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I DISCOVERED QUITE A BIT ABOUT MYSELF BY WRITING THE TEN PAPERS REQUIRED FOR THIS COURSE. AFTER SPENDING THE LAST TWO YEARS OF MY UNDERGRADUATE CAREER BOUNCING FROM MAJOR TO MAJOR AND GUESSING AT WHAT CAREER I WANTED TO PURSUE BASED ON SALARY AND THE AMOUNT OF REQUIRED SCHOOLING, B 103 FINALLY FORCED ME TO DO SOME SERIOUS SELFREFLECTION AND TO HONESTLY EVALUATE MY TRUE INTERESTS AND GOALS. I AM NOW CONFIDENT THAT I AM IN A MAJOR THAT IS APPROPRIATE FOR ME AND THAT I AM GETTING VERY CLOSE TO SUCCESSFULLY DECIDING WHAT TYPE OF GRADUATE PROGRAM I WILL PURSUE. B 103 SCARED ME, STRESSED ME OUT, AND MADE ME A BETTER, MORE COMPLETE PERSON ALL AT THE SAME TIME. I HAVE REALIZED OVER THE LAST FEW MONTHS THAT THE REASON I WAS FLOUNDERING AROUND WITH NO DIRECTION WAS BECAUSE I WAS HOPING EVERYTHING WOULD JUST MAGICALLY FALL INTO PLACE. THROUGH SOME SERIOUS SOUL SEARCHING, CAUSED MAINLY BY THE STRESS OF HAVING TO MAKE CERTAIN DECISIONS IN ORDER TO SUCCESSFULLY WRITE MY PAPERS, I LEARNED I HAVE NEVER HAD TO TRULY FIGHT FOR ANYTHING IN MY LIFE
A Class Designed to Facilitate the Accomplishment of Goals 4 and 5 of APA’s New Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major Drew C. Appleby, Ph. D Professor Emeritus of Psychology Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
Imagine you have been hired to create a class that helps psychology majors begin the process of accomplishing Goals 4 and 5 (Communication and Professional Development) of APA’s new Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major. Further imagine that this class is titled B 103 Orientation to a Major in Psychology, and that it is only a 1 -credit-hour course in a 40 -credit-hour undergraduate psychology curriculum. How would you accomplish this?
First, let’s be sure we understand APA’s goals…
Students accomplish Goal 4 (Communication) of APA’s new guidelines when they can • demonstrate effective writing, • use expert feedback to revise writing of a single draft, and • exhibit effective presentation skills.
Students accomplish Goal 5 (Professional Development) of APA’s new guidelines when they can • apply psychological content and skills to career goals, • exhibit self-efficacy and self-regulation, • refine project management skills, • enhance teamwork capacity, and • develop meaningful professional direction for life after graduation.
B 103 Orientation to a Major in Psychology was… • • • a one-credit hour course, required for all psychology majors, capped at 35 students per section, taught at two developmental levels, and a challenging course, not because of the inherent difficulty of its content, but because it required a considerable amount of work and serious reflection about important personal, academic, and career-related issues.
Unfortunately, many undergraduates deny or ignore these important issues for as long as possible, as illustrated by the next slide, which contains a plaintive warning from one of my graduating seniors I found taped to my classroom wall the week before graduation.
Fellow Seniors Life, as we have always tried to avoid it, is about to happen. Andy Kosegi
I will describe this class to you today by identifying and explaining the Nine Ps of B 103 Orientation to a Major in Psychology.
The Prelude, The Publication, The Purpose, The Process, The Prerequisites for Success, The Personnel, The Products, The Payoffs, and The Proteges
The Prelude It all started 44 years ago in 1971 with Mike’s question that I couldn’t answer.
The Prelude… Mike’s question was: “What can I do with a Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology if I don’t go to graduate school? ”
The Prelude… My very embarrassing answer to Mike’s very relevant question was: “I don’t know. ”
The Prelude… My motivation to help psychology majors prepare for careers began at this point and continued for the rest of my career because of disturbing data such as the following from The Wall Street Journal.
