibration : biased analysis and comparison GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010

In-flight Calibration using Natural Targets Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering SPOT view In-situ view GSICS In-flight Calibration using Natural Targets Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering SPOT view In-situ view GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 PARASOL view

Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering : method • Statistical approach over molecular scattering (Rayleigh) : Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering : method • Statistical approach over molecular scattering (Rayleigh) : – observe the atmosphere above ocean surface (= dark surface) – calibration from blue to red 443 nm to 670 nm – contributions to the TOA signal • Rayleigh molecular scattering : accurately computed (SOS code) • ocean surface : prediction through a climatology – no foam because of threshold on wind speed aerosols : rejected using threshold + corrected Rayleigh • • – main contributor : ~85/90% of the TOA signal ocean – background residue using 865 nm band + Maritime-98 model – for POLDER criteria : = 0. 025 and max(ta) = 0. 05 aerosols gaseous absorption : O 3 (TOMS), NO 2 (climato), H 20 (meteo) 443 490 565 670 molecular 84. 25 85. 25 90. 56 90. 23 aerosol 1. 25 1. 98 3. 76 7. 5 marine 14. 48 12. 75 5. 67 2. 25 – accuracy : typically 2% (3% in blue) GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 gaseous -0. 56 -1. 84 -8 -3. 67 I_mean 0. 1177 Main contributors 0. 0842 0. 04456 to TOA reflectance 0. 02308 (in %)

Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering : method • analysis over predefined and characterized oceanic sites Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering : method • analysis over predefined and characterized oceanic sites – selection of candidate sites • • • through a climatology based on Sea. Wi. FS data spatial homogeneity for each site limited (=“controlled”) seasonal variation • 1 site = still a small possible bias due to exact knowledge of rw • analysis of correlations with various geometrical or geophysical parameters – Benefit to calibrate over various oceanic sites – statistical approach through various oceanic sites – different for each sites (Latitude / monthly variations) – strong credibility when a phenomenon is observed for each site (ex: time evolution) – more accurate analysis 443 – Arbitrary value GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 443 - Climatology

Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering : method • Clim. ZOO : Climatology of Oligotrophic Oceanic Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering : method • Clim. ZOO : Climatology of Oligotrophic Oceanic Zones • Measurement Selection (PARASOL - 14, 000 points from Jan 05 to Sep 06) GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 (from Fougnie et al. , 2002)

Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering : method • Clim. ZOO : Climatology of Oligotrophic Oceanic Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering : method • Clim. ZOO : Climatology of Oligotrophic Oceanic Zones – 9 years of Sea. Wi. FS data 2 examples : very good sites in Northern and Southern hemispheres marine reflectance versus month (from Llido et al. , 2010 [Cap Gemini]) GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010

Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering : results 670 Ak=0. 999 s=0. 022 PARASOL 565 Ak=0. Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering : results 670 Ak=0. 999 s=0. 022 PARASOL 565 Ak=0. 997 s=0. 014 490 Ak=1. 003 s=0. 011 vs qv vs ta vs lon GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 vs lon (from Fougnie et al. 2007)

Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering: results • Absolute calibration for all the visible range – Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering: results • Absolute calibration for all the visible range – MERIS example from 412 to 670 nm (using 15, 000 measurements in 2003) very good accordance with the official calibration GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 (from Hagolle et al. 2006)

Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering: results • Valuable for multi-temporal monitoring validation : – PARASOL Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering: results • Valuable for multi-temporal monitoring validation : – PARASOL Example validation of the operational method using DCC The “blue” band The red band GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 (from Fougnie et al. 2009)

Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering: results • Valuable for multi-temporal monitoring validation : – Végétation-2 Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering: results • Valuable for multi-temporal monitoring validation : – Végétation-2 example comparison to official calibration The “blue” band The red band GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010

Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering: results • Potentiality for multi-angular calibration : – Example with Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering: results • Potentiality for multi-angular calibration : – Example with PARASOL Evolution of the calibration in the field of view after 2 years in orbit for band 490 Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering Calibration over Clouds 1. 04 (sunglint) 1. 00 0. 96 derived using acquisitions over ocean GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 derived using acquisitions over Deep Convective Clouds (from Fougnie et al. 2010)

Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering: results • Potentiality for multi-angular calibration : – Example with Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering: results • Potentiality for multi-angular calibration : – Example with Végétation-2 Evolution of the calibration in the field of view after 6 years in orbit Blue band B 0 Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering Calibration over Clouds DAk variation into the field-of-view Viewing angle (°) derived using acquisitions over ocean GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 Viewing angle (°) derived using acquisitions over Deep Convective Clouds

Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering: results • Applicable for geostationary missions : – Example with Calibration over Rayleigh Scattering: results • Applicable for geostationary missions : – Example with SEVIRI For band 670 nm method extended for very large airmass (improved radiative transfer computation) GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 (from Jolivet et al. , 2009 [Hygeos])

GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010

In-flight Calibration using Natural Targets Calibration over Sunglint Pushbroom view GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 In-flight Calibration using Natural Targets Calibration over Sunglint Pushbroom view GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 2 D sensor view

Interband calibration over sunglint : method • Interband method – observe the “white” reflection Interband calibration over sunglint : method • Interband method – observe the “white” reflection of the sun over the ocean surface – inter-calibration of blue to SWIR bands (440 to 1600 nm) with a reference – band : red band (670) usually adopted as reference accurate computation of the 2 main contributors : • • Rayleigh scattering sunglint contribution strongly depend to the wind speed is characterized using the reference band – both computed using Successive Order of Scattering code – use of a spectral refraction index of water (not constant) + Cox and Munk model for wave distribution – other minor contributions : • • ocean surface : predicted using climatology aerosol : threshold + correction • gaseous absorption : O 3 (TOMS), NO 2 (climato), H 20 (meteo) – threshold using adequate bands and direction (865 nm) or exogenous data (Sea. Wi. FS) – background correction considering Maritime-98 with aot of 0. 05 GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010

Interband calibration over sunglint : method • Interband method – selection of measurements • Interband calibration over sunglint : method • Interband method – selection of measurements • geographic selection over oceanic sites (same as for Rayleigh calibration) • geometrical selection (wave angle) • wind speed limited to 5 m/s (or carefully 7 m/s) • dedicated acquisitions when not available : • over ocean with latitude variation (depending on the sensor) • when applicable, appropriate gains to avoid saturation – accuracy : • • for interband : typically 2% (about 1% for bands near the reference band) possible bias on the reference band is reported on other bands GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010

Interband calibration over sunglint : results – Low dispersion on results : POLDER-2 : Interband calibration over sunglint : results – Low dispersion on results : POLDER-2 : In-flight calibration of 865 nm (ref 670) Viewing angle Reference band reflectance GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 Date reflectance

Interband calibration over sunglint : results • Interband calibration efficiency : ex : MERIS Interband calibration over sunglint : results • Interband calibration efficiency : ex : MERIS – Dispersion very low for bands close to 620 (reference) In-flight calibration versus reflectance at reference 620 GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 (from Hagolle et al. 2006)

Interband calibration over sunglint : results • Multi-temporal survey : – efficiency depending on Interband calibration over sunglint : results • Multi-temporal survey : – efficiency depending on sampling Végétation-2 B 3 NIR band (geographic and temporal) Absolute calibration versus date Temporal decrease in fact due to a drift of the reference band B 2 In flight calibration versus date PARASOL 670 nm band Temporal decrease confirmed by all other methods GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 (from Fougnie et al. 2009)

Interband calibration over sunglint : results • Other examples : In flight calibration versus Interband calibration over sunglint : results • Other examples : In flight calibration versus date MERIS 490 nm band no variation found In flight calibration versus date POLDER-1 490 nm band no variation found GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010

Interband calibration over sunglint : results • Valuable for SWIR band calibration : Végétation Interband calibration over sunglint : results • Valuable for SWIR band calibration : Végétation SWIR-1600 nm band PARASOL 1020 nm band GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 In-flight calibration versus date In flight calibration versus sunglint reflectance

GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010 GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010

Références : Fougnie et al. , 2002, Identification and Characterization of Stable Homogeneous Oceanic Références : Fougnie et al. , 2002, Identification and Characterization of Stable Homogeneous Oceanic Zones : Climatology and Impact on Inflight Calibration of Space Sensor over Rayleigh Scattering, Ocean Optics XVI Proceedings Fougnie et al. , 2007, PARASOL In-flight Calibration and Performance, Applied Optics Fougnie et al. , 2009, Monitoring of Radiometric Sensitivity Changes of Space Sensors Using Deep Convective Clouds – Operational Application to PARASOL, IEEE TGARS, Fougnie et al. , 2010, In-flight Characterization of the Multi-angular Aspect, SPIE, in prep. Hagolle et al. , 2006, Meris User Meeting Jolivet et al. , 2009, In-flight Calibration of Seviri Solar Channels on board MSG Platforms, Eumetsat User Meeting Llido et al. , 2010, Climatology of Oceanic Zones Suitable for In-flight Calibration of Space Sensors , Rapport d’étude CNES GSICS Meeting Toulouse, 9 -11 February, 2010