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Hypocrites and Backsliders Lesson 27 Spiritual Death Hypocrites and Backsliders Lesson 27 Spiritual Death

Spiritual Death • This I say, therefore, and testify in the Lord, that you Spiritual Death • This I say, therefore, and testify in the Lord, that you should no longer walk as the Gentiles also walk, in the futility of their mind, 18 being darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them due to the hardness of their hearts, 19 because they have become callous and have abandoned themselves to licentiousness for the greedy practice of every type of impurity. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 2

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • They must no longer behave as Gentiles, Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • They must no longer behave as Gentiles, for 120 they no longer are Gentiles. • When this statement is analyzed it becomes clear that two ideas are combined here: a. Lay aside your former manner of life (cf. 2: 1– 3, 12; 4: 14, 22); and b. do not imitate your present evil environment. • With reference to Gentile conduct Paul adds: in the futility of their mind. • The rendering “vanity” instead of “futility” is not wrong, since the latter is one of the meanings of the former. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 3

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • Nevertheless, inasmuch as “vanity” also has another, Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • Nevertheless, inasmuch as “vanity” also has another, very different and yet very common, meaning, namely, excessive pride, conceit, “futility” is to be preferred. • The apostle emphasizes a very important point, namely, that all those endeavors which the Gentiles put forth in order to attain happiness end in disappointment. • Their life is one long series of mocked expectations. It is a pursuing and not achieving, a blossoming and not bearing fruit. Cf. Rom. 8: 20. All the rivers run into the sea, but the sea is never filled. • The eye is never satisfied with seeing nor the ear with hearing. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 4

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • All this chasing after riches, honor, mirth, Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • All this chasing after riches, honor, mirth, etc. , is nothing but “a striving after wind” (Eccles. 1: 7, 8; 3: 9). • Their mind or intellect is fruitless. • It produces naught that can satisfy. Continued: 18, 19. being darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them due to the hardness of their hearts, because they have become callous and have abandoned themselves to licentiousness for the greedy practice of every type of impurity. • In order to see the entire picture of tragic hopelessness, these two verses should be viewed as a unit. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 5

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • It then becomes clear that the futility Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • It then becomes clear that the futility that characterizes the Gentile mind is a product of darkened understanding and estrangement from the God-given life, these two, in turn, resulting from a type of ignorance that is by no means excusable but is due to willful hardening and surrender to unbridled license of every description. • Being darkened is something that took place in the past but has continuing effect. 121 • The “understanding” or power of discursive reasoning had been affected by sin. • This understanding is treated here as if it were an eye that had become blind. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 6

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • This darkening, moreover, is far worse than Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • This darkening, moreover, is far worse than physical blindness, for the man who is physically blind knows it and admits it, but the person who is spiritually and morally darkened is blind even to the fact that he is blind (John 9: 40, 41). • Not only is it true that people of this kind dwell in the darkness, but the darkness dwells in them. • They have imbibed it, just as one day they will imbibe (“drink”) God’s wrath (Rev. 14: 10). • Contrast these blind eyes with the “enlightened” eyes of believers (2: 18). H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 7

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • They are, moreover, alienated or estranged, and Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • They are, moreover, alienated or estranged, and this not 122 only from “the commonwealth of Israel” as was pointed out earlier (2: 12) but also from “the life of God, ” that is, from God as the Source of eternal life. • This darkening and alienation can be traced to their culpable ignorance, a condition they had brought upon themselves by hardening their hearts against the will of God. • At one time, long ago their ancestors had God’s special revelation, but had rejected it. • Many centuries had gone by. • And now these distant descendants were suppressing even the light of God’s general revelation in nature and conscience with terrible results. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 8

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • The picture, in all its lurid details, Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • The picture, in all its lurid details, is drawn in Rom. 1: 18– 32; cf. 2: 12 and 11: 7. • The very center of their being, their hearts, had become “callous” by their own deliberate action. • For “callous” the A. V. and A. R. V. have “past feeling, ” which is also an excellent rendering, the root meaning of this perfect participle being “having arrived at a condition of freedom from pain, ” and thus, in general, “having become insensible” with reference here to the divine voice, to God’s truth. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 9

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 10 Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 10