The Prelude… I have always been an educational idealist, and my educational idealism is based on my understanding of the Latin word educare, from which the word education is derived. Educare is a Latin infinitive that means to lead out of. The ducare means to lead and the e is a prefix, which means out of.
An education to me is not just the attainment of a diploma. It is a powerfully transformative experience that can lead a person out of one place to another in crucial areas such as: • knowledge (from ignorance wisdom), • skills (from inability ability), and • personal characteristics (from stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination tolerance, acceptance, and the valuing of human differences).
The Publication Handouts, handouts My one and only sabbatical
The Publication… Handouts, handouts My one and only sabbatical My journey into the world of publishing The Savvy Psychology Major
The Purpose B 103 was designed to produce what I call savvy psychology majors who can provide clear, coherent, confident, and educated answers to the following career-planning questions.
1. What occupations can I enter if I major in psychology? 2. Which of these occupations can I enter with a bachelor’ degree, and which will require me to earn a graduate degree? 3. What are the specific tasks I would perform in these occupations? 4. What specific sets of knowledge, skills, and characteristics (KSCs) must I possess to enter and succeed in these occupations? 5. How can I use both the curricular and extracurricular resources and activities of my undergraduate education to develop these KSCs? 6. Who can serve as a mentor to guide me in the identification, selection, and engagement in these resources and activities? 7. What strategies can I use to convince employers or graduate school admissions committees to hire me or admit me into their programs?
The Process Students engaged in the following activities in B 103 Wrote 10 one-page papers in APA Style
The Process B 103 students engaged in the following activities Wrote 10 one-page papers in APA Style Took 10 quizzes that covered material from The Savvy Psychology Major Created a Career Plan A and a Career Plan B Constructed a complete, semester-by-semester graduation plan
The Process… B 103 students engaged in the following activities Wrote 10 one-page papers in APA Style Took 10 short quizzes that covered material from the textbook Created a Career Plan A and a Career Plan B Constructed a complete, semester-by-semester graduation plan Presented a collaborative oral report on a campus resource or opportunity Took field trips to our Advising Office and the university’s Career Center Interacted with a panel of graduate students and graduate faculty Provided catering to the class at least once during the semester Created a “dream” resume or curriculum vitae Combined their papers, graduation plan, and resume/CV into a poster Presented their poster during a poster session on the final day of class Provided catering for and invited an “honored guest” to the poster session
The 8 Prerequisites for Success in B 103 You will perform well in B 103 if you engage in the following behaviors. 1. Work hard. 2. Come to class, come to class on time, and stay for the entire class. 3. Follow directions. 4. Submit assignments when they are due. 5. Communicate in a timely manner with your TA and instructor. 6. Act in an academically honest and ethical manner. Collaborate in an effective and civil manner with your fellow students, your TA, and your instructor. 7. Use the feedback provided by your instructor and your TA to improve the quality of your work. (Please note how similar these are to the behaviors that students will have to exhibit in order to be successful on-the-job after they graduate. )
The Personnel I started alone…grading both the content and APA style of ~70 3 -4 page papers each week. When one of my students said, “Dr. A, you need a TA, ” I followed her advice, and I soon had ~12 TAs in each of my classes sections. My TAs used the CREATER model of academic case management to create success in the individual members of small groups of B 103 students we referred to as “families. ”
The Personnel… The Acronym CREATER stands for… Counselor Referral Agent Evaluator Advocate Teacher Encourager Role Model
The Personnel… Each TA volunteered for a particular duty Lead TA Oncourse TA COR Report TA Field Trip TA Graduate School Panel TA Catering TA
The Personnel… Quiz TA Grade Book TA Extra Credit TA Assessment Data TA Poster Session Program TA Poster Session Invitation TA
The Products “The Book” was once the product of B 103. A 6 -week summer school course changed the product from a book to a poster created from 10 one-page papers written in APA style. A poster session was held on the last day of class and was attended by “Honored Guests. ”
The Products. . . The titles of the 10 papers on the poster were… #1: How to Become a Savvy Psychology Major #2: My Plan to Graduate with a BA or BS in Psychology #3: Strategies to Increase My Academic Success #4: Who Will Be My Mentor(s) #5: Plan A or B: Going to Graduate School #6: The Graduate School Application Process #7: How to Gain Acceptance to Graduate School #8: Plan A or B: Entering or Remaining in the Workforce #9: My Dream Resume or Curriculum Vitae #10: Are My Major and My Career Plans Still Appropriate for Me?
