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IMLS NLG Collection Registry & Item-Level Metadata Repository at the University of Illinois Timothy IMLS NLG Collection Registry & Item-Level Metadata Repository at the University of Illinois Timothy W. Cole (t-cole [email protected] edu) Mathematics Librarian & Professor of Library Administration University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA) Open Archives Forum Workshop University of Bath 4 September 2003 http: //dli. grainger. uiuc. edu/Publications/TWCole/OAForum. Wkshp. Bath/

IMLS NLG Program n Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) n n U. IMLS NLG Program n Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) n n U. S. Federal grant-making agency, est. 1996 Goal to foster leadership, innovation, lifetime learning $244 million annual budget IMLS National Leadership Grant Program n n n Currently about $20 million per year Library, Museum, & Library-Museum Collaborations Funds research & demonstration, digitization, preservation, model programs, new technology t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 2 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

IMLS Digital Collections Framework “IMLS Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections” published IMLS Digital Collections Framework “IMLS Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections” published November 2001 http: //www. imls. gov/pubs/forumframework. htm n Product of 8 -member IMLS Digital Library Forum, with participation from National Science Digital Library (NSF) n Differentiates digital collections & digital libraries n Articulates principles & frames discussion of best practices n Links to resources, models, & exemplary projects n Will be sustained by National Information Standards Org. t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 3 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Recommendations from the IMLS Forum Four General Recommendations to IMLS: 1. Digital collections built Recommendations from the IMLS Forum Four General Recommendations to IMLS: 1. Digital collections built with support of public funds can and should be held to standards that support interoperability, reusability, and persistence. 2. IMLS should maintain its own registry of funded digital collections. 3. Because so much of the IMLS constituency consists of small and medium-sized organizations without sophisticated in-house technical support, the IMLS should also consider projects to develop infrastructure services that lower barriers to NSDL contribution by smaller organizations. 4. IMLS should encourage the integration of an archiving component into every project plan by requiring a description of how data will be preserved. t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 4 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

n Collection description and registry for National Leadership grant projects with digital content n n Collection description and registry for National Leadership grant projects with digital content n n Item level metadata repository via OAI-PMH n n n Enhance discoverability; all registry fields searchable Demonstrate potential of metadata for interoperability Facilitate reuse of information resources Research question: How can resource developers best represent collections and items to meet the needs of service providers and end users? Project Website: http: //imlsdcc. grainger. uiuc. edu/ t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 5 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Project Scope n 95 NLG projects with associated digital collections n n 51 of Project Scope n 95 NLG projects with associated digital collections n n 51 of these are/were collaborative projects All together 237 institutions involved t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 6 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

A Diverse Community n n Wide variation in technical skills and technology infrastructure & A Diverse Community n n Wide variation in technical skills and technology infrastructure & policy Mix of library, museum, and archive traditions n n n Diverse perspectives on IP policy, use and presentation of metadata and primary resources Diverse embedded knowledge structures Wide range of vocabularies and descriptive practices n n n Metadata created for diverse purposes Local vocabularies for type, subject, coverage, audience Wide range of granularity t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 7 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Prior Work – Mellon OAI Grants n July 2001, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation awarded Prior Work – Mellon OAI Grants n July 2001, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation awarded 7 grants for OAI-related research ($1. 5 mil. total) Primary focus: demonstrate utility of OAI metadata harvesting in context of scholarly inquiry n Research Library Group (RLG) University of Michigan University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Emory University / Southeastern Library Network Woodrow Wilson International Center University of Virginia See: http: //www. arl. org/newsltr/217/waters. html n t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 8 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

University of Illinois Mellon OAI Project n n July 2001 – May 2003 Primary University of Illinois Mellon OAI Project n n July 2001 – May 2003 Primary Objectives: n n Create & demonstrate OAI tools Build portal to aggregated metadata describing cultural heritage resources n n Initially – For OAI testing & research Long-term – As a sustained resource Investigate using EAD metadata in OAI context Research utility of aggregated metadata t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 9 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

