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http: //www. annette-boeckler. de/liturgie. html 1 HOME Sacred Jewish Music Course UK Version: April http: //www. annette-boeckler. de/liturgie. html 1 HOME Sacred Jewish Music Course UK Version: April 2, 2014 Overview of the Nusach for the whole year [UK edition] Based on a previous version “Overzicht van alle noesach variaties” developed by me for Het Levisson Instituut with Rabbijn David Lilienthal and Prof. Dr. Eli Schleifer Please click the left button of YOUR MOUSE to start the slide show. [or press the enter key. ] 2014 Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 Dr Annette M. Boeckler

Important Notes on usage Here will 2 HOME be the print button of the Important Notes on usage Here will 2 HOME be the print button of the slides. This overview is made for the Anglo-Jewish tradition and reflects its customs and traditions. (It can therefore not simply be adapted to any other country’s traditions. ) It reflects the customs of the Askenazi tradition. (The Spanish and Portuguese tradition is based on different principles, not this nusach system. ) A specific of Anglo-Jewry is a mixture of Eastern and Western European liturgical traditions. Our leyning follows a Western European tradition; the davvening follows the Eastern European cantorial tradition (as does the majority of congregations in the USA and Israel). For each page there is a print version at the very back of this slide show. You can also open the print-version of a certain slide by clicking on “print” at the top of the slide. By clicking on “HOME” at the top right corner of each slide you open the content page. From here you can directly go to a certain service-overview. Just click on what you want. If you click on “colour overview” on the right bottom of each slide, you see the meaning of each colour used in this show. Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 By clicking on the left mouse button or by pressing the enter key you can move to the next information. If you want to go back, press the return key on your keyboard.

colours used BASIC MODES (or “steygers”) Ahawa Rabba Nusach Magein Avot Nusach Adonai Malach colours used BASIC MODES (or “steygers”) Ahawa Rabba Nusach Magein Avot Nusach Adonai Malach Nusach 3 HOME Congregational MELODIES Not Nusach Motives, but melodies in Minor Not Nusach Motives, but melodies in Major TUNES Mi Sinai Tunes (medieval compositions strongly attached to certain times and festivals, known all over Ashkenaz) Minhag Ha. Makom Tunes (only fixed in a special congregation or country, are as holy as Mi Sinai) Compositions (that means composed tunes which don’t care about any nusach) OTHER read or in silence marks the special parts for the special event, after mouse click or “enter”key Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 COMPOSED MODES Yishtabach Mode Psalm Modes (a family of modes that include Hallel, Amidah for Festivals and High Holidays, Kerovah mode, Selichah mode containing time bound motives) Several High Holiday Motives (it’s too complicated to differentiate in this basic overview, there are different nuschaot in Shacharit, special ones for Selichot and Vidui, etc. ) Shlosh Regalim Nusach (a very special version of the Psalm mode) Shabbat Mincha Nusach Weekday Nusach (Pentatonic)

By clicking on “home”, you always get back to this page. 4 HOME content By clicking on “home”, you always get back to this page. 4 HOME content Click on the topic you want and you’ll be lead to the slide. Erev Shabbat Shacharit Shabbat Mincha Weekday evening Weekday morning Print Versions 1. 4 Overview of the Nusach of the whole year (Western European Tradition) MS Power. Point is needed to open this file Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 Other service overviews in preparation. At the moment they only exist in Dutch, for download on http: //www. annette-boeckler. de/liturgie. html

print Erev Shabbat 5 HOME nt y differe letel e s comp IF it’s print Erev Shabbat 5 HOME nt y differe letel e s comp IF it’s a Festival evening, go to Erev 3 Regalim / Rosh ha. Shana / Kol Nidre g Servic thing i enin Every kday Ev ee [if Candle lighting is done in shul: from a W don’t use a Chanukka tune if it’s not Chanukka, but a tune leading to Kabbalat Shabbat] Ma Tovu and/or songs compositions (free style) KABBALAT SHABBAT Psalms 95 -99, 29 Lecha Dodi Kabbalat Shabbat (Adonai Malach Nusach) composition(s) (if Nusach, mostly Adonai Malach) Note: During the 3 weeks before 9 Av and in some traditions during the weeks of Sefirat ha. Omer it is traditional to use a melody in minor for Lecha Dodi. Ps 92 -93 (= liturgical beginning of shabbat) Magein Avot [=Eastern tradition] [but Adonai Malach in Belsize Square Synagogue = Western tradition) BARCHU and Shema and its Blessings Ve. Shamru Chatzi Kaddish Silent Amida Me’en Sheva (Magein Avot) Kaddish Titkabbal Kiddush Aleinu Mourner’s Kaddish Adon Olam or Yigdal special Shabbat nusach with identifying motives often composition (Shabbat motives) special Shabbat nusach with its identifying motives Shabbat Evening Nusach (Magein Avot Nusach) Adonai Malach Nusach or composition read composition Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 MA’ARIV LE-SHABBAT