As an Example, Here Are the Questions From One Paper #7: How to Gain Acceptance to Graduate School 1. What three criteria should you use to choose the people who you will ask to write your letters of recommendation? What are the names of three specific people you will choose on the basis of these criteria, and how does each of these three people meet all three of these criteria? 2. What are the steps of the procedure described in The Savvy Psychology Major that will enable you to gain strong letters of recommendation? 3. What can students do to guarantee they will not receive strong letters of recommendation? In which of these behaviors do you engage now, and how can you stop doing them in the future? 4. What are the kisses of death in the graduate school application process, and what specific strategies can you use to avoid committing them?
The Products. . . The subjects of the 10 COR reports were… The Writing Center Psychology Club and Psi Chi The Psychology Resource Center The Center for Service and Learning Purdue’s OWL APA-Style Resource Website The Counseling and Psychological Services Center The Psychology Department’s Track Concentrations The Psychology Department’s Undergraduate Website The School of Science Career Development Services Website An Online Resource to Enable Psychology Majors to Identify, Investigate, and Prepare for 172 Psychology and Psychology-Related Careers
The Payoffs For my students For my university’s stakeholders For my university’s assessment needs For me
Payoffs for My Students
Paragraph From a Request for a Letter of Recommendation for Graduate School Several years have passed since we last saw each other, but I was a student in your B 103 class in the spring semester of 2008 at IUPUI. At the end of the semester, my B 103 book was one you selected to reference at the 2008 American Psychological Association Convention as an example of a positive outcome of B 103, and I later become a TA for B 103 for both semesters of the 2008 -2009 academic year. My experience as a student and subsequently as a TA for B 103 was the first time I felt excited about and connected to my college experience. Shortly after becoming a TA, I declared a major in psychology. One of the most important lessons B 103 taught me was that a major in psychology can be a valuable asset in many different careers.
Payoffs For My University’s Stakeholders
I have seen an absolute change in Derric’s habits since he entered this class. He has begun to show more ambition and drive toward his academic goals. Applying for various internships and volunteer activities in his desired field is something Derric has never done before. He has also created a date -specific plan for accomplishing his goals. His new change in spirits has lifted my spirits as well. With his new outlook, I know he will be able to accomplish his goals. (Derric’s mother)
Renee did an amazing job of taking this opportunity to focus on her future plans. This course and this poster presentation helped her to outline her next steps in school. The networking she was able to do during this poster session was the most beneficial part, and I can tell she has already begun to add new strategies into her current vocational plan with what she learned today. (Renee’s vocational rehabilitation counselor)
Payoffs for My Department’s and My University’s Assessment Needs
My Seven-Step Assessment Strategy 1. Identify the course’s most crucial student learning outcomes (SLOs). 2. Create assignments to assess students’ accomplishment of these SLOs. 3. Develop effectiveness ratings for student performance on these assignments. 4. Gather, analyze, and interpret evaluation data from these assignments. 5. Create data-based changes designed to increase student performance in the SLOs that have not been accomplished at an acceptable level of effectiveness. 6. Implement these changes the next time the course is offered. 7. Repeat Step 4 to see if these changes produced the desired outcomes. The following slide provides B 103’s SLOs and the assignments used to assess them.
