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Ideologies, Religion, and Protest CPW 4 U MR. P CARNEY
Political Ideologies Examples of Ideologies liberalism Nazism fascism communism liberalism totalitarianism conservatism socialism
Political Ideologies in Canada
Political Ideologies in Canada Conservative Party Reform Party and Canadian Conservative Reform Alliance Party (acronyms anyone? !) Bloc Québécois Liberal Party New Democratic Party
Political Ideologies in Canada Conservative Party
Political Ideologies in Canada Reform Party and Canadian Alliance Party
Political Ideologies in Canada Bloc Québécois
Political Ideologies in Canada Liberal Party
Political Ideologies in Canada New Democratic Party
Origins of Political Ideologies Classical Liberalism Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations major changes in Europe… Industrial Revolution Urbanization …. which results in the creation of the middle class which has no political power but has lots of money middle class begins to challenge traditional authority and revolts against the government (1789 French Revolution)
Origins of Political Ideologies liberals see this as justified, they support Smith’s ideas and oppose absolutism – they later split into our modern day “liberals” and “conservatives” conservatives don’t like this challenge to the traditional authority, they resist change 1980 s – ‘Iron Lady’ Margaret Thatcher, ‘Ronny’ Ronald Reagan
Origins of Political Ideologies Reform Liberalism John Maynard Keynes (and others) focused on freedoms in life pot, porn, gay rights, etc… “The State has no business in the bedrooms of the nation. ” more democratic, interventionist in economics trying more UI, to guarantee a minimum standard of living eager to provide collective goods via the state CPP, …. redistribution of wealth by progressive income tax, etc.
Origins of Political Ideologies rose out of the concerns for the new working class of the Industrial Revolution today, growth of large corporations and reduction in the number of competitors in key markets are of concern
Origins of Political Ideologies Conservative Principles reverence for the past (e. g. Queen) organic conception of society (e. g. societies are greater than the sum of their parts) constitutional continuity opposition to revolution cautious reform religious basis of state divine source of legitimate authority priority of duties to rights
Origins of Political Ideologies loyalty common sense and pragmatism economic orientation – market economy examples Lord’s Prayer at school Sunday shopping women covered in Muslim states class system the “American Dream” slavery in the southern United States
Origins of Political Ideologies Neo-Conservatism mainly economics rising out of rising debts, growing size of government and taxes
Origins of Political Ideologies Socialism emerges in the 19 th century as a response to the horrors of the Industrial Revolution working conditions living conditions lack of response by the liberal governments “a political and economic theory in which the means of production and distribution are owned, managed, or controlled by a central, democratically elected authority” based on some form of “Utopian” vision planning by government, public ownership, equality of outcome, collectivism
Origins of Political Ideologies Utopian Socialists create ideal societies (communes) so all can see the benefits democratically created institutions Revolutionary Socialists appeal to action Communism went beyond economics to sociology – alienation aka __________
Religion in Politics Eastern Religions and Politics Hinduism Confucianism Buddhism Western Religion and Politics Judaism Catholicism Islam Protestantism
Religion in Politics Hinduism oldest of major world religions believe in a single divinity that is present in everything through reincarnation, at death a soul passes from one body to another – good actions in this life lead to a better situation in the next incarnation rules for diet, family, caste (hereditary social class), and politics doctrine of non-violence, or ahimsa, was the basis for Mahatma Gandhi’s use of civil disobedience – some Hindus opposed Gandhi
Religion in Politics Confucianism Confucius (551– 449 BCE) created a system of “right living” known as ren Confucius taught rulers to act humanely toward their subjects parents, teachers, and government officials were the guardians of this civic religion (no priests) all human relationships involved defined roles and mutual obligations – a social hierarchy egalitarianism – the promotion of equality co-existed with Buddhism and Taoism well, until Mao Zedong outlawed all religions in 1949
Religion in Politics Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama (ca. 563– 483 BCE) preached that enlightenment was to be found in the Middle Way, the path that lies between indulgence and asceticism (rigid self-discipline) many characteristics of Hinduism were adopted a “buddha” is someone who has awakened to the true nature of universal cause and effect, and whose awareness transcends birth, suffering, and death Emperor Ashoka made Buddhism the state religion of India and spread it throughout southeast Asia and the Middle East – diaspora of Tibetans spread it further
Religion in Politics Judaism Romans destroyed the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE, forcing Jewish people to spread throughout the world (diaspora) in some “host countries”, they were accepted and given much religious freedom; in others, they were viewed as outsiders and treated with hostility although both Jews and Arabs are Semitic peoples, “anti. Semitism” has come to mean hatred of the Jewish people Hitler’s Holocaust (1933 -1945) was the most extreme example of anti-Semitic behaviour
