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IDENTIFICATION Dr. AJEE KURUVILLA
IDENTIFICATION n Identification in the living n Identification of the dead
Civil cases Pension n Insurance n Inheritance n Marriage n Disputed sex n Employment n Voting n Missing persons n
Criminal cases Absconding soldiers n Absconding criminal n Person accused of rape, murder, assault n Intentional interchange of babies n Theft n
Corpus delicti body of offence- essence of crime
n Complete identification n Partial identification
Points to be considered for establishment of identity Race n Religion n Sex n Age n Congenital features n Acquired peculiarity n Miscellaneous n
Race A biological grouping within the human species distinguished or classified according to genetically transmitted differences. Clothes, complexion, hair, eyes, lips Caucasoid, Negroid, Mongoloids
Caucasoid Europeans n Semitic (Arabs & Jews) n Indo- Aryan n Skin colour- very fair to brown n Hair- straight, wavy, blonde, brown, black n Nose-generally long & narrow n Face- narrow- medium broad n
Negroid Africa to the south of Sahara n Negrito people of India & S. E. Asia n Skin colour- black- brownish- yellowish n Hair- crinkly / frizzy, woolly, coarse n Noses- broad, flat n Face- narrow- medium broad n Stature- varies n
Mongoloids Chinese, Japanese, Burmese, Thias, Vietnamese, Malays, Eskimos, Red Indians, American Indians of South America n Eyes- characteristic fold of skin n Hair- lank & straight n Stature- short to medium n
Indices Cephalic index = Max. transverse breadth of skull _____ Max. antero- posterior length of skull x 100 70 – 75: Dolicocephalic / long head (Negroes, Pure Aryans) 75 – 80: Mesaticephalic / medium head (Europeans, Chinese) 80 – 85: Brachycephalic / short head (Mongolians)
Stature n n n n 2 x (length of upper limb)+ 30 + 4 cms 2 x (length from vertex to symphysis pubis) 2 x (length from symphysis pubis to either heel) 3. 3 x (length from sternal notch to symphysis pubis) 7 x (height of head) 8 x (length of skull) 19/ 5 x (length of forearm)
Stature n From skeletal remains, with the help of regression formula using long bones n From fragmented bones- Steele
Hair n n n 1. 2. 3. 4. n Is it hair or not? Human hair / animal hair ? If humansex ? Age ? From which part of the body? Individualisation- DNA typing, ABO, trace elements, disease, dyes, henna Medico Legal Importance Resists putrefaction for long
1. One of the following indices is helpful in determining the race of an unidentified skull. a) Cephalic index. b) Cranial index. c) Cerebral index. d) Cortical index.
2. One of the following is useful in determining the stature from fragmented long bones. a) Karl Pearson’s formula b) Trotter and Gleser’s formula c) Dupertuis and Hadden’s formula d) Steele’s formula
3. Cephalic index is derived by using one of the following formula. a) Length of skull / Breadth of skull x 100 b) Breadth of skull / Length of skull x 100 c) Height of skull / Length of skull x 100 d) Length of skull/ Height of skull x 100
4. The “medullary index” of human hair is a) Less than 0. 3. b) More than 0. 3. c) Less than 0. 5. d) More than 0. 5.
5. The “medullary index” of animal hair is a) Less than 0. 3. b) More than 0. 3. c) Less than 0. 5. d) More than 0. 5.
7. Identification of a living person may arise in : a) Civil cases. b) Criminal cases c) Both A & B
Tattoo marks are designs made by multiple small puncture wounds made through the skin with needles or similar penetrating tools dipped in colouring agents ( dye ) Derived from Polynesian “Ta Tau” = to mark
n Commonly used dyes: indigo, cobalt, finely divided carbon, china ink, cinnabar, vermillion, prussian blue , etc. n Optimum depth of penetration: superficial layers of dermis. n Permanency of tattoo marks: depends on type of dye used, its depth of penetration & part of body tattooed.
n Latent tattoo marks: Visible by using UV light, by rubbing the part, by examining with magnifying glass in strong light n Natural disappearance of tattoo marks: n n n Vermillion, cinnabar – disappear after min of 10 years. Black pigments ( Indian ink ) – permanent Artificial removal of tattoo marks: Surgical removal & skin grafting, electrolysis; applying Carbon dioxide snow; dermal abrasion; laser; caustic substances
Forensic importance of tattoo marks n Identity: Race, religion, nationality, occupation, name of person or his beloved ones, date of birth / marriage, etc. n Mental make up / desire: obscene figures n Infection & keloid formation. n Drug addicts (concealing site) n Homosexuals (blue bird on back or web of thumb)
Photo & Video Superimposition
Photo superimposition n n Photographs of the skull are taken. Transparencies of skull photograph & that of life-time photograph are focused on the same sensitive printing paper. After maximum alignment, a positive print will be taken. Attempt is made to study the matching / non-matching of major anatomical landmarks.
Video superimposition n 2 video images (one of photograph & other of skull) are mixed on one video display unit. Negative matching – Skull is not that of the person in the photograph Positive matching – Skull could be that of the person in the photograph
Facial reconstruction using clay
n These methods use modeling clay or plasticine to build up the depth of tissue on the skull to that of a living individual. n Shape of the eyes, nose and mouth cannot be confidently predicted and are largely guesswork.
Tissue depth markers
Anatomical structures, which define the outer surface of the face are pasted onto the skull Temporalis, zygomaticus & masseter muscles, orbicularis oris, parotid gland, buccal fatty pad, fat pad of chin.
Adding clay using the tissue depth marker guidelines
Finishing touches are applied and tissue depth markers are covered
Painting, replacing polyfiber scalp hair & eyebrows