print 6 HOME Shabbat Morning Service o Weekday M rom y different f tel print 6 HOME Shabbat Morning Service o Weekday M rom y different f tel (Birchot ha. Shachar – End of Amida) ing comple Everyth Birchot ha. Shachar Pesuke de. Zimra special Shabbat Psalm mode in Major (similar to Birchot ha. Shachar) may contain some compositions for some parts, pay attention that they are fitting tunes in Major. For Shabbat Chol Ha. Moed see special slide. Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 It is a Liberal custom (since 19 th cent. ) to stand for the first section of the Shema as a witness and as in the Amidah. Nishmat (nusach changes already here preparing congregation for Barchu and Shema) till beginning of Yotzer Or Yishtabach Mode [= THE festival/shabbat sound] [leaders sometimes change for SHOCHEN AD as this is the beginning of the main cantorial role] End of Yotzer Or (after El Adon), Ahava Rabba Mode (Shabbat Morning style) Shma Ahavah Rabba (only in Belsize Square, Liberal congregations and some Reform congregations: melody in Major = Western), torah trope (Western trad. ) Ge’ula Ahavah Rabbah (Shabbat Morning style) Personal/Silent Amida Most Liberal and Reform Congregations say the Amidah loud together (then all read or all chant or a mixture of both. ) Loud Amida if chanted: Beginning till Yimloch Adonai: Adonai Malach Le. Dor va. Dor till end: Ahavah Rabbah [if Rosh Chodesh or Festival: Half Hallel or Hallel, if it is Sukkot use Lulav in Hallel; some congregations do Hakkafot with Lulav here. ] Kaddish Titkabbal in Major, leading to Torah Service [if this is a Shabbat during Pesach or Sukkot: read Shir ha. Shirim/Kohelet here/ if 1 st day of Pesach/Sukkot falls on Shabbat, chant Shir ha. Shirim/Kohelet on the last day of Pesach / on Shemini Azeret. ]

Klick here to hear on website Shabbat Morning Service 2 (Tora Reading Shabbat Morning) Klick here to hear on website Shabbat Morning Service 2 (Tora Reading Shabbat Morning) Ein Kamocha Av ha. Rachamim Vayehi binsoa Shema / echad / gadlu Lecha Adonai print 7 HOME Adonai Malach Nusach or composition Minor or composition Major or composition in Weekday [study] Minor Bar/Bat Mitzvah in UK: Major from Portuguese tradition) Note: on special Shabbatot (Shabbat Shekalim, Zachor, Para, and Calls (ya’amod / ta’amod), misheberachs 306 -322 should be in Major, but usually is in Minor Hachodesh there are special Maftir and Haftara readings, special • Bracha after the reading Major (anticipates call for next one) Haftara readings are on Shabbat Ha. Gadol, Shabbat and Rosh [ Chatzi Kaddish before Maftir: study mode (or Ahavah Rabbah) not in Liberal/Reform] Chodesh and the Shabbat immediately before Rosh Chodesh, (various traditions here! Often Friday evening is used) the 3 Shabbatot before 9 Av and the 7 Shabbatot after 9 Av. Vezot hatorah Different Readings are on Shabbat Chanukka. melody in Major • Bracha before Haftara in Haftara trop (or read if Haftarah is read) • Bracha after Haftara special melody [ Misheberach for congregation Minor not done in Liberal ] If last Shabbat in the month: p. 336 Mevarchin ha. Chodesch, use typical melody of an event in [ Ashre Major not done in Liberal and Reform ] the next month for Yechadshehu in the last passage. Yehallelu and Hodo al eretz Major Psalm 29 Major / or composition Uvnucho yomar Major ; mumbled silently / composition (BSS, Liberal, Reform) Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 • Bracha before the reading

8 HOME MATERIALS: Mi shebeirach for Olim and Chatzi Kaddish before Maftir MI SHEBEIRACH 8 HOME MATERIALS: Mi shebeirach for Olim and Chatzi Kaddish before Maftir MI SHEBEIRACH in major NOTE: Both are usually not done in Liberal congregations, seldom in Reform congregations, because Mi Shebeirach interrupts the listening to the torah and Maftir is linked to mussaf which is linked to the tradition of sacrifices, whose mentioning was abolished by Classical Reform. Samples taken from: Andrew Bernard, The Sound of Sacred Time, Charlotte, NC: Andrew Bernard, 2005, p. 118) Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 CHATZI KADDISH BEFORE MAFTIR in Ahavah Rabbah

