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ICT and Language Learning: Making Connections between Theory and Practice Århus Business School 8 ICT and Language Learning: Making Connections between Theory and Practice Århus Business School 8 November 2003 Sake Jager University of Groningen

Presentation w Practice n n Role of experts in ICT and language learning and Presentation w Practice n n Role of experts in ICT and language learning and teaching Rationale for using ICT Different perspectives on ICT Example: Blackboard at the University of Groningen w Theory: SLA and CALL n n Network-based language teaching Multimedia CALL w Conclusion

Role of experts w Make connections between the use of computers and language learning Role of experts w Make connections between the use of computers and language learning w Personal teaching context n Connection between pedagogy and technology w Institutional context n n n Guide and assist colleagues Convince management Connection between individuals and groups whose interests may be different

Theoretical basis for ICT w Computer does not make a difference, but practices of Theoretical basis for ICT w Computer does not make a difference, but practices of use w Technology facilitates: n n n Exposure to ‘authentic’ language Access to wider sources of information and varieties of language Opportunities to communicate with the outside world A learner-centred approach Development of learner autonomy (from: ICC Report on Teaching of Foreign Languages) w ‘Practices of use’ implies taking into account different points of view

Management perspective w Educational profile w Changes in society; job requirements w Competitiveness: attract Management perspective w Educational profile w Changes in society; job requirements w Competitiveness: attract more students w ICT-literacy and staff professionalisation w Standardization

VLE’s from a management perspective “The presentation of the material and the general look VLE’s from a management perspective “The presentation of the material and the general look and feel of the web site can only be modified slightly – the basic structure of the site remains the same. While this uniformity cheers the hearts of IT managers and university administrators, whose lives are thereby simplified, it might not provide the best organization for specific needs or the purposes of individual instructors. ” (Godwin-Jones 2003: 46)

Education experts’ perspective w General, not language-specific expertise w New teaching and learning concepts: Education experts’ perspective w General, not language-specific expertise w New teaching and learning concepts: n n n communities of learners learner portfolios group collaboration w Not always easy to make them work with teachers

Teachers’ perspective w Growing awareness of potential of ICT w Concerned about content, meaning Teachers’ perspective w Growing awareness of potential of ICT w Concerned about content, meaning as well as form w Computers should be time-saving w Expect “computer-as-tutor” functions

Students’ perspective w General ICT-skills, not language-specific w Not often familiar with new learning Students’ perspective w General ICT-skills, not language-specific w Not often familiar with new learning concepts w Technology should make language learning: n n n Easier Faster More fun

Blackboard at University of Groningen w One single VLE for the entire university w Blackboard at University of Groningen w One single VLE for the entire university w Basic training and support for administrative functions w Primary use for course organisation, not for teaching innovation w Increase in literacy and computer use with staff w Pedagogy and course re-design promoted through individual counselling w Integration of specific CALL tools

Blackboard for Italian Blackboard for Italian

Second Language Acquisition and CALL w SLA researchers and teachers: common interest, different perspective Second Language Acquisition and CALL w SLA researchers and teachers: common interest, different perspective n n SLA: How L 2 learning takes place Teachers: How learners can be helped to learn and how successful learning is (Ellis 2003) w No longer emphasis on structure and accuracy but on meaningful language use

Network-based language teaching (Warschauer and Kern) w Shift from interaction with computers to interaction Network-based language teaching (Warschauer and Kern) w Shift from interaction with computers to interaction with other humans via computers w Meaningful interaction in authentic discourse communities w Task-based, authentic, collaborative language learning: n n email tandem webquests producing web pages synchronous and asynchronous discussion boards

NBLT and Interactionism w Interaction Hypothesis (Michael Long): n n Negotiation of Meaning Breakdown NBLT and Interactionism w Interaction Hypothesis (Michael Long): n n Negotiation of Meaning Breakdown in communication Momentary attention to form Modification of input and output beneficial for language learning w Online communication is ideal for interaction studies because of the recorded input

