Скачать презентацию Implementation and Monitoring Assessing Performance in Contract Relationships Скачать презентацию Implementation and Monitoring Assessing Performance in Contract Relationships

bdc1e0e14d9bf093d3a2aa6d42bea7c4.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 49

Implementation and Monitoring: Assessing Performance in Contract Relationships Implementation and Monitoring: Assessing Performance in Contract Relationships

Characteristics Affecting Project Implementation Less Problematic 1. Simple technical features 2. Marginal change from Characteristics Affecting Project Implementation Less Problematic 1. Simple technical features 2. Marginal change from status quo 3. One-actor target 4. One-goal objective 5. Clearly stated goals 6. Short duration More Problematic 1. Complex technical features 2. Comprehensive change from status quo 3. Multi-actor targets 4. Multi-goal objectives 5. Ambiguous or unclear goals 6. Long duration

Project Identification, Formulation, Preparation & Design u A “Project” is an intervention that addresses Project Identification, Formulation, Preparation & Design u A “Project” is an intervention that addresses a problem Identifying the problem n Goal must be identified n w What is the project to do? w What tasks will it perform? w What kind of institutional and organizational structure will allow it to accomplish goals?

Project Identification, Formulation, Preparation & Design u A project organization will carry out a Project Identification, Formulation, Preparation & Design u A project organization will carry out a variety of tasks n u Must be constructed in light of those tasks and the environment in which they occur For design teams to succeed, local beneficiaries must be involved at an early stage

Project Identification, Formulation, Preparation & Design u Problems in project identification n In developing Project Identification, Formulation, Preparation & Design u Problems in project identification n In developing countries: w Lack effective procedures for project identification within national planning agencies and operating ministries w Weak conceptual and operational links exist between various national, regional, local, and special interest constituencies w National plans often fail to provide a strategy for development w Allocation of resource issues w Issues of priority

Project Identification, Formulation, Preparation & Design u Problems in project identification n In developing Project Identification, Formulation, Preparation & Design u Problems in project identification n In developing countries, cont. : w Influence of interest groups w Limited international assistance agency staff time to help government planners w Excessive turnover and rotation of field representatives of assistance agencies w Weaknesses in the overall planning system

Project Budgeting Project Budgeting

Project Budgeting Concepts Think in terms of Discrete Activities/Events: workshop; conference; service delivery; needs Project Budgeting Concepts Think in terms of Discrete Activities/Events: workshop; conference; service delivery; needs assessment; survey; research; evaluation; site visit Think in terms of Units Moving Through Time person - per day/week/month service dispensed - per day/week/month site visit - per day/week/month participant - per day/week/month *When appropriate, include additional time needed for preparation and wind-up activity. For example, design work and report writing. *Option: Combine the units with time. For example, 2 persons for 5 days each = 10 person/days-, 20 participants for 3 days each = 60 participant/days Think in terms of Static or Moving Locales local, sub-national, international If locales change, think in terms of Movement car rental, airfare, trainfare, hotel, taxi, per diems (an allowance for food and incidentals) based on USAID published rates by country/city equipment rental; fax/telephone; supplies, Think in terms of Support Functions insurance, fees/taxes; report/document production

Budget Rate List LABOR (Salary based on bio-data information for either a 5 -day Budget Rate List LABOR (Salary based on bio-data information for either a 5 -day or 6 -day week) International Consultant Local Consultant 400/day 100/day PER DIEM (Room, meals and expenses; based on a 7 -day week) International Consultant Participants 100/day 54/day TRAVEL (Could include car rental and in-country/regional airfares/train fares) Business Round Trip: New York-Eritrea 3, 000/person MISC. DIRECT COSTS (Should include some basic items together with activitydependent items) Fax/Telephone 50/day Report Production/Photocopying 40/day Teaching—A/V Materials 20/day Computer Rental 100/day DBA/SOS (insurance-intl. consultant) 82/day