print 9 HOME MATERIALS: Mevarchim hachodesh (Rosh Chodesh Bentshing / Birkat ha. Chodesh) Note: print 9 HOME MATERIALS: Mevarchim hachodesh (Rosh Chodesh Bentshing / Birkat ha. Chodesh) Note: this is NOT done ON Rosh Chodesh itself! but on the SHABBAT BEFORE ROSH CHODESH after the prayers for the government , Israel and congregation Minor with modulation into Ahavah Rabba Mode ually the congre had’sheihu (us nth to chant Yec nes for the mo s for tu My suggestion ly and joins in. ) es the tune quick recogniz 2 nd passage: Mi she’asah nisim Adonai Malach Mode ) sach eitmotiv for Pes of Adir Hu (= L Melody ational Anthem Nissan elody of Israel N 3 rd passage: anouncement M y of Akdamut (= Leitmotiv for Shavuot) Said Iyar Melod Mode Sivan Adonai Malach Ekha Trop or. Congregation repeats isha be. Av) Tammuz ion (piyyut for T Melody of eli tz [one could play with motives here, for example Av icha Mode Sel include melodies, nusach or trop typical for the Evening Service Ellul i Sinai tune of e or just read High Holiday M festival in that month. )alach Mod e Adonai M Tishri this month, us -- no festival in Tzur Cheshvan Melody of Maoz Malach Mode Kislev 4 th passage: Yechad’sheihu Ekha Trop or Adonai i. Shevat Song (Tubi. Shevat higia…. ) IN LEITMELODY OF FESTIVAL Tevet wn Tu B Melody of a kno in the new month i Purim…. ) n n Purim Song (A Shevat elody of a know M or in Adonai Malach Mode Adar Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 1 st passage: Yehi ratzon milfanecha

Shabbat Morning Service 3 ([Mussaf] and end) Chatzi Kaddish print 10 HOME Adonai Malach Shabbat Morning Service 3 ([Mussaf] and end) Chatzi Kaddish print 10 HOME Adonai Malach Beginning of Mussaf Amida till yimloch adonai Adonai Malach If you don’t have Mussaf, skip this le. Dor va. Dor till end of Amida Ahavah Rabba (same as in Shacharit, but of course with and different text) Kaddish Titkabbal continue with Aleinu. Major Mourner’s Kaddish Adonai Malach Nusach or composition read Final song composition Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 Aleinu

print 11 HOME Shabbat Mincha Ashre (Psalm 145) Magein Avot Amida beginning till yimloch print 11 HOME Shabbat Mincha Ashre (Psalm 145) Magein Avot Amida beginning till yimloch le. Dor va. Dor till end Kaddish titkabbal as on Weekdays (pentatonic) Shabbat Mincha mode Major (if not special occasion) Aleinu Adonai Malach Nusach or composition read Mourner’s Kaddish final song Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 Note: torah Chatzi Kaddish Magein Avot with Mincha Leitmotiv reading is short Torah-Reading (as on weekday) melodies as on Shabbat or with Mincha before the Leitmotiv Amida in Chatzi Kaddish Magein Avot (study mode) Mincha services.

Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 12 HOME For Printing Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 12 HOME For Printing

Erev Shabbat 13 HOME [if Candle lighting is done in shul: don’t use a Erev Shabbat 13 HOME [if Candle lighting is done in shul: don’t use a Chanukka tune if it’s not Chanukka, but a tune leading to Kabbalat Shabbat] Ma Tovu and/or songs compositions (free style) KABBALAT SHABBAT Psalms 95 -99, 29 Lecha Dodi Kabbalat Shabbat (Adonai Malach Nusach) composition(s) (if Nusach, mostly Adonai Malach) Note: During the 3 weeks before 9 Av and in some traditions during the weeks of Sefirat ha. Omer it is traditional to use a melody in minor for Lecha Dodi. Ps 92 -93 (= liturgical beginning of shabbat) Magein Avot [=Eastern tradition] [but Adonai Malach in Belsize Square Synagogue = Western tradition) BARCHU and Shema and its Blessings Ve. Shamru Chatzi Kaddish Silent Amida Me’en Sheva (Magein Avot) Kaddish Titkabbal Kiddush Aleinu Mourner’s Kaddish Adon Olam or Yigdal special Shabbat nusach with identifying motives often composition (Shabbat motives) special Shabbat nusach with its identifying motives Shabbat Evening Nusach (Magein Avot Nusach) Adonai Malach Nusach or composition read composition Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 MA’ARIV LE-SHABBAT

Shabbat Morning Service (Birchot ha. Shachar – End of Amida) Birchot ha. Shachar Pesuke Shabbat Morning Service (Birchot ha. Shachar – End of Amida) Birchot ha. Shachar Pesuke de. Zimra 14 HOME special Shabbat Psalm mode in Major (similar to Birchot ha. Shachar) may contain some compositions for some parts, pay attention that they are fitting tunes in Major. For Shabbat Chol Ha. Moed see special slide. Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 It is a Liberal custom (since 19 th cent. ) to stand for the first section of the Shema as a witness and as in the Amidah. Nishmat (nusach changes already here preparing congregation for Barchu and Shema) till beginning of Yotzer Or Yishtabach Mode [= THE festival/shabbat sound] [leaders sometimes change for SHOCHEN AD as this is the beginning of the main cantorial role] End of Yotzer Or (after El Adon), Ahava Rabba Mode (Shabbat Morning style) Shma Ahavah Rabba (only in Belsize Square, Liberal congregations and some Reform congregations: melody in Major = Western), torah trope (Western trad. ) Ge’ula Ahavah Rabbah (Shabbat Morning style) Personal/Silent Amida Most Liberal and Reform Congregations say the Amidah loud together (then all read or all chant or a mixture of both. ) Loud Amida if chanted: Beginning till Yimloch Adonai: Adonai Malach Le. Dor va. Dor till end: Ahavah Rabbah