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IDENTIFY THE PRESIDENT WHO WAS … 1. The first to be inaugurated at the IDENTIFY THE PRESIDENT WHO WAS … 1. The first to be inaugurated at the west front of the Capitol, in a symbolic allusion to his Western roots. 2. The only one to be sworn in west of the Mississippi River. 3. The first to be inaugurated on January 20. 4. The first to take the oath of office in Washington. a. LBJ b. FDR c. Reagan d. Jefferson

IDENTIFY THE PRESIDENT WHO, AT HIS INAUGURATION, … 1. was the first to wear IDENTIFY THE PRESIDENT WHO, AT HIS INAUGURATION, … 1. was the first to wear a complete outfit, including shoes, made in America. 2. work a blue business suit, rather than formal attire. 3. refused to wear a hat or coat, despite inclement weather. a. Bush 41 b. W. H. Harrison c. Madison

WHICH PRESIDENT… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. a. b. c. d. e. f. WHICH PRESIDENT… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. a. b. c. d. e. f. took the oath of office using his nickname? used the word “affirm” instead of “swear” for religious reasons? is the only one to take the oath of office and to administer it to other Presidents? was the only person whose Presidential oath was administered by a woman? had different wives at his two inaugurations? had the oath administered first by his father, a notary public and justice of the peace, and 18 days later by a District of Columbia Supreme Court judge? LBJ Carter Taft Pierce Wilson Coolidge

IDENTIFY THE PRESIDENT WHO DELIVERED AN INAUGURAL ADDRESS… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. of IDENTIFY THE PRESIDENT WHO DELIVERED AN INAUGURAL ADDRESS… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. of only 135 words, the shortest on record. that took 1 hour and 45 minutes to deliver, the longest on record. that included the phrase, “ask not what your country can do for you— ask what you can do for your country”. that was the first to be broadcast live over the radio. that was the first to be televised. a. b. c. d. e. JFK Truman W. Harrison Washington Coolidge

EXECUTIVE PROPOSALS 1. plural national executive (committee) 2. executive checked by council 3. elective EXECUTIVE PROPOSALS 1. plural national executive (committee) 2. executive checked by council 3. elective monarchy (Alexander Hamilton) 4. single elected president (John Wilson)

AMERICAN-STYLE PRESIDENCY nowhere else in world or in history unique and unprecedented fear- that AMERICAN-STYLE PRESIDENCY nowhere else in world or in history unique and unprecedented fear- that incumbent would stay in forever Make him too weak; the Legislature will usurp his powers. Make him too strong; he will usurp on the Legislature. Gouverneur Morris

UNITED STATES written constitution republic elected president reparation of powers 3 branches regularly scheduled UNITED STATES written constitution republic elected president reparation of powers 3 branches regularly scheduled elections individuals major role in governing electorate elects all legislators civil liberties and civil rights guaranteed all citizens over 18 can vote GREAT BRITAIN unwritten constitution limited constitutional monarchy prime minister from majority party no separation of powers no fixed date for elections political parties role in governing electorate elects some legislators civil liberties and civil rights all citizens over 18 can vote

UNIFIED GOVERNMENT one party controls both WH and Congress 1953 1969 2002 Reps have UNIFIED GOVERNMENT one party controls both WH and Congress 1953 1969 2002 Reps have both branches Dems control both WH, Congress Reps have both (1 yr after Jeffords) ex. New Deal, Great Society

DIVIDED GOVERNMEN T when one party controls WH, other Congress even with same party, DIVIDED GOVERNMEN T when one party controls WH, other Congress even with same party, ideological wing might cause problems unified govt very rare (party and/or ideology) ex. Marshall Plan, 1986 Tax Reform Plan

GRIDLOCK when divided government results in partisanship might not be any worse than with GRIDLOCK when divided government results in partisanship might not be any worse than with opposite party might not be bad for country

UNIQUENESS OF PRESIDENCY 60 countries have party competition 16 with president directly elected by UNIQUENESS OF PRESIDENCY 60 countries have party competition 16 with president directly elected by people (13 in Americas) Prime Minister chosen by party (Western Europe, Israel, Japan) most countries vote for party, not individual

OTHER COUNTRIES Argentina Egypt 4 yrs 6 yrs France Mexico Philippines South Africa 5 OTHER COUNTRIES Argentina Egypt 4 yrs 6 yrs France Mexico Philippines South Africa 5 yrs 4 yrs direct election nominated by leg /majority of pop direct election elected by legislature

TYPES OF PRESIDENT Founding- Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe Wartime- Madison, Jackson, Polk, Lincoln, TYPES OF PRESIDENT Founding- Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe Wartime- Madison, Jackson, Polk, Lincoln, Wilson, FDR, Truman, LBJ, Bush 41, Bush 43, Obama Tranquil- Monroe, Mc. Kinley, Eisenhower, Clinton Expanding- Jackson, Polk, Lincoln, Cleveland, TR, Wilson, FDR, Nixon

PRESIDENTIAL CHARACTER Presidency only powerful when war (Lincoln, Wilson) or personality (Jackson, TR, FDR) PRESIDENTIAL CHARACTER Presidency only powerful when war (Lincoln, Wilson) or personality (Jackson, TR, FDR) Mid-1800 s Congress more powerful (one term, no-name presidents)