B 103’s Targeted Student Learning Outcomes and the Assignments Used to Assess Their Accomplishment Targeted Student Learning Outcome Assignment(s) Chosen to Assess the Accomplishment of this SLO Collaboration Skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Professional Development Skills 1. Completion scores on papers 2. Correctness scores on papers Communication Skills 1. APA-Style scores on papers COR report score COR collaboration report score Outside-of-class TA meetings Ability to use feedback scores Class attendance
What were the results of my assessments of these three SLOs during my Spring 2010 class?
The Psychology Department’s Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) Assessed in B 103 Mean % of Total Possible Points Earned on SLORelated Assignments for Spring 2010 Collaboration Skills 94% = A Professional Development Skills 80% = B Communication Skills 66% = D+ % of Students Receiving Each of the Four University-Defined Assessment Effectiveness Ratings for Spring 2010 Very Effective = 95% Effective = 0% Somewhat Effective = 0% Ineffective = 5% Very Effective = 43% Effective = 38% Somewhat Effective = 5% Ineffective = 14% Very Effective = 43% Effective = 24% Somewhat Effective = 5% Ineffective = 29%
How did I interpret these data? 1. I was very satisfied with my students’ ability to exhibit Collaboration Skills and moderately satisfied with their ability to develop Professional Development Skills. 2. However, I was very disappointed that, although 67% of my students earned ratings of either Very Effective or Effective for Writing in APA Style, 29% were rated as Ineffective in this crucial Communication skill. 3. After a considerable amount of contemplation—and discussion with my TAs—I created five changes in the course to enable my students to write more effectively in APA Style.
Changes for Fall 2010 1. I increased the class periods dedicated to teaching APA Style from 2 to 3. 2. I added Purdue’s OWL APA-Style Resource Web Site as a topic for one of the Campus Opportunity or Resource Reports (COR) that students presented in class. 3. I also added The IUPUI Writing Center as a topic for one of the COR reports. 4. I assigned one of my TAs the duty of creating and distributing materials on Oncourse that were specifically designed to help students master APA Style. 5. I increased the amount of “family time” at the end of each class from 10 minutes to 15 minutes, which provided approximately 1 more hour of APA-Style instruction during the course of the semester. The following slide provides the results of these changes.
The Psychology Department’s Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) Assessed in B 103 Communication Skills as Measured by the Ability to Write in APA Style Mean % of Total Possible Points Earned on SLORelated Assignments for Spring 2010 and Fall 2010 66% = Spring 2010 75% = Fall 2010 An increase of 8% % of Students Receiving Each of the Four University-Defined Assessment Effectiveness Ratings for Spring 2010 Fall 2010 Very Effective = 43% 33% (? ? ? ) Effective = 24% 42% Somewhat Effective = 5% 17% This is a difference between a Ineffective = 29% 8% D+ (66%) and a C+ (73%) in the class grading scale.
The following graph breaks down this overall % into the %s earned as students progressed through the four quarters of both classes.
Mean % APA-Style Score for the Four Quarters of the Class (Each Quarter Contained Two APA-Style Papers)
What these data reveal is a greater rate of improvement in performance over the semester for my Fall students, despite the fact that they began the semester with a slightly lower level of APAStyle skill than my Spring students had demonstrated.
The following graph displays the mean APA-Style %s for my Fall students when they are compared to my Spring students.
Differences in APA-Style Scores from Spring to Fall Semester for the Four Quarters of the Class
Payoffs For Me
Although many faculty believe there is a negative correlation between how hard you make your students work and how they evaluate your teaching. . .