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • By constantly saying “No” to God’s voice Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • By constantly saying “No” to God’s voice in conscience and in the lessons which nature and history had provided, they had at last become hard as stone, dead to all responsiveness to that which is good and uplifting; not, however, dead to all feeling and all desire. • Now there have been many people throughout the course of history who have taken pride in the stifling of all feeling. • They were ashamed of shedding tears and even of revealing any but the most indifferent reaction to any outside influence. • Thus, for example, the Stoic’s ideal was release from every emotion (“apatheia”). H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 11

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • Again, according to a familiar story, the Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • Again, according to a familiar story, the Spartan youth who had stolen a young fox and had hid it beneath his tunic, allowed the animal to tear out his vitals, without betraying himself by the movement of a muscle. • In the camp of the Buddhists the best virtue is passionlessness, and heaven (“Nirvana”) has been defined as the cessation of all natural desires. • And among the American Indians a captured Iroquois did his level best not to break down under torture, but instead to react to it with perfect equanimity. • What we have here, in 4: 18, 19, however, is something far worse. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 12

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • The people of whom Paul was writing Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • The people of whom Paul was writing did not try to squelch all feeling. • Far from it! • They did not oppose every type of desire. On the contrary they suppressed only those feelings that are connected with goodness. • They were down on all desires that would have brought them into closer harmony with the will of God. • By constantly arguing with conscience, stifling its warnings and muffling its bell, they had at last reached the point where conscience could no longer bother them. • It was seared (I Tim. 4: 2). H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 13

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • They did have feeling and they did Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • They did have feeling and they did keep alive desire, namely, feeling and desire for evil indulgence. • They had abandoned themselves to vice. • They gave themselves up to it (thus literally, in the original). • The result of such base surrender is always this, that, if persisted in, God gives the sinner up to suffer the full consequences of his sin, as Exod. 8: 15, 32, cf. 9: 12; Rom. 1: 24, 26, 28 (where the same verb, “give up, ” is used as here in Eph. 4: 19) clearly teach. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 14

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • The vice to which they abandoned themselves Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen • The vice to which they abandoned themselves is called licentiousness or “lasciviousness” (see also Rom. 13: 13; II Cor. 12: 21; Gal. 5: 19). • The literature of the day was deeply immoral. • So corrupt had the Roman world become that somewhat later Origen states that when the people of his day committed adultery and whoredom they did not regard themselves as violating good manners. • It has been remarked that it was not lava but lewdness that buried Herculaneum. • And the frescoes found amid the ruins of nearby Pompeii show that this city was not any better. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 15

Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 16 Eph 4: 17 -19 - Hendriksen H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 16

Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Wiersbe • The Admonition (Eph. 4: 17– 19) • Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Wiersbe • The Admonition (Eph. 4: 17– 19) • There are some negatives in the Christian life, and here is one of them: “Walk not as other Gentiles walk. ” • The Christian is not to imitate the life of the unsaved people around him. • They are “dead in trespasses and sins” (Eph. 2: 1), while he has been raised from the dead and been given eternal life in Christ. • Paul explains the differences between the saved and the unsaved. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 17

Spiritual Death • Hebrews 8: 10 (AMP) • 10 For this is the covenant Spiritual Death • Hebrews 8: 10 (AMP) • 10 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord: I will imprint My laws upon their minds, even upon their innermost thoughts and understanding, and engrave them upon their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 18

Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Wiersbe H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 19 Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Wiersbe H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 19

Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Wiersbe • The sad story is told in Romans Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Wiersbe • The sad story is told in Romans 1: 21– 25. • Our world today possesses a great deal of knowledge, but very little wisdom. • Thoreau put it beautifully when he said that we have “improved means to unimproved ends. ” • The unsaved man’s thinking is futile because it is darkened. • He thinks he is enlightened because he rejects the Bible and believes the latest philosophies, when in reality he is in the dark. • “Professing themselves to be wise, they become fools” (Rom. 1: 22). • But they think they are wise. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 20

Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Wiersbe • Satan has blinded the minds of the Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Wiersbe • Satan has blinded the minds of the unsaved (2 Cor. 4: 3– 6) because he does not want them to see the truth in Jesus Christ. • It is not simply that their eyes are blinded so they cannot see, but that their minds are darkened so that they cannot think straight about spiritual matters. • Of course, the unsaved man is dead because of this spiritual ignorance. • The truth and the life go together. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 21

Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Wiersbe • If you believe God’s truth, then you Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Wiersbe • If you believe God’s truth, then you receive God’s life. • But you would think that the unbeliever would do his utmost to get out of his terrible spiritual plight. • Alas, the hardness of his heart enslaves him. He is “past feeling” because he has so given himself over to sin that sin controls him. Read Romans 1: 18– 32 for a vivid expansion of these three brief verses. • Wiersbe, Warren W. : The Bible Exposition Commentary. Wheaton, Ill. : Victor Books, 1996, c 1989, S. Eph 4: 17 H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 22

Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Liefeld • Futility is a vacuum of accomplishment. The Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Liefeld • Futility is a vacuum of accomplishment. The promise of meaningful purpose and fulfillment can be a powerful incentive to become a Christian believer. But this motivation is not effective among the Gentiles described here, because these very people are devoid of understanding and hard of heart. The futility of their thinking perhaps serves therefore as a stronger motivation to believers not to return to that way of life than to those who have not been converted. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 23

Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Liefeld • The understanding that is darkened (v. 18) Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Liefeld • The understanding that is darkened (v. 18) is the dianoia, the mind. It is sometimes associated with the heart. We are to love God with our heart, soul and mind (Mt 22: 37; compare Mk 12: 30; Lk 10: 27). Hebrews 10: 16 quotes the following from Jeremiah 31: 33: “I will put my laws in their hearts, and I will write them on their minds. ” The biblical use of heart is not mainly as the source of emotion, but as the center of the whole personality. Mind denotes understanding, but its meaning also overlaps with that of heart. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 24

Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Liefeld • The reader of verse 18 may think Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Liefeld • The reader of verse 18 may think that there is a touch of unfairness in people’s being separated from the life of God because of ignorance and darkened … understanding. But to think this is to miss the sequence of the wording and the thrust of the passage. These Gentile unbelievers do not have the life of God because of (dia, “on account of”) the ignorance that (in turn) is due to (again, dia) the hardening of their hearts. Therefore it is their own hardness against God that perpetuates their alienation from God’s life. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 25

Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Liefeld • Given this condition, there is a lack Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Liefeld • Given this condition, there is a lack of sensitivity (v. 19) * that precludes any response to God’s word. • They are callous, beyond feeling. • Further, there is a self-induced moral degeneration that is unending, since there is a continual lust for more. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 26

Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Liefeld • The difference noted above between God’s giving Eph. 4: 17 -19 - Liefeld • The difference noted above between God’s giving the Gentiles over to moral degeneration and the Gentiles’ giving themselves over to such impurity is comparable to the situation of the Egyptian pharaoh described in Exodus. The biblical text says both that Pharaoh hardened his heart against God (Ex 8: 15, 32; 9: 34) and that God hardened his heart (Ex 9: 12; 10: 1, 20, 27; 11: 10; 14: 8; compare Rom 9: 17– 18). • Liefeld, Walter L. : Ephesians. Downers Grove, Ill. : Inter. Varsity Press, 1997 (The IVP New Testament Commentary Series 10), S. Eph 4: 20 H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 27

Spiritual Death - Mechanics • • • 1. Vanity (Vacuum) of the Mind 2. Spiritual Death - Mechanics • • • 1. Vanity (Vacuum) of the Mind 2. Understanding (Appraisal Process) Darkened 3. Alienated from the Life from God 4. Ignorance in them 5. Heart Hardened 6. Past Feeling 7. Lascivious 8. Unclean 9. Greedy H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 28

Spiritual Death: Eph 4: 17 -19 • 17 So this I say, and affirm Spiritual Death: Eph 4: 17 -19 • 17 So this I say, and affirm together with the Lord, that you walk no longer just as the Gentiles also walk, in the futility of their mind, 18 being darkened in their understanding, excluded from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart; 19 and they, having become callous, have given themselves over to sensuality for the practice of every kind of impurity with greediness. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 29

"that you walk no longer just as the Gentiles also walk" • “Walk” is peripateō “to conduct one’s self, order one’s behavior. ” • It includes all the manifestations of life, inner and outer, seen and unseen. (Hodge) • But here the walk which the apostle tells us to avoid is, first, the inner life which characterize the Gentiles, which the outer actions reveal. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 30