PRESIDENTIAL TYPES Artisan- Jackson, JFK, LBJ, Reagan Guardian- Washington, Cleveland, Mc. Kinley, Truman Rational- PRESIDENTIAL TYPES Artisan- Jackson, JFK, LBJ, Reagan Guardian- Washington, Cleveland, Mc. Kinley, Truman Rational- Jefferson, Madison, Lincoln Idealist- Wilson

BIRTH ORDER Alfred Adler- father of birth order psychology, 1908 1 st- pushed, middle- BIRTH ORDER Alfred Adler- father of birth order psychology, 1908 1 st- pushed, middle- ignored, last- dependent Burned child reaction- one child feeling neglected (usually middle) Only children- similar to first-borns but super everything; also could be self-centered Discouraged perfectionist- when an only child falls victim to perfection Middle child- harder to understand, full of contradictions “baby”- last born; “princess”- only girl; “lonely only”- only child Last baby 5 years younger than one before- acts like only Overindulgence- one child getting more attention (often first) Role reversal- younger takes role of oldest when oldest has some serious disability 2 first born parents might put more pressure on 1 st born child Parents generally over-identify with child closest to parent in birth order Child is most deeply influenced and affected by sibling just ahead of him/her Marry people outside your birth order: ex. Oldest marries youngest Marry people with personality traits you’re missing Males will marry someone like their mom; females will marry someone like their dad 52% of presidents- first born; babies- 4 in number?

PRESIDENTIAL IDEOLOGY 1 F Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy L Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan PRESIDENTIAL IDEOLOGY 1 F Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy L Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan Bush 41 Clinton Bush 43 Obama liberal D moderate R moderate D liberal D moderate R liberal D conservative R moderate D liberal R liberal D

CHARACTERISTICS OF NOMINEES well-known record free of controversy previous elective office* happily married family CHARACTERISTICS OF NOMINEES well-known record free of controversy previous elective office* happily married family healthy religious (mostly Protestant; Kennedy, Smith) speaking ability

LAST STEPPING STONE TO PRESIDENCY Secretary of State- 7 in the 1800 s, but LAST STEPPING STONE TO PRESIDENCY Secretary of State- 7 in the 1800 s, but only 3 sitting (Madison, Monroe, Quincy Adams) Vice President- 13 overall, but only 4 in their own right (Adams, Jefferson, Van Buren, Bush 41) Senators- 16 over history, but only 3 sitting (Harding, Kennedy, Obama) Governors- 17 all told; right before the presidency (Polk, Hayes, Cleveland, Mc. Kinley, Wilson, FDR, Carter, Reagan, Clinton, Bush 43) (formerly from large states; now more obscure)

VICE PRESIDENTS 9 have become president (8 before 25 th Am) 4 killed in VICE PRESIDENTS 9 have become president (8 before 25 th Am) 4 killed in office, 4 died in office, 1 resigned

BALANCING THE TICKET VP generally chosen for geographic balance (MA Kennedy and TX Johnson) BALANCING THE TICKET VP generally chosen for geographic balance (MA Kennedy and TX Johnson) Rare exception- AR Clinton and TN Gore

PRESIDENTIAL ROLES Chief of state Chief Executive Chief Administrator Chief Diplomat Commander in Chief PRESIDENTIAL ROLES Chief of state Chief Executive Chief Administrator Chief Diplomat Commander in Chief Legislator Chief of Party

CHIEF OF STATE Ceremonial head of govt Decorate war heroes Throw out first ball CHIEF OF STATE Ceremonial head of govt Decorate war heroes Throw out first ball to open baseball season Dedicate parks and post offices Receive visiting chiefs of state at WH Travel on official state visits to other countries Make personal telephone calls to astronauts Represent nation at times of national mourning (Challenger, Columbine, 9/11)

CARTER WITH DENG XIAOPING CARTER WITH DENG XIAOPING

CHIEF EXECUTIVE In charge of domestic and foreign policy CHIEF EXECUTIVE In charge of domestic and foreign policy

OBAMA IN TORONTO FOR G-8 AND G-20 OBAMA IN TORONTO FOR G-8 AND G-20

CHIEF ADMINISTRATOR In charge of executive branch CHIEF ADMINISTRATOR In charge of executive branch

BUSH 41 WITH STAFF, 1991 Brent Scowcroft, Robert Gates, Dick Cheney, Dan Quayle James BUSH 41 WITH STAFF, 1991 Brent Scowcroft, Robert Gates, Dick Cheney, Dan Quayle James Baker, George H. W. Bush, Colin Powell

CHIEF DIPLOMAT Spokesperson to world; foreign policy Kennedy speaking at Berlin Wall Reagan at CHIEF DIPLOMAT Spokesperson to world; foreign policy Kennedy speaking at Berlin Wall Reagan at Brandenburg Gate

REAGAN AT BERLIN WALL REAGAN AT BERLIN WALL

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF Oversees 5 branches of military COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF Oversees 5 branches of military

