- Количество слайдов: 45
Imperialism and Colonization Mid 19 th –> early 20 th century
In a NUTSHELL… European countries take over a bunch of African and Asian countries by FORCE, EXPLOIT them horribly, and cause terrible PROBLEMS.
Context • Europe had set up colonies during the age of exploration (especially in Americas). • These colonies made them RICH and POWERFUL.
But… by the late 18 th Century… 1. Colonies wanted Independence! Europe was losing its old colonies 2. Slavery was being abolished (banned)! Colonies were losing their free labor! Europe’s old system of colonies was coming to an end!
But… they wanted MORE!
Why did Europe still want colonies? 1. Economic Reasons: – – – Needed raw materials for their industries. Wanted new markets to buy their products. New companies in which to invest for profits. 2. Political Reasons: – More power/bigger empires 3. Social Reasons: – European countries were crowded… – Send poorer citizens to live in new colonies.
So, they turned to Africa and Asia…
• Please read p. 148 -149 • Do questions 1 – 7 – 8 -10
The Colonization of Africa • Africa had many natural resources (gold, minerals, rubber, ivory…) • Europeans wanted those resources. • Europeans decided to explore Africa (by force – they had guns).
The scramble for Africa began!
The Berlin Conference 1884 -1885 • European countries began to fight over Africa. • Berlin conference was a meeting to come up with “rules” for the conquest of Africa, including…. – Everyone must practice free trade – No slavery / slave-trade – Everyone could use the Congo and Nile rivers • By the end of the conference, the colonizers had divided Africa into about 50 countries.
European Imperialism in Africa • Imperialism: When a state attempts to rule over other countries. • Europe’s imperialism in Africa took the form of: – Racial discrimination – Economic exploitation
European Imperialism in Africa 1. Explorers “discover” Africa. 2. Missionaries “convert” and “civilize” Africa. 3. Military (army) conquer Africa. 4. Merchants and Entrepaneurs exploit Africa.
Racial Discrimination • Discrimination – Tried to use “science” to prove they were superior. – Spread this view through books and newspapers. – Most Europeans accepted this view. • “The White Man’s Burden” – Europeans thought it was their job to “civilize inferior races” – to ‘raise’ them to a superior, more European level.
Economic Exploitation • Businesses “hired” African workers – often close to slaves. • Europe … – Took the raw materials from Africa – Manufactured goods in Europe – Sold them back to the colonies, who HAD to buy from the Mother Country.
The Result? • European countries got RICH at their colonies’ expense.
“Thus colonize the British” This German cartoon criticizes the way the British treated the people in their colonies.
Example: The Congo • Leopold II – King of Belgium – Explored the Congo – Took personal control of the Congo – 1885 – Evangelized the inhabitants – Sent Raw Materials (especially RUBBER) back to Belgium. – Millions killed, injured, starved, or murdered.
“In the Rubber Coils” (1906) British cartoon criticizing the Belgian King (Leopold’s) domination of the Congo.
Workers were brutally punished for “laziness”
It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery. . . The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead. . . This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official
REVIEW SO FAR: WHAT TIME PERIOD ARE WE TALKING ABOUT?
Late 1700 s mid 1900 s
WHY DID EUROPEAN MOTHER COUNTRIES WANT TO HAVE COLONIES?
ECONOMIC REASONS • Needed RAW MATERIALS • Wanted NEW MARKETS for their products. POLITICAL REASONS • Wanted larger Empires and more POWER SOCIAL REASONS • Send out excess (poor) citizens to new lands.
What was the BERLIN CONFERENCE of 1884 – 1885?
A MEETING WHERE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES CAME UP WITH THE “RULES” FOR COLONIZING AFRICA. THEY AGREED THAT: 1. Everyone must practice free trade 2. No slavery / slave-trade 3. Everyone could use the Congo and Nile rivers
What is IMPERIALISM?
Imperialism: When a state attempts to rule over other countries.
IN WHAT WAYS WAS EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM BAD FOR THE PEOPLE OF AFRICA?
• BASED ON… –RACISM –ECONOMIC EXPLOITATION • RESOURCES TAKEN FROM AFRICA CHEAPLY • PRODUCTS SOLD BACK TO AFRICA FOR A PROFIT
RESISTANCE TO COLONIALISM • In Europe and America, some began to criticize and protest what the European Mother countries were doing. • In the colonies, some fought back. – Ex: Samory Touré in West Africa. • He fought the French, but did not succeed. • Died after being captured, in 1900.
But the resistance was not enough • • 1914 – the Empires had spread. Africa basically owned by Europe. British Empire – 87 times the size of Britain French Empire – 20 times the size of France.
The Effects of European Imperialism
Economic Effects in Africa • Industrialized (European) countries owned the manufacturing industries and possessed the wealth. • Non-industrialized (African) countries didn’t have manufacturing industries – could only sell their natural resources.
• EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM KEPT THEIR COLONIES IN A STATE OF POVERTY WHILE GETTING RICH OFF OF THEM. Well of course we did! If Africa had their own factories, then they wouldn’t need us to sell them products… In fact, if Africa had their own factories and industries, they could be making goods and selling them on their own… then THEY would get rich!
• After African colonies became free in the mid 1900 s, they were left with no manufacturing industries – this was very hard on their economies.
Cultural Effects • Major result was ACCULTURATION of Africans. – ACCULTURATION = When members of one culture take on the traits of another. Happened because many Africans… • converted to Christianity. • went to schools built by Europeans.
European illustration showing acculturation among Amerindians.
Human and Political Effects • Many Africans died (fighting, punishments, etc. ) • Discrimination (racist laws) • European borders caused problems (split up ethnic groups, pushed enemies together).
World Politics • World War One 1914 -1918 – European countries at war. – There was fighting in the colonies. – Many soldiers came from the colonies. – Germany was defeated, and its colonies were split up. – Colonies realized that the Mother Countries weren’t so strong after all… NATIONALIST movements started up in some colonies.
So, to sum it up… • Effects of European Imperialism = 1. Economic Effects • • Poverty Lack of manufacturing industries 2. Cultural Effects • Acculturation 3. Political Effects • • Death Discrimination Borders don’t make sense World War One leads to Nationalist Movements.