Summary Budget Example u Eritrean Community Rehabilitation Fund (ECRF) Budget Summary n Consult weekly Summary Budget Example u Eritrean Community Rehabilitation Fund (ECRF) Budget Summary n Consult weekly notes for example n

Budget Example ERITREAN COMMUNITY REHABILITATION FUND Budget for Program Support for Capacity Building Strategy Budget Example ERITREAN COMMUNITY REHABILITATION FUND Budget for Program Support for Capacity Building Strategy 1: Overall design and organization development for the expanded fund TOTAL COST US Strategy 1. 1 Workshop/Retreat 100 participants @ US$225 per diem; 1. 5 days $713, 625. 00 33, 750. 00 Strategy 1. 2 Training Needs Assessment a. - 100 participants @ US$225 per diem; 14 Days 315, 000. 00 b. Contracting of a consultant team for methodology and facilitating purposes 34, 875. 00 Strategy 1. 3 Research Funds Employment of a Consultant @ US$ 64. 000 a year for 3 years. Strategy 1. 4 Preparation of Handbook Contract with publisher 192, 000. 00 10, 000. 00 Strategy 1. 5 Assessment Employment of a Consultant @ US$ 64. 000 a year two Assessment periods (middle second year to end) 128, 000. 00 TOTAL STRATEGY 1 713, 625. 00

Budget Example ERITREAN COMMUNITY REHABILITATION FUND Budget for Program Support for Capacity Building Strategy Budget Example ERITREAN COMMUNITY REHABILITATION FUND Budget for Program Support for Capacity Building Strategy 3: To strengthen local government officers to support Fund outreach, implementation and monitoring activities. TOTAL COST US Strategy 3. 1 Promotion and Outreach Seminar 20 particip @ US$225 per diem; 4 days, 4 years (times) Seminar expenses (consultant contract) Strategy 3. 2 Training of Trainers National: 100 participants @ US$ 40 per diem; 14 days for 4 years. (10 participants per region) Regional: 120 participants per activity, 8 activities, 14 days; $ 20 person. (60 participants per region) Strategy 3. 3 Promotion and Training of Trainers. Contract with publisher TOTAL STRATEGY 1 $642, 400. 00 72, 000. 00 20, 000. 00 224, 000. 00 268, 800. 00 57, 600. 00 642, 400. 00

Budget Category Allocations Budget Category Allocations

Project Execution/Implementation Project Execution/Implementation

Project Execution and Implementation POLICY COMMITTEE dissemination of technical results and presentation of • Project Execution and Implementation POLICY COMMITTEE dissemination of technical results and presentation of • Minister of Health (MOH) proposals • Permanent Secretary • MOH Senior Mgmt. policy directi on policy direction PMU supervision, control and evaluation of project activities • Lead counterparts Consulting firm • Functional units of MOH (long and short-run project activities • GPH administration consultants)

Project Execution: Scheduling and Charting u Following steps should be observed in developing a Project Execution: Scheduling and Charting u Following steps should be observed in developing a chart for a project: Level of Detail—decide what amount of detail should be displayed. n Sequence—determine in what logical sequence the various activities will be carried out. n Duration—estimate how long each activity will take. n

Project Execution: Monitoring and Reporting u Defined as: n u Monitoring: n u Providing Project Execution: Monitoring and Reporting u Defined as: n u Monitoring: n u Providing right people with the right information at the right time conducting of a periodic review of status of project activities in order to predict if scheduled events are going to be achieved Reporting: n notifying members of project team and higher-level supervisors about status of project activities and events to allow them to perform their responsibilities

Project Execution: Resource Allocation u Principle resources available: n People, money, materials, machinery, time Project Execution: Resource Allocation u Principle resources available: n People, money, materials, machinery, time

Project Execution u Resource Needs Chart (RNC) IF: (These Resources Available) Then: (Activity) Number Project Execution u Resource Needs Chart (RNC) IF: (These Resources Available) Then: (Activity) Number Descripti on Takes: Time Duration