BUSH’S SURPRISE VISIT TO TROOPS IN IRAQ BUSH’S SURPRISE VISIT TO TROOPS IN IRAQ

CHIEF LEGISLATOR Helps shape congressional agenda Proposes own set of policy ideas Clinton and CHIEF LEGISLATOR Helps shape congressional agenda Proposes own set of policy ideas Clinton and gays in military Obama and health care

CLINTON SIGNS WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ACT 2000 CLINTON SIGNS WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ACT 2000

CHIEF OF PARTY Leader of political party CHIEF OF PARTY Leader of political party

OBAMA WITH DEMOCRATIC SENATE CAUCUS OBAMA WITH DEMOCRATIC SENATE CAUCUS

PRESIDENTIAL HEALTH health of president now extremely important no longer possible to cover up PRESIDENTIAL HEALTH health of president now extremely important no longer possible to cover up to the extent of Kennedy Not all modern presidents have released medical records though

WOODROW WILSON’S HEALTH 3 possible strokes before election incapacitated by 1919 stroke Massive stroke WOODROW WILSON’S HEALTH 3 possible strokes before election incapacitated by 1919 stroke Massive stroke while campaigning for League of Nations Missed 6 months of cabinet meetings Condition kept secret from all (even VP) except: 1 st lady, personal physician, private secretary, Secretary of State

FDR’S HEALTH paralysis due to polio at age 39 only 2 known photos of FDR’S HEALTH paralysis due to polio at age 39 only 2 known photos of him in a wheelchair

EISENHOWER 2 heart attacks (gave Nixon letter of authority to act in case of EISENHOWER 2 heart attacks (gave Nixon letter of authority to act in case of incapacitation)

KENNEDY’S HEALTH *more promiscuous with his doctors than his women spastic colitis (intestinal problems) KENNEDY’S HEALTH *more promiscuous with his doctors than his women spastic colitis (intestinal problems) osteoporosis (steroid use since 1937) Addison’s disease (failure of adrenal glands) malaria (after WWII) sinusitis prostatis Urethritis Testerone Backbrace Anti-spasmodics Antibiotics (for prostatis and urethritis) Procaine (for back) Hydrocortisone Testoterone (to increase weight) Pain killers

L JOHNSON L JOHNSON

ASSASSINATION ATTEMPTS ASSASSINATION ATTEMPTS

JACKSON one attempt—both shots misfired JACKSON one attempt—both shots misfired

LINCOLN at least 5 attempts, 1 successful LINCOLN at least 5 attempts, 1 successful

GARFIELD killed by disgruntled Charles Guiteau GARFIELD killed by disgruntled Charles Guiteau

MCKINLEY killed by anarchist Leon Czolgosz MCKINLEY killed by anarchist Leon Czolgosz

T ROOSEVELT shot at 1912 election speech T ROOSEVELT shot at 1912 election speech

KENNEDY shot twice by Lee Harvey Oswald KENNEDY shot twice by Lee Harvey Oswald

FORD 2 woman try within 10 days of each other Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme Sara FORD 2 woman try within 10 days of each other Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme Sara Jane Moore

REAGAN REAGAN

 CLINTON 3 attempts in 1994 (1 st- plane hit WH lawn) CLINTON 3 attempts in 1994 (1 st- plane hit WH lawn)

BUSH 43 hand-grenade thrown in Georgia two shoes thrown, , one at a time, BUSH 43 hand-grenade thrown in Georgia two shoes thrown, , one at a time, in Iraq Size: 682 × 400 Type: 69 KB JPG

OBAMA 3 white supremacists arrested while plotting to kill 44 th president before his OBAMA 3 white supremacists arrested while plotting to kill 44 th president before his inauguration

PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSION 1 1. Vice President 2. Speaker of the House 3. President pro PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSION 1 1. Vice President 2. Speaker of the House 3. President pro tempore of the Senate 4. Secretary of State 5. Secretary of the Treasury 6. Secretary of Defense 7. Attorney General 8. Secretary of the Interior 9. Secretary of Agriculture 10. Secretary of Commerce 11. Secretary of Labor 12. Secretary of Health and Human Services 13. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 14. Secretary of Transportation 15. Secretary of Energy 16. Secretary of Education 17. Secretary of Veterans Affairs 18. Secretary of Homeland Security

A WHITE HOUSE CHRISTMAS Christmas cards sent Tourists Cookies Handmade tamales Shrimp (pounds) Garland A WHITE HOUSE CHRISTMAS Christmas cards sent Tourists Cookies Handmade tamales Shrimp (pounds) Garland (feet) Cakes Asparagus Eggnog (gallons) Ornaments on main tree Wreaths Volunteers Christmas trees 895, 000 60, 000 20, 000 10, 000 1, 000 862 700 600 320 347 232 73 33

PRESIDENTIAL HONEYMOON ex. FDR (100 -day bank holiday) LBJ (Civil Rights Act of 1964) PRESIDENTIAL HONEYMOON ex. FDR (100 -day bank holiday) LBJ (Civil Rights Act of 1964) Reagan (cut federal budget and taxes) death/resignation of former president helps: Truman (87%), LBJ (78%), Ford (71%) average from Eisenhower to Bush 43 - 60%