"in the vanity of their mind" • In emptiness [mataios) of their intellect [nous]). • "futility: In the this word denoted the LXX [191] futility of idol-worship as well as the emptiness of human endeavours which sought to bring lasting satisfaction" - • O'Brien, Peter Thomas: The Letter to the Ephesians. Grand Rapids, Mich. : W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , 1999 (The Pillar New Testament Commentary), S. 320 H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 31

Spiritual Death: Eph 4: 18 • 18 being darkened in their understanding, alienated from Spiritual Death: Eph 4: 18 • 18 being darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart; H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 32

"being darkened in their understanding" • • darkened - σκοτοω perfect passive participle of σκοτοω [skotoō], In their understanding (διανοιᾳ - Locative case). The Appraisal Process is δισνοια. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 33

"being darkened in their understanding" • σκοτόω, bscurity, darkness. o • The whole range of meaning may be understood in terms of the basic sense: darkness, not in connection with its optical effect, but experienced 9 as an enveloping sphere and described in its significance for existence, i. e. , as a hindrance to movement and action, to foresight, as the sphere of objective peril and subjective anxiety. (Kittell) H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 34

Eph 4: 18 (Darkness) • For the Greek sight is quite simply the possibility Eph 4: 18 (Darkness) • For the Greek sight is quite simply the possibility of life and self-orientation in it. • This helps us to understand the transition from a literal to a transferred use in the case of … σκότος: • 1. Darkness is concealment, obscurity, secrecy, deception; it is the obscurity of a thing or a speaker; and it is a lack of knowledge or insight. • Darkness denotes the whole range of what is harmful, or evil-in the sense of the threat to life, of what is bad for me, as well as in that of moral evil, or fatal. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 35

Eph 4: 18 (Darkness) • • captivity (Ps. 107: 10 ff. ), evil (Ps. Eph 4: 18 (Darkness) • • captivity (Ps. 107: 10 ff. ), evil (Ps. 44: 19; Job 19: 8; 22: 10 f. ; 30: 26), and wickedness (Ps. 10: 7 ff. ; 11: 2; 74: 20; 82: 5). It is also characterised as the supreme terror, especially as darkness represents something dreadful for the Israelites. • (4: 18) “Darkened” is the perfect participle of skotoō “to darken or blind the mind. ” • The perfect tense speaks of a process completed in past time having present results to show the finished and permanent result of the blinding of the mind by sin. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 36

Eph 4: 18 - Darkness • Darkened: Periphrastic σκοτιζω = darkened = blackout. • Eph 4: 18 - Darkness • Darkened: Periphrastic σκοτιζω = darkened = blackout. • Perfect tense means this is permanent. • Passive voice, this is received because of the ignorance in them. • The Unbeliever who rejects God has a permanent blackout which causes him to be disoriented to the grace of God. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 37

Eph 4: 18 - Darkness • Eph 4: 18 - Darkness • "Darkness" is the "shadow of Death" • Matthew 4: 16 (AMP) The people who sat (dwelt enveloped) in darkness have seen a great Light, and for those who sat in the land shadow of death Light has dawned. • Luke 1: 79 (AMP) To shine upon and give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to direct and guide our feet in a straight line into the way of peace. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 38

Eph 4: 18 - Darkness • Ephesians 1: 18 (AMP) • 18 By having Eph 4: 18 - Darkness • Ephesians 1: 18 (AMP) • 18 By having the eyes of your heart flooded with light, so that you can know and understand the hope to which He has called you, and how rich is His glorious inheritance in the saints (His set-apart ones), H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 39

"understanding" • 18 Their understanding, their Appraisal Process (dianoia) is darkened (skotao) and their reasoning is beclouded. • [They are] alienated (estranged, self-banished) from the life of God [with no share in it] • because of the ignorance (the want of knowledge and perception, the willful blindness) • that is deep-seated in them, • due to their hardness (porosis) of heart (Kardia) H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 40

Eph 4: 18 - Understanding • The thinking part of the mind is going Eph 4: 18 - Understanding • The thinking part of the mind is going to be definitely hurt by the vacuum. • The Vacuum of the Soul has only one "inlet" from which to suck information - The Sin, the Sin Nature, residing in the Human Flesh. • Having the understanding darkened. Διανοια = thinking through, understanding. • This refers to the conscious part of the mind where you do your actual thinking. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 41