Project Monitoring Project Monitoring

Project Monitoring u Important to distinguish from evaluation studies n Monitoring involves collection of Project Monitoring u Important to distinguish from evaluation studies n Monitoring involves collection of information about project while it is in progress w Emphasis on continual feedback on resources used and how implementation is being conducted

Project Monitoring u “Storytelling” or “Process Documentation” Informal monitoring process n Use of anecdotes Project Monitoring u “Storytelling” or “Process Documentation” Informal monitoring process n Use of anecdotes or personal accounts n w Describe actual problems and conflicts that occur and anxieties that people face Production of monthly reports that “tell the story” of what has been occurring n Does not tell much about immediate results of a single project n

Project Monitoring u Multiple Indicators need to be valid (measure what you want) and Project Monitoring u Multiple Indicators need to be valid (measure what you want) and reliable (same results under different tests) n Multiple indicators correct for validity or reliability problems that single measures may have n

Project Monitoring u Multiple Indicators (examples) n Credit w increase in field staff w Project Monitoring u Multiple Indicators (examples) n Credit w increase in field staff w number of rural banks established w number and value of import and distribution loans w number of loan applications received, processed, approved

Project Monitoring u Multiple Indicators (examples) n Land Reform w number of titles registered Project Monitoring u Multiple Indicators (examples) n Land Reform w number of titles registered w percentage of farmers on their own land w necessary legislation passed w average size of landholding w number of hectares aerially photographed

Project Monitoring u Multiple Indicators (examples) n Institutional Capacity w time in existence w Project Monitoring u Multiple Indicators (examples) n Institutional Capacity w time in existence w professional status recognized w technical comptence proved w survival capacity demonstrated w ability to attract financial resources shown w capacity to innovate demonstrated w linkages established with community groups w services being used in community

Exception Report Format Condition: · Identifies event in danger or missed by name and Exception Report Format Condition: · Identifies event in danger or missed by name and number Problem: · Discusses nature and source of problem being reported Project Assessment: · Discusses impact on project · Presents alternatives, and advantages and disadvantages of each · Recommends best alternative Action: · Specifies actions already undertaken · Specifies action requested and date by which actions are needed

Achievement Report Format Condition: · Identifies event achieved by name and number Achievement: · Achievement Report Format Condition: · Identifies event achieved by name and number Achievement: · Discusses level of achievement (quantity and quality) · Measures achievement against preestablished performance expectation · May include explanation or interpretation of achievement · Assess current status of project in general · Alerts management to key issues upcoming · Validates schedule of future events and resource adequacy · Specifies actions presently being taken · May request actions to be taken by others, and date required Project Assessment: Action: Next Reporting Event: · Identifies name and date of next scheduled achievement report

Implementation Responsibility Chart Individual (a) or Project organizatio Implement n unit or List of Implementation Responsibility Chart Individual (a) or Project organizatio Implement n unit or List of activities 1. 2. 3. 4. (b) Program Manager (c) (d)

Implementation Diagnosis Worksheet Diagnosis: Problem Situtation Indicator Action Plans: Causes Implication s (Time, Performan Implementation Diagnosis Worksheet Diagnosis: Problem Situtation Indicator Action Plans: Causes Implication s (Time, Performan ce, Cost) Correctiv e Actions (2 for each) Action Agent Time Frame (startfinish date) Redesign Implicatio ns

Instruments of Monitoring and Evaluation for Results Instruments of Monitoring and Evaluation for Results

Benefits of M&E During Project Execution u u u Identify/correct project flaws in design Benefits of M&E During Project Execution u u u Identify/correct project flaws in design and plans Increase likelihood of outputs as planned Identify new and recurrent problems Generate discussion and solutions Focus actions on key problems

M&E During Project Execution LOGFRAM ES Design Evaluati on PERIODIC & MID-TERM EVALUATIO NS M&E During Project Execution LOGFRAM ES Design Evaluati on PERIODIC & MID-TERM EVALUATIO NS Purpose M & E Plan PHYSICAL EXECUTION PLANS (PEP) Executio n FINANCIAL EXECUTIO N PLANS (FEP) MONITORING & EVALUATION REPORTS SPECIA L RESULTS ALERT