HONEYMOON APPROVAL RATINGS Eisenhower Kennedy Nixon Carter Reagan Bush 41 Clinton Bush 43 Obama HONEYMOON APPROVAL RATINGS Eisenhower Kennedy Nixon Carter Reagan Bush 41 Clinton Bush 43 Obama 1 st month 68% 72% 59% 66% 51% 58% 57% 67% after 100 days 73% 83% 62% 63% 68% 56% 55% 62% 65%

PRES APPROVAL RATINGS 1 Truman Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan Bush 41 PRES APPROVAL RATINGS 1 Truman Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan Bush 41 Clinton Bush 43 Obama Average 41% 64 70 55 49 46 47 53 61 57 ? --- 1 st yr 63% 74 76 78 63 75 68 58 65 50 68 Final year 35% 62 62 40 24 48 46 57 40 60 ? ---

APPROVAL RATINGS Event Korean War Stalemate Bay of Pigs Invasion Cuban Missile Crisis Nixon’s APPROVAL RATINGS Event Korean War Stalemate Bay of Pigs Invasion Cuban Missile Crisis Nixon’s Trip to China Camp David Meeting Marines Bombed in Beirut Welfare Reform Enacted 9/11 Attacks Wars in Iraq/Afghanistan Approval of Action Before After ? ? 73% 83% 61% 74% 49% 56% 42% 56% 48% 56% 39% 58% ? ?

CLINTON’S APPROVAL RATINGS Jan 1998 Feb 1998 Apr 1998 Jun 1998 Aug 1998 Oct CLINTON’S APPROVAL RATINGS Jan 1998 Feb 1998 Apr 1998 Jun 1998 Aug 1998 Oct 1998 Dec 1998 Jan 1999 as President 58% 72% 67% 60% 67% 65% 69% shares morals 41% 44% 35% 44% 28% 32% 30%

CHANGE IN APPROVAL RATINGS Acceptable factors Presidential scandal Expectations gap Administrative spin Economic conditions CHANGE IN APPROVAL RATINGS Acceptable factors Presidential scandal Expectations gap Administrative spin Economic conditions Foreign policy problems Reelection campaign Popularity of decline No Increase Decrease Yes No* Yes No No Yes If bad If good Bad (if long) Yes No Yes *except Clinton

LAME DUCK idea that president who can not or chooses not to run for LAME DUCK idea that president who can not or chooses not to run for reelection has no power

PRESIDENTIAL RANKINGS Top 5 1. Lincoln 2. Washington 3. F Roosevelt 4. T Roosevelt PRESIDENTIAL RANKINGS Top 5 1. Lincoln 2. Washington 3. F Roosevelt 4. T Roosevelt 5. Jefferson Bottom 5 1. Buchanan 2. Harding 3. Grant 4. Pierce 5. A Johnson W Harrison and Garfield often not ranked due to length of term

AUDIENCES OF PRESIDENT DC politicians compromises, cajoling party activists/officeholders ideological speeches, raising $ the AUDIENCES OF PRESIDENT DC politicians compromises, cajoling party activists/officeholders ideological speeches, raising $ the public (many of them) prepared speeches, events, press conferences

ROLE OF FIRST LADY No official capacity in Constitution 1. Hostess- Dolley Madison, Jackie ROLE OF FIRST LADY No official capacity in Constitution 1. Hostess- Dolley Madison, Jackie Kennedy 2. Advisor- Nancy Reagan 3. Active Participant- Edith Wilson, Eleanor Roosevelt, Hillary Clinton Receives $20, 000 pension, Secret Service after

FIRST LADY’S SPECIAL EMPHASIS Eleanor Roosevelt Truman Mamie Eisenhower Jackie Kennedy Lucy Baines Johnson FIRST LADY’S SPECIAL EMPHASIS Eleanor Roosevelt Truman Mamie Eisenhower Jackie Kennedy Lucy Baines Johnson Pat Nixon Betty Ford Rosalyn Carter Nancy Reagan Barbara Bush Hillary Clinton Laura Bush Michelle Obama civil rights, women’s rights renovating White House beautification program: wildflowers volunteerism reading, homelessness, AIDs awareness women and children literacy working and military families

WHITE HOUSE DINNER FOR PRINCE OF WALES Celery broth with crispy rock shrimp Newton WHITE HOUSE DINNER FOR PRINCE OF WALES Celery broth with crispy rock shrimp Newton Chardonnay Unfiltered 2002 Medallions of buffalo tenderloin Roasted corn Wild rice pancakes Glazed parsnips and young carrots Peter Michael Pinot Noir “Le Moulin Rouge” 2002 Mint romaine lettuce with blood orange vinaigrette Vermont Camembert Cheese and spiced walnuts Petits Fours Cake Chartreuse Ice Cream with Red and Green Grape Sauce Iron Horse “Wedding Cuvee” 2002

DINNER TABLE SETTINGS AND MUSIC Clinton China and Vermeil flatware Gold pintuck silk tablecloths DINNER TABLE SETTINGS AND MUSIC Clinton China and Vermeil flatware Gold pintuck silk tablecloths Sprays of white phaeleanopsis orchids with camelia foliage in historic WH vermeil candelabras United States Marine Band Flute trio- East Entrance The United States Marine Band- Grand Foyer The United States Marine Band “Strolling Strings”- State Floor After Dinner Entertainment: White House State Floor Yo Yo Ma, Cellist- East Room Kathryn Stott- Concert Pianist- East Room The United States Marine Dance Band- Grand Foyer