. . . the mean end-of-semester student evaluation scores for the last 23 sections of B 103 I taught at IUPUI was 4. 60 on a 5 -point scale, with a range of 4. 45 to 4. 81 and
During my 13 years at IUPUI, a total of 777 graduating psychology majors indicated that I had served as their mentor during their undergraduate careers… …and 222 of these students reported that I had “influenced the whole course of their lives and that my effect upon them was invaluable. ”
The Proteges How did B 103 benefit you as a … Student Teaching Assistant Lead Teaching Assistant Professional Collaborator with Me Graduate School Applicant Graduate Student Future Professional
The Proteges… How did B 103 benefit me as a… • Student – Challenged me to define my goals; – Encouraged me to reconcile where I had been, where I am now, and where I wanted to be; – Showed me an array of useful campus resources; – Introduced me to scientific writing and APA Style; – and, It made other courses seem a little easier
The Proteges… How did B 103 benefit me as a… • Teaching Assistant – Prepared me to further improved my APA Style – Helped me begin to develop as a teacher – Helped me to understand the diversity of student experiences and interests and – Helped me make social connections at a PCP (i. e. , commuter) university
The Proteges… How did B 103 benefit me as a… • Lead Teaching Assistant – Helped me to coordinate groups of peers, – Gave me an opportunity to engage creatively in constructing course materials, and – Enabled me to develop more effective academic relationships
The Proteges… How did B 103 benefit me as a… • Professional Collaborator with Dr. Appleby – Exposed me to the evolutionary process of teaching • by teaching me that courses change based on feedback • and that new ideas sometimes hit…and sometimes miss – Provided me with the opportunity to present a paper at a professional teaching conference Appleby, D. C. , Bristow, E. , Pascal, R. , & Bowman, A. (2008, February). Using the CREATER model of academic case management to create success in B 103 Orientation to a Major in Psychology. Paper presented during the C. Edwin Moore Teaching Symposium, Indianapolis, IN.
The Proteges… How did B 103 benefit me as a… • Graduate School Applicant – It helped me to understand what graduate school is and what I needed to do it successfully • GRE preparation • Letters of Recommendation • Personal Statements • Standing Out from the Crowd – Importance of “fit” in graduate school – Importance of being conscientious
The Proteges… How did B 103 benefit me as a… • Graduate Student – Teaching experience helped as a GTA – Building rapport with students • Separating the roles of teacher and evaluator – Encouraged me to seek out opportunities • College Teaching Certificate Program – Gave me an absolutely HUGE advantage over my peers because of my APA-style writing skills
The Proteges… How did B 103 benefit me as a… • Future Professional – Benefits of continued education on pedagogy • Earning the College Teaching Certificate – Serving as Director of the Miami of Ohio Center for Psychological Inquiry – Receiving a super-strong letter of recommendation from you during the jobapplication process and – Continuing to receive mentoring from you during my first year of college teaching
Over 2000 years ago, the Oracle at Delphi, speaking through the Greek philosopher Socrates, said. . . “Know thyself. ”
Centuries later, Shakespeare wrote Hamlet in which Polonius provided Laertes with the following piece of valuable advice. . . “To thine own self be true. ”
Many years later, Nike (the Greek goddess of victory), speaking through her 21 st century commercial namesake, says. . . “Just do it. ”
Savvy psychology majors KNOW THEMSELVES when they can accurately and honestly identify • their strengths, • their weaknesses, • their values, and • their goals.
Savvy psychology majors are TRUE TO THEMSELVES when they • use their self-knowledge to identify potential careers in which they can perform well, enjoy the work they do, and value the products of their work and • create realistic plans to use both the curricular and extracurricular aspects of their undergraduate educations to prepare for, enter, and succeed in these careers.
And last, but certainly not least, savvy job-seeking psychology majors JUST DO IT when they put their realistic plans into action by actually engaging in the behaviors that will enable them to successfully carry out their career plans.
I’d like to end my presentation with a quotation from one of my students that sums up the effects of B 103 quite succinctly.
“B 103 gave me the tools to succeed, the confidence to pick them up, and the motivation to use them. ”