The Logical Framework NARRATIVE SUMMARY GOAL PURPOSE OUTPUTS INDICATORS MEANS OF VERIFICATION ASSUMPTIONS The Logical Framework NARRATIVE SUMMARY GOAL PURPOSE OUTPUTS INDICATORS MEANS OF VERIFICATION ASSUMPTIONS

Example of Project Objectives u GOAL n u PURPOSE n u Illnesses caused by Example of Project Objectives u GOAL n u PURPOSE n u Illnesses caused by impure drinking water reduced. Hygienic practices adopted by the rural population. OUTPUTS Clean water provided to 60% of villages in Northwest Region. n Health workers trained. n u ACTIVITIES

Example of Project Objectives u ACTIVITIES 1. 1. Choose sites for wells. n 1. Example of Project Objectives u ACTIVITIES 1. 1. Choose sites for wells. n 1. 2. Organize village workers n 2. 1. Develop curriculum. n 2. 2. Recruit health workers. n 2. 3. Conduct training. n

The Logical Framework NARRATIVE SUMMARY GOAL PURPOSE OUTPUTS INDICATORS MEANS OF VERIFICATION ASSUMPTIONS The Logical Framework NARRATIVE SUMMARY GOAL PURPOSE OUTPUTS INDICATORS MEANS OF VERIFICATION ASSUMPTIONS

Horizontal Logic of the Logframe NARRATIVE SUMMARY GOAL PURPOSE COMPONENTS ACTIVITIES INDICATORS MEANS OF Horizontal Logic of the Logframe NARRATIVE SUMMARY GOAL PURPOSE COMPONENTS ACTIVITIES INDICATORS MEANS OF ASSUMPTIONS VERIFICATION

The Means of Verification Objectives Observable Verifiable Indicators Hierarchy Indicators of Objective s Means The Means of Verification Objectives Observable Verifiable Indicators Hierarchy Indicators of Objective s Means of Verification (MOV) Sources of informati on Method Agency Method for Frequency Application Reporting Circulation for data responsible analysis of (expected format (expected collection for data uses) (letter, information collection, written users) analysis, report, oral and presentatio disseminati n, etc. ) on (information producer)

Logical Framework and M&E u u u Continuing rationale Efficiency Effectiveness Effects and impacts Logical Framework and M&E u u u Continuing rationale Efficiency Effectiveness Effects and impacts Lessons learned

Physical Execution Plan Components and indicators u Activities and tasks u Time u Responsibility Physical Execution Plan Components and indicators u Activities and tasks u Time u Responsibility (for execution) u

Physical Execution Plan Component/ Activities/Tasks 1. Component a. Activity b. Activity c. Activity 2. Physical Execution Plan Component/ Activities/Tasks 1. Component a. Activity b. Activity c. Activity 2. Component a. b. c. . . Time Responsibili Product ty 7 units Construction Unit 3 units Technical Support Unit

Financial Execution Plan Line-item budgets u Activity budgets u Financial Execution Plan Line-item budgets u Activity budgets u

Activity Budget Activity Budget

Monitoring Reports Routine u Special u Alerts u Monitoring Reports Routine u Special u Alerts u

Routine Monitoring Reports Example = Procedure = procedures Budget reports Some standardized Routine Monitoring Reports Example = Procedure = procedures Budget reports Some standardized

Special Monitoring Reports Example = identification Bottleneck Procedure Troubleshooting = Special Monitoring Reports Example = identification Bottleneck Procedure Troubleshooting =

Alerts Example = Benefits/Costs Procedure = Cost overruns Alerts Example = Benefits/Costs Procedure = Cost overruns

Evaluation Reports Periodic review u Mid-term evaluation u Management (PPMR) u Final evaluation u Evaluation Reports Periodic review u Mid-term evaluation u Management (PPMR) u Final evaluation u