HAIL TO THE CHIEF Words first referred to a Scottish chieftain in romantic poem, HAIL TO THE CHIEF Words first referred to a Scottish chieftain in romantic poem, “The Lady of the Lake, ” by Sir Walter Scott (published in 1810) Poem became so popular that it was quickly adopted into a London musical Song (possibly an old Scottish air) was written for the musical by English composer James Sanderson Adapted in US with new lyrics and name “Wreaths for the Chieftain” 1 st used to honor a US president at an 1815 birthday celebration for the late George Washington 1 st used by Marine Band for John Quincy Adams at 1828 groundbreaking celebration Tyler? Formally adopted by Dept of Defense in 1954 as official song for president

OFFICIAL LYRICS Hail to the Chief we have chosen for the nation, Hail to OFFICIAL LYRICS Hail to the Chief we have chosen for the nation, Hail to the Chief! We salute him, one and all. Hail to the Chief, as we pledge co-operation In proud fulfillment of a great, noble call. Yours is the aim to make this grand country grander, This you will do, that’s our strong, firm belief. Hail to the one we selected as commander, Hail to the President! Hail to the Chief! (Repeat)

PRESIDENTIAL COMPENSATION Salary $400, 000 (subject to income tax Expense Account $50, 000 (tax-free) PRESIDENTIAL COMPENSATION Salary $400, 000 (subject to income tax Expense Account $50, 000 (tax-free) White House Camp David Air Force One 2 airplanes designated Marine One Health care Secret Service Travel Budget $100, 000 (tax-free) Pension post-presidency (after Truman) Office Budget post-presidency

PRESIDENTIAL SALARY 1 Constitution did not require salary for pres Washington offered to work PRESIDENTIAL SALARY 1 Constitution did not require salary for pres Washington offered to work for expenses instead of a salary Many in Congress had been in the Continental Congress when then General Washington regularly submitted expense repayment requests (which were quite large apparently) Congress immediately voted him a salary

PRESIDENTIAL SALARY 2 year 1789 1873 1909 1949 1969 2000 per year pres in PRESIDENTIAL SALARY 2 year 1789 1873 1909 1949 1969 2000 per year pres in today’s money $25 k $245 k-$4 mill* 50 k Grant ? 75 k Taft 1. 36 mill 100 k Truman 685 k 200 k Nixon 900 k 400 k Bush 43 N/A *too difficult to convert; benefits were few

PRESIDENTIAL SALARY 3 1907 $25 k stipend for expenses added 1949 $90 k for PRESIDENTIAL SALARY 3 1907 $25 k stipend for expenses added 1949 $90 k for expense allowance 1969 $100 k for travel; $50 k for expenses 2001 $50 k for expenses

SOCIAL CLASS—UPPER Upper-Upper Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Quincy Adams, W Harrison, Tyler, Taylor, B Harrison, SOCIAL CLASS—UPPER Upper-Upper Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Quincy Adams, W Harrison, Tyler, Taylor, B Harrison, T Roosevelt, Taft, F Roosevelt Middle-Upper Polk, Kennedy, Bush 43? Lower-Upper Adams, Monroe, Wilson, Bush 41?

SOCIAL CLASS--MIDDLE Lower-Upper/Upper-Middle Pierce, Hayes, Cleveland, Harding, Coolidge, Truman Upper-Middle Jackson, Van Buren, Buchanan, SOCIAL CLASS--MIDDLE Lower-Upper/Upper-Middle Pierce, Hayes, Cleveland, Harding, Coolidge, Truman Upper-Middle Jackson, Van Buren, Buchanan, Grant, Arthur, Mc. Kinley, Hoover, L Johnson, Ford, Carter Middle Lincoln, Eisenhower, Reagan Lower-Middle Fillmore, Garfield, Nixon

SOCIAL CLASS--LOWER Upper-Lower A Johnson Lower-Lower None SOCIAL CLASS--LOWER Upper-Lower A Johnson Lower-Lower None

WHITE HOUSE 6 stories, 132 rooms, 35 bathrooms, 28 staircases, movie theater, bowling alley WHITE HOUSE 6 stories, 132 rooms, 35 bathrooms, 28 staircases, movie theater, bowling alley (Lincoln), basketball court (Obama), tennis court No more pool (taken out by LBJ)

CAMP DAVID Outside pool Tennis courts Bowling alley Golf course Skeet range Field house CAMP DAVID Outside pool Tennis courts Bowling alley Golf course Skeet range Field house Helicopter pad

SUMMER “WHITE HOUSES” F Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan Bush SUMMER “WHITE HOUSES” F Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan Bush 41 Clinton Bush 43 Obama Campobello (Canada); Warm Springs, GA; Hyde Park, NY Key West, FL military bases: Denver, CO and Newport, RI owned Hyannis Port, MA (Kennedy Compound) Johnson City, TX Key Biscayne, FL The Lodge, Vail, CO owned Carter Compound, Plains, GA owned Rancho del Cielo, Santa Barbara, CA owned in Kennebunkport, ME rented in Martha’s Vineyard, MA owned ranch in Crawford, TX rented in Martha’s Vineyard, MA