NS Recast and Learner Clarification Request NS: ok, che fai nella vita? ok, what NS Recast and Learner Clarification Request NS: ok, che fai nella vita? ok, what do you do in life? L: studio all'universita I study at university NS: cosa? lingue? what? languages? L: il giornalismo e anche un corso dell'italiano journalism and also a course in the italian NS: d'italiano in italian L: ah si oh yes L: grazie thanks L: ancora sono stanca I'm still tired NS: prego you're welcome NS: ci sono abituato I'm used to it L: non capisco… I don't understand NS: avevo la ragazza americana I had an American girlfriend and e all'inizio la correggevoand at the beginning I used to correct her L: ah ok, ho capito oh ok, I understand From: Tudini, Vincenza. "Using Native Speakers in Chat. " Language Learning and Technology 7. 3 (2003): 141 -59.

Findings w Beneficial attention to form does occur indeed w Higher participation of reticent Findings w Beneficial attention to form does occur indeed w Higher participation of reticent speakers w Greater preparation time: fewer mistakes w Less teacher control

Limitations w No spoken language n But new possibilities on the horizon (e. g Limitations w No spoken language n But new possibilities on the horizon (e. g Wimba) w Communication as end ≠ communication as means w Peer feedback may be insufficient for mastery; tutor feedback has to be provided

Screenshot Wimba Screenshot Wimba

Multimedia CALL w Interaction with the computer n n n Tutor functions Tailor input Multimedia CALL w Interaction with the computer n n n Tutor functions Tailor input to individual needs Provide sophisticated feedback w Beyond the-state-of-the-art of current technology (especially Intelligent CALL)

Screenshot Talk to me Screenshot Talk to me

Realistic scenarios w Use proven technology in pedagogically appriopriate ways w Vocabulary program based Realistic scenarios w Use proven technology in pedagogically appriopriate ways w Vocabulary program based on current vocabulary acquisition theory (Tschichold) n n n Different forms, metaphors, different contexts Spaced revision Advanced feedback w Many existing programs may be used in such a way that they support current pedagogic approaches

Different uses of Hot Potatoes w Hot Potatoes: popular tool w Often used in Different uses of Hot Potatoes w Hot Potatoes: popular tool w Often used in teacher-centred structural approaches w Also suitable for student-centred task-based approach n n n Students design exercises on grammar points in pairs Focused task: communication and negotiation central Attention to form

Screenshot Hot Potatoes Screenshot Hot Potatoes

Conclusion w ICT and language learning specialists: n n n Help teachers make informed Conclusion w ICT and language learning specialists: n n n Help teachers make informed choices from the wide range of technologies available Help management make decisions in the true interest of language learning Make connections between technologies, pedagogies and the people that use them

Final words Good luck! Final words Good luck!

References Chapelle, Carol A. Computer Applications in Second Language Acquisition: Foundations for Teaching, Testing References Chapelle, Carol A. Computer Applications in Second Language Acquisition: Foundations for Teaching, Testing and Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Ellis, Rod. Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. International Certificate Conference. The Impact of Information and Communications Technologies on the Teaching of Foreign Language and on the Role of Teachers of Foreign Languages. 2003. Frankfurt/M, Germany, ICC. Kitade, Keiko. "L 2 Learners' Discourse and SLA Theories in CMC: Collaborative Interaction in Internet Chat. " Computer Assisted Language Learning: An International Journal 13. 2 (2000): 143 -66.

References (cont’d) Nation, I. S. P. Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University References (cont’d) Nation, I. S. P. Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Nunan, David. "A Foot in the World of Ideas: Graduate Study through the Internet. " Language Learning and Technology 3. 1 (1999): 52 -74. Pica, T. "Tradition and transition in English language teaching methodology. " System 28 (2000): 1 -18. Tudini, Vincenza. "Using Native Speakers in Chat. " Language Learning and Technology 7. 3 (2003): 141 -59. Warschauer, M and R. Kern. Network-Based Language Teaching. Ed. M Warschauer and R. Kern. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.