Religion in Politics Catholicism led by the pope, who is seen as the successor to Saint Peter as Christ’s representative on Earth eastern and western churches evolved Catholicism intertwined in politics. Gave political advantages – good ones and bad ones (carrying out the Spanish Inquisition, creating denominational schools, and discouraging divorce, abortion) eastern Christians saw themselves as Orthodox – following the principles of the original religion excommunication of two leaders in 1054 finished the schism John Paul II reached out to the east, but no reconciliation
Religion in Politics Islam is an Arabic word that means “submission” a follower of Islam is called a “Muslim, ” which means “one who submits to the will of Allah” Muhammad (570– 632 CE) recorded the word of Allah, in the Qur’an, the holy book of Islam there is no separation of church and state in Islamic countries – no discrimination based on race or class Christians and Muslims began fighting over access to holy sites in Jerusalem political violence contradicts Islam’s traditional teachings jihad (holy war) is actually the ongoing inner struggle of conscience to be a better Muslim
Religion in Politics Protestantism is the politics of dissent Martin Luther (1483– 1546) and the Protestant Reformation opposed the power of the Roman Catholic Church England’s Act of Supremacy made the king or queen of England the head of the new Church of England John Calvin, John Knox, and others appealed to the middle classes and gave rise to political democracies Calvinism, Presbyterianism, and political voices of conscience such as Quakers are all forms of Protestantism
Religion in Politics Religious Fundamentalism Secularism Individuals in Politics and Religion in Politics Today Separation of Church and State
Religion in Politics Religious Fundamentalism In Christianity, fundamentalists feel that the state must be subservient to God – most evident in N Ireland the degree of state backing of a state religion varies there are numerous countries in the world with official religions, recognizing one of the Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Lutheran, Anglican, Islamic, Buddhist, Hindu, and Jewish religions
Religion in Politics Secularism is a policy of avoiding entanglement between government and religion Disestablishment is the process of divesting a church of its status as an organ of the state those who wish to continue with an established church take a position of antidisestablishmentarianism (!) the First Amendment to the US Constitution explicitly bans the federal government from setting up a state church
Religion in Politics Individuals in Politics and Religion religious leaders and thinkers have been powerful voices of conscience in the secular world of politics interplay of politics and religion within specific individuals can be significant Mohandas Gandhi and Indian Nationalism Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Anti-Nazism Mother Teresa and the Politics of Poverty The Dalai Lama and the Defence of Tibet Archbishop Desmond Tutu and Apartheid
Religion in Politics Today Religion plays a significant role in politics in many different parts of the world Ireland Northern Ireland (UK) India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh Israel and Palestine China Iran United States
Religion in Politics Separation of Church and State at the structural level of government, separation of church and state may be clear at the everyday level, however, religious beliefs frequently impinge on political procedures and decision making Should a legislative session open with a prayer? Should church property be exempt from taxation? Should religious symbols be allowed in public schools and government offices? Should religious beliefs have precedence over human rights legislation?
Revolution When we think of democracy as ‘mob rule’ it is easy to identify the tendency and right of all individuals to voice their opinions regarding the leadership of the country. People in favour of this notion, agree that protests are examples democracy at play.
Coup D’etat • Radical over through of the government within 24 hours • Literally means – ‘a blow to the state’ • This is an extreme form of protest / revolt • Tuesday 19 September 2006 – royal Thai army stages a Coup d’etat agains the elected caretaker government of Prime minister Thaksis Shinawa.
Religion in Politics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Explain why in Hinduism every political decision is also a religious decision. In what ways was Confucianism an indispensable component of political stability in China? How was Buddhism adopted and adapted by several Chinese emperors and the governments of various dynasties? How did the Jewish people maintain their cultural identity despite the Diaspora? Why were Jews often isolated socially and politically?
Religion in Politics 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Describe the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and Henry IV of Germany, Ferdinand of Spain, and Louis XIV of France. Why did the Catholic Church split into the Western and Eastern churches? What is the relationship between religion and government in Islam? Why did Calvinism appeal to the middle classes? How did the Protestant Reformation affect the relationship between church and state?