OTHER BENEFITS OTHER BENEFITS

WHITE HOUSE ORGANIZATION System of creating a hierarchical structure of people and to whom WHITE HOUSE ORGANIZATION System of creating a hierarchical structure of people and to whom they report

PYRAMID gatekeepers regulate access Often Chief of Staff and assistants ex. Eisenhower, Nixon, Reagan, PYRAMID gatekeepers regulate access Often Chief of Staff and assistants ex. Eisenhower, Nixon, Reagan, Bush 41, Bush 43

CIRCULAR many directly report to pres cabinet secretaries/assistants ex. FDR, Kennedy, Johnson, Carter, Clinton CIRCULAR many directly report to pres cabinet secretaries/assistants ex. FDR, Kennedy, Johnson, Carter, Clinton

AD HOC temporary and informal groups of friends and advisors task forces, committees, informal AD HOC temporary and informal groups of friends and advisors task forces, committees, informal groups ex. Jackson, FDR, Clinton (1 st term), Obama

CARTER VS. REAGAN micromanaged unclear positions flipped opinions information overload big picture focus delegated CARTER VS. REAGAN micromanaged unclear positions flipped opinions information overload big picture focus delegated a great deal unwavering positions dogmatic in beliefs an air of detachment little focus on details

JACKSON’S KITCHEN CABINET Informal group of unofficial advisers that consulted in place of his JACKSON’S KITCHEN CABINET Informal group of unofficial advisers that consulted in place of his official Cabinet Power diminished after most of Jackson’s cabinet resigned in wake of Peggy Eaton affair Secretary of State Van Buren (most influential) Roger Taney (future SC Chief Justice) Duff Green (editor of US Telegraph) John Eaton William B Lewis Amos Kendall

F ROOSEVELT’S BLACK CABINET 1 st known as the Office of Negro Affairs, informal F ROOSEVELT’S BLACK CABINET 1 st known as the Office of Negro Affairs, informal group of African American public policy advisors 45 in number working in federal executive depts and New Deal agencies by mid-1935 Most prominent: Ralph Bunche, Mary Jane Bethune, and Truman Gibson, Jr

KENNEDY Clark Clifford Robert Kennedy KENNEDY Clark Clifford Robert Kennedy

REAGAN Allies and friends from California REAGAN Allies and friends from California

OBAMA’S CZARS Afghanistan AIDs Auto Recovery Border California Water Climate Car (auto bailout) Central OBAMA’S CZARS Afghanistan AIDs Auto Recovery Border California Water Climate Car (auto bailout) Central Region (Mideast) Domestic Violence Drug Economic Energy and Environment Faith-Based Government Performance Great Lakes Green Jobs Guantanamo Closure Health Information Intelligence Mideast Peace Pay (corporate compensation) Regulatory Science Stimulus Accountability Sudan TARP (Wall Street bailout) Technology Terrorism Urban Affairs Weapons WMD Policy

WHITE HOUSE TERMS Propinquity- proximity/closeness to president (office, # of times seen) Protocol- code WHITE HOUSE TERMS Propinquity- proximity/closeness to president (office, # of times seen) Protocol- code prescribing strict adherence to correct etiquette and precedence

POSSE COMITAS Emergency power- inherent power exercised by pres during period of national crisis POSSE COMITAS Emergency power- inherent power exercised by pres during period of national crisis Federal govt needs 48 hour warning Mandatory evacuation in disasters National Guard- law enforcement Federal troops- evacuation only

PRESIDENTIAL POWER Take Care Clause- “laws faithfully executed” implied sometimes to be inherent powers: PRESIDENTIAL POWER Take Care Clause- “laws faithfully executed” implied sometimes to be inherent powers: ex. Jefferson bought Louisiana Purchase Lincoln suspended rights of prisoners to seek judicial review of their cases Lincoln imposed blockade on Confederate shipping Lincoln extended size of army beyond authorized levels by Congress

BARBER’S PRES. CHARACTER Active-Positive F Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, Ford, Bush 41, Clinton Active-Negative Wilson, BARBER’S PRES. CHARACTER Active-Positive F Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, Ford, Bush 41, Clinton Active-Negative Wilson, Hoover, L Johnson, Nixon Passive-Positive Taft, Harding, Reagan Passive-Negative Coolidge, Eisenhower

PRESIDENTIAL SCANDALS PRESIDENTIAL SCANDALS

SEX Jefferson- two children with slave Sally Hemings Cleveland- accused of fathering child but SEX Jefferson- two children with slave Sally Hemings Cleveland- accused of fathering child but mother did not know which of her affairs caused pregnancy; assumed financial responsibility because he was the only bachelor among them Harding- fathered illegitimate child F Roosevelt- two known affairs, most famously with Lucy Mercer Eisenhower- possible affair with driver during WWII Kennedy- multiple affairs including one with Marilyn Monroe and another with a mob boss’ girlfriend L Johnson- multiple affairs Clinton- multiple affairs, most famously with Monica Lewinsky