University of Illinois Cultural Heritage Portal n Harvests 25 OAI Providers n n Academic University of Illinois Cultural Heritage Portal n Harvests 25 OAI Providers n n Academic libraries & archives Digital library projects Historical societies Aggregates 479, 000 metadata items n n n 55% text / sheet music 40% image / multimedia 5% archival / museum http: //oai. grainger. uiuc. edu t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 10 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Current Projects Addressing Similar Issues NSDL Digital library of resource collections and services, organized Current Projects Addressing Similar Issues NSDL Digital library of resource collections and services, organized in support of science education at all levels. NOF-Digitize / Enrich. UK Description and aggregation of digitized collections funded by the New Opportunities Fund Minerva Project Creating an agreed European common platform, recommendations and guidelines about digitization, metadata, longterm accessibility and preservation t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 11 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Technical Challenges n NLG Awardees have diverse technical resources n n Limited knowledge of Technical Challenges n NLG Awardees have diverse technical resources n n Limited knowledge of / tools for working with XML Limited knowledge of community metadata schemas Limited knowledge of / access to CGI capabilities Early NLG projects have no resources earmarked for sharing metadata n Technical implementations not always built with reuse and interoperability in mind t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 12 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

OAI Readiness Among NLG Projects t-cole 3@uiuc. edu University of Illinois at UC 13 OAI Readiness Among NLG Projects t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 13 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

OAI for Static Repositories n Lower barrier option for exposing relatively static and small OAI for Static Repositories n Lower barrier option for exposing relatively static and small collections of metadata n n Designed to scale well to about 5, 000 metadata records Provider serves static XML file (no CGI required) 3 rd party gateway generates valid OAI responses Supports only a subset of OAI options n n No sets, deleted records, resumption. Tokens Date. Stamp granularity limited to YYYY-MM-DD Preliminary alpha version of OAI-SR guidelines available: http: //www. openarchives. org/OAI/2. 0/guidelines-static-repository. htm t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 14 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

t-cole 3@uiuc. edu University of Illinois at UC Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

OAI Static Repository Gateways n SR Gateways support CGI extended path n SR Gateways OAI Static Repository Gateways n SR Gateways support CGI extended path n SR Gateways typically cache static repository XML files n n SR Gateway lists all SRs available through gateway in element (dynamic discovery of SRs) SR Gateways assumed to support automated self-registration of SRs should make themselves available through a single SR Gateway applications available on Source. Forge. net 1 2 t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 16 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

t-cole 3@uiuc. edu Example University of Illinois at UC of a Static Repository XML t-cole [email protected] edu Example University of Illinois at UC of a Static Repository XML File Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

t-cole 3@uiuc. edu Identify University of Illinois at UC OAI_DC Record Open Archives Forum t-cole [email protected] edu Identify University of Illinois at UC OAI_DC Record Open Archives Forum Workshop MARC 21 XML Record 4 September 2003

Working with Turnkey Solutions n OAI provider service now built into many popular digital Working with Turnkey Solutions n OAI provider service now built into many popular digital library applications n n n Some implementations may be limited n n Content. DM, Encompass, DLXS, DSpace, EPrints. org Facilitates participation in OAI-PMH metadata sharing Many support oai_dc metadata schema only May have limited feature set (e. g, no resumption. Token) Metadata mappings may not be configurable Community needs to advocate requirements strongly t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 19 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Metadata Issues n Wide range of metadata schemas in use n Variations in Descriptive Metadata Issues n Wide range of metadata schemas in use n Variations in Descriptive practices & traditions n Use of Dublin Core fields Granularity n What is being described n n Different approaches to IP rights issues t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 20 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Metadata Schemas Used By NLG Projects n MARC and Dublin Core most common schemas Metadata Schemas Used By NLG Projects n MARC and Dublin Core most common schemas n n Includes qualified DC & DC with extra fields 24 projects - multiple schemas n 14 of these using Dublin Core in combination with another schema t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 21 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