Understanding - O'Brien • The desperate condition of Gentiles outside of Christ is now Understanding - O'Brien • The desperate condition of Gentiles outside of Christ is now depicted in terms of their being darkened in their understanding. • It is noteworthy that the apostle goes out of his way to emphasize the perceptive and mental dimension in the human estrangement from God. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 42

Understanding - O'Brien • The Gentiles’ mind-set has been drastically affected ( 17 b), Understanding - O'Brien • The Gentiles’ mind-set has been drastically affected ( 17 b), their thinking has become v. 193 darkened so that they are blind to the truth, and their alienation from God is because of the ignorance within them. • This darkness in their thinking was not some temporary condition; as the emphatic periphrastic expression indicates, the light of their 194 understanding had gone out so that they were now in a state of being incapable of grasping the truth of God and his gospel. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 43

Understanding - O'Brien • As noted above, this description of the Gentiles’ spiritual darkness Understanding - O'Brien • As noted above, this description of the Gentiles’ spiritual darkness is akin to the apostle’s earlier words in Romans 1: 21, ‘their foolish hearts were darkened’, although here in Ephesians 4, as befits an exhortation, there is greater stress on their own responsibility for their abandonment to sin (see on v. 195 19). H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 44

Understanding - O'Brien • In sharp contrast, Paul’s Christian readers, through the enabling power Understanding - O'Brien • In sharp contrast, Paul’s Christian readers, through the enabling power of ‘the Spirit of wisdom and revelation’ given to them, are able to know God better and to understand the truth of his purposes (Eph. 1: 17– 18). • O'Brien, Peter Thomas: The Letter to the Ephesians. Grand Rapids, Mich. : W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , 1999 (The Pillar New Testament Commentary), S. 320 H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 45

Eph 4: 18 - alienated • They are described as being alienated, described by Eph 4: 18 - alienated • They are described as being alienated, described by απατριολα = to be alienated from an ultimate source; to be estranged. • It means also, “to shut out from one’s fellowship and intimacy. ” • Expositors says: “Being in a state of moral darkness, they also become alienated from the true life. ” The life of God is the life that God provides. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 46

Eph 4: 18 - Alienated • Not only are Gentiles darkened in their understanding; Eph 4: 18 - Alienated • Not only are Gentiles darkened in their understanding; they are also separated from the life of God, that life which God 196 possesses in himself and bestows on his children. • Gentiles who do not belong to Christ are ‘dead’ through their trespasses and sins (2: 1, 5), and have no relationship at all with the living God (2: 12). H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 47

Ignorance - O'Brien • Their state of alienation from his life was 197 because Ignorance - O'Brien • Their state of alienation from his life was 197 because of the ignorance that is in them. • Paul’s view of knowledge and ignorance is largely determined by the Old Testament. • To know God means to be in a close personal relationship with him. • Knowledge has to do with an obedient and grateful response of the whole person, not simply intellectual assent. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 48

Ignorance - O'Brien • Likewise, ‘ignorance’ is a failure to be grateful 198 and Ignorance - O'Brien • Likewise, ‘ignorance’ is a failure to be grateful 198 and obedient. It describes someone’s total stance, and this includes emotions, will, and action, not just one’s mental response. • Not to know the Lord is to ignore him, to say ‘no’ to his demands. • Such ignorance is culpable. • It is not an excuse for sin, though it is often understood this way in contemporary thought. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 49

Ignorance - O'Brien • The Gentiles’ inability to understand the light of God’s truth Ignorance - O'Brien • The Gentiles’ inability to understand the light of God’s truth is no excuse for their broken relationship with him. • Indeed, the additional words, ‘[the ignorance] that is in them’, show that the responsibility is not finally due to external factors. 199 • The blame falls squarely on their shoulders. • O'Brien, Peter Thomas: The Letter to the Ephesians. Grand Rapids, Mich. : W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , 1999 (The Pillar New Testament Commentary), S. 321 H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 50

Eph 4: 18 - Alienated • John 3: 3, 5, 6 (YLT) If any Eph 4: 18 - Alienated • John 3: 3, 5, 6 (YLT) If any one may not be born from above, he is not able to see the Kingdom-reign of God; • 5 he is not able to enter into the Kingdomreign of God; • 6 that which hath been born of the flesh is flesh, and that which hath been born of the Spirit is spirit. H & B-027 LWBC 3 -30 -08 51