CORRUPTION Grant Harding Nixon CORRUPTION Grant Harding Nixon

WHY GROWTH OF PRESIDENCY mass media influence of individual presidents frequent need for decisive WHY GROWTH OF PRESIDENCY mass media influence of individual presidents frequent need for decisive actions increasing complexity of social/economic life delegation of congressional authority to exec branch war television personality

SOURCES OF GROWTH 1. President’s role in foreign affairs 2. ability to shape public SOURCES OF GROWTH 1. President’s role in foreign affairs 2. ability to shape public opinion 3. position as head of the executive branch 4. claims to have inherent powers by virtue of office

WAYS OF USING POWER Move it or lose it- push program early in term WAYS OF USING POWER Move it or lose it- push program early in term before political influence erodes ex. Kennedy, LBJ, Clinton, Obama Avoid details- choose 3 or 4 priorities ex. Ford, Bush 41, Bush 43 Delegate job- choose capable assistants, give defined responsibilities and then watch ex. Nixon, Reagan

VETO POWER Veto message- sent to Congress within 10 days (not Sunday) lists reasons VETO POWER Veto message- sent to Congress within 10 days (not Sunday) lists reasons for not singing bill Pocket veto- president doesn’t sign and Congress adjourned no law Line-item veto- approve some parts but not all 5 days to notify Congress 2/3 vote to override by Congress Of 2500 +/- vetoes, only 4% overridden

PRESIDENTIAL VETOES fewer than 10% of regular vetoes overridden Jackson Tyler A Johnson Grant PRESIDENTIAL VETOES fewer than 10% of regular vetoes overridden Jackson Tyler A Johnson Grant Cleveland TR FDR Truman Eisenhower Reagan Clinton 12 10 29 93 584 82 635 250 181 78 30 more than all combined before cabinet against him differences over Reconstruction pensions for Civil War vets bully bulpit New Deal Democratic Congress overrode 2

PRESIDENTIAL VETOS 1 Reg Washington 2 J Adams 0 Jefferson 0 Madison 5 Monroe PRESIDENTIAL VETOS 1 Reg Washington 2 J Adams 0 Jefferson 0 Madison 5 Monroe 1 J Q Adams 0 Jackson 5 Van Buren 0 W Harrison 0 Tyler 6 Polk 2 Taylor 0 Fillmore 0 Pocket 0 0 0 2 0 0 7 1 0 4 1 0 0 Total Overridden 2 0 0 0 7 0 1 0 0 0 12 0 1 0 0 0 10 1 3 0 0 0 % 0% 0% 0% 10% 0%

PRESIDENTIAL VETOS 2 Reg Pierce 9 Buchanan 4 Lincoln 2 A Johnson 21 Grant PRESIDENTIAL VETOS 2 Reg Pierce 9 Buchanan 4 Lincoln 2 A Johnson 21 Grant 45 Hayes 12 Garfield 0 Arthur 4 Cleveland 346 B Harrison 19 Mc. Kinley 6 T Roosevelt 42 Taft 30 Pocket 0 3 5 8 49 1 0 8 238 25 36 40 9 Total Overridden 9 5 7 0 29 15 94 4 13 1 0 0 12 7 584 1 44 0 42 1 82 1 39 1 % 0%

PRESIDENTIAL VETOS 3 Reg Wilson 33 Harding 5 Coolidge 20 Hoover 21 F Roosevelt PRESIDENTIAL VETOS 3 Reg Wilson 33 Harding 5 Coolidge 20 Hoover 21 F Roosevelt 372 Truman 180 Eisenhower 73 Kennedy 12 L Johnson 16 Nixon 26 Ford 48 Carter 13 Reagan 39 Pocket 11 1 30 16 263 70 108 9 14 17 18 39 Total Overridden 44 6 6 0 50 4 37 3 635 9 250 12 206 2 21 0 30 0 43 7 66 12 31 2 78 9 % 0% 8% 0% 0%

PRESIDENTIAL VETOS 4 Bush 41 Clinton Bush 43 Obama Reg 29 36 Pocket 17 PRESIDENTIAL VETOS 4 Bush 41 Clinton Bush 43 Obama Reg 29 36 Pocket 17 1 Total Overridden 46 1 37 2 %

APPOINTMENT POWER “Plum Book”- nickname of publication of all executive branch positions listed (plum APPOINTMENT POWER “Plum Book”- nickname of publication of all executive branch positions listed (plum assignments for president’s friends

I was like a sea captain who finds himself on the deck of a I was like a sea captain who finds himself on the deck of a ship that he has never seen before. I did not know the mechanism of my ship, I did not know my officers—and I had no acquaintance with the crew. a political appointee

FAMOUS US AMBASSADORS John Adams John Quincy Adams George Bush 41 Patrick Buchanan Shirley FAMOUS US AMBASSADORS John Adams John Quincy Adams George Bush 41 Patrick Buchanan Shirley Temple Black Madeline Albright Benjamin Franklin Henry Cabot Lodge John Eisenhower John Kenneth Galbraith Joseph Kennedy Sr Robert Todd Lincoln Douglas Mac. Arthur II William Howard Taft John Jay Walter Mondale Andrew Mellon Claire Booth Luce Donald Rumsfeld United Kingdom, Netherlands UK, Russia, Netherlands, Germany United Nations Russia, UK Ghana, Czechoslovakia UN, Czech Republic France, Sweden UN, Germany India UK Philippines Spain Japan UK Italy NATO