DC element usage (from Mellon) Records containing subject & description element SUBJECT DESCRIPTION n DC element usage (from Mellon) Records containing subject & description element SUBJECT DESCRIPTION n Digital libraries (10 total, 122, 719 records) 93% Academic libraries (7 total, 235, 294 records) n 36% Museums, hist. societies, etc. (6 total, 255, 800 records) n 78% 15% 13% Many different controlled and local vocabularies in use Granularity: a record may describe a collection of coins — or one coin t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 22 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Describe the digital object? Excerpt of record describing a cotton coverlet Description: Digital image Describe the digital object? Excerpt of record describing a cotton coverlet Description: Digital image of a single-sized cotton coverlet for a bed with embroidered butterfly design. Handmade by Anna F. Ginsberg Hayutin. Source: Materials: cotton and embroidery floss. Dimensions: 71 in. x 86 in. Markings: top right hand corner has 1 1/2 in. x 1/2 in. label cut outs at upper left and right hand side for head board; fabric is woven in a variation of a rib weave; color each of yellow and gray; hand-embroidered cotton butterflies and flowers from two shades of each color of embroidery floss blue, pink, green and purple and single top 20 in. bordered with blue and black cotton embroidery thread; stitches used for embroidery: running stitch, chain stitch, French knot and back stitches; selvage edges left unfinished; lower edges turned under and finished with large gray running stitches made with embroidery floss. Format: Epson Expression 836 XL Scanner with Adobe Photoshop version 5. 5; 300 dpi; 21 -53 K bytes. Available via the World Wide Web. Coverage: — Date Created: 2001 -09 -19 09: 45: 18; Updated: 20011107162451; Created: 2001 -04 -05; Created: 1912 -1920? Type: Image t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 23 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Or describe the analog object? Excerpt of record describing Am. woven coverlet Description: Materials: Or describe the analog object? Excerpt of record describing Am. woven coverlet Description: Materials: Textile--Multi, Pigment—Dye; Manufacturing Process: Weaving--Hand, Spinning, Dyeing, Hand-loomed blue wool and white linen coverlet, worked in overshot weave in plain geometric variant of a checkerboard pattern. Coverlet is constructed from finely spun, indigo-dyed wool and undyed linen, woven with considerable skill. Although the pattern is simpler, the overall craftsmanship is higher than 1934. 01. 0094 A. - D. Schrishuhn, 11/19/99 This coverlet is an example of early "overshot" weaving construction, probably dating to the 1820's and is not attributable to any particular weaver. -- Georgette Meredith, 10/9/1973 Source: — Format: 228 x 169 x 1. 2 cm (1, 629 g) Coverage: Euro-American; America, North; United States; Indiana? Illinois? Date: Early 19 th c. CE Type: cultural; physical object; original t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 24 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Various Concerns About IP Rights n Overcoming reluctance to share metadata because of IP Various Concerns About IP Rights n Overcoming reluctance to share metadata because of IP rights issues n n Concern that sharing metadata is giving away most valuable asset Uncertain whether license limits metadata sharing Uncertain whether to share metadata describing licensed information resources Machine readable IP rights attributes Needed to facilitate reuse t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 25 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Portal Design Issues n How best to organize aggregated metadata for browse n n Portal Design Issues n How best to organize aggregated metadata for browse n n How best to implement basic & advanced searching n n Need scalable ways to build / implement classifications Need better methods for clustering and grouping Utilize relationships & ties to collection descriptions Precise searching hard due to metadata usage variations Limited normalization possible; more work needed Robust search & ranking across large aggregations hard Need more audience-specific designs n n Need more dynamic & interactive designs Need better support of educational & instructional uses t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 26 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Portal Design – Mellon Project Experience n Limited focus group testing n n n Portal Design – Mellon Project Experience n Limited focus group testing n n n 23 student teachers in honors-level C & I class Assignment to students: Use the site in preparing a lesson plan for high school social studies class Process n n Introduced site & “aggregated metadata” concept Focus group interviews conducted Students’ papers examined Transaction logs analyzed t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 27 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

A Few Observations from Test 1. Users expected all links to point to digital A Few Observations from Test 1. Users expected all links to point to digital objects n n n Some records pointed to finding aids Some records pointed to collection’s web site Some records pointed to Library books on the shelf 2. Users unable to make use of search results n n Simple searches produced 1000 s of unranked results Advanced search (with limits) rarely used 3. Distinction between portal and data providers unimportant to users t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 28 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Rethinking what “online access” means n To librarian & curator n To student teacher Rethinking what “online access” means n To librarian & curator n To student teacher t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 29 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003

Closing Thought – Considering OAI in Context n Descriptive, item-level metadata alone insufficient n Closing Thought – Considering OAI in Context n Descriptive, item-level metadata alone insufficient n n Distinction between collection & item blurs in DLs n n n Must be used in combination with collection descriptions, user annotations, machine generated clustering, … Complex objects – TEI, EAD, METS Granularity – should museum describe every arrowhead in end -user search & discovery system Relationships between items provide context Need to tie collection registry to item-level repository OAI-PMH not limited to item-level descriptive metadata t-cole [email protected] edu University of Illinois at UC 30 Open Archives Forum Workshop 4 September 2003