WARTIME POWERS Commander-in-chief- usually command delegated to military subordinates can use power to make WARTIME POWERS Commander-in-chief- usually command delegated to military subordinates can use power to make undeclared war Chain of command- line of authority along which orders are passed, often used in regards to military institutions Covert operations- secret military incursions (coup, invasion); ex. Guatemala (Ike), Panama (Bush 41) Overt operations- open and public shows of force (invasions); ex. Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan

US TROOP DEPLOYMENT* Germany United Kingdom Italy South Korea Japan Iraq Afghanistan Kuwait Cuba US TROOP DEPLOYMENT* Germany United Kingdom Italy South Korea Japan Iraq Afghanistan Kuwait Cuba Alaska Guam *circa 2010 57, 000** 10, 000 27, 000 32, 000 50, 000 100, 000 11, 000 19, 000 3, 000 **2/3 of all in Europe

RECOGNITION Legal existence of a nation and its govt Used as a weapon in RECOGNITION Legal existence of a nation and its govt Used as a weapon in foreign relations Countries can be given recognition or non-recognition Soviet Union, Mexico, China, Iran, Iraq given nonrecognition status at some point

EXAMPLES Yes French Republic Texas Republic Haiti Liberia Vietnam Israel Panama Laos Cambodia China EXAMPLES Yes French Republic Texas Republic Haiti Liberia Vietnam Israel Panama Laos Cambodia China Taiwan Cuba Kosovo 1789 1836 1810 1820 1950, 1995 1948 1903 1950 -1953 1979 1912 -1979 1898 -1959 2008 No China (before 1979) Cuba (after 1959) North Korea (never) Taiwan (1979 -after) Libya (1981 -2006) Abenaki Indians (VT) Baltic states (WWII+) Palestine (never)

SIGNING STATEMENTS Definition- written explanation issued in conjunction with signing of a law and SIGNING STATEMENTS Definition- written explanation issued in conjunction with signing of a law and detailing how law is to be applied; a type of executive order (no congressional oversight) Types- rhetorical (this is a great law) political (this law meets the need of working families) constitutional (I’m signing this law, but won’t enforce section 2) Why increase- paper by then Reagan staff attorney Samuel Alito advocating their use to “increase the power of the Executive to shape law” Significance- last word on a bill’s interpretation; Congress a little sore Washington to Carter Reagan Bush 41 Clinton Bush 43 75 (all combined) 72 232 140 800 plus

PRESIDENTIAL LEGACY Events make the presidency or the person makes presidency Jackson- every president PRESIDENTIAL LEGACY Events make the presidency or the person makes presidency Jackson- every president was like him or tried to be (common roots, promises of reform, pledged to put interests of ordinary citizens above all else)

WASHINGTON’S PRECEDENTS Oath of office Choosing cabinet Giving Inaugural Address, State of the Union WASHINGTON’S PRECEDENTS Oath of office Choosing cabinet Giving Inaugural Address, State of the Union and Farewell Address upon leaving office Hand on Bible “So help me God” No personal visits to Congress Attendance at inauguration of succeeding president (bowing instead of shaking hands—Jefferson)

POST-PRESIDENCY ie. , what presidents do after leaving office (other than die): Lobbyist Law POST-PRESIDENCY ie. , what presidents do after leaving office (other than die): Lobbyist Law firm Lecture circuit University teaching Corporate job Corporate BOD write memoirs and build a presidential library Exceptions: Quincy Adams- US House Taft- US Supreme Court

EXAMPLES Bill Clinton- $10 million book deal, $100 k each speech Hillary Clinton- $8 EXAMPLES Bill Clinton- $10 million book deal, $100 k each speech Hillary Clinton- $8 million book deal Secretary of State Colin Powell- $6 million book, $100 k per speech NASA Chief Sean O’Keefe- LSU chancellor ($158 k) CIA Director George Tenet- $4 million for memoirs EPA Director Christine Todd Whitman- consulting firm

JOHNSON JOHNSON

NIXON NIXON

FORD FORD

CARTER CARTER

REAGAN REAGAN

BUSH 41 BUSH 41

CLINTON CLINTON

BUSH 43 BUSH 43

OBAMA OBAMA

Bush 43 humor The governor of California is new to politics, so he's still Bush 43 humor The governor of California is new to politics, so he's still getting used to all the cameras and lights. Vice President Dick Cheney spent the day campaigning in Minneapolis and Wichita, but he's recently completed another important assignment. Once again I put him in charge of my vice presidential search committee.

OBAMA WITH PARENTS AND SISTER OBAMA WITH PARENTS AND SISTER

PRESIDENTS AND TRAGEDY Pierce- lost all 3 sons before entering White House Lincoln- fiance PRESIDENTS AND TRAGEDY Pierce- lost all 3 sons before entering White House Lincoln- fiance and 1 son died Coolidge- oldest son died from tennis-induced blister Kennedy- brother killed in WWII Bush 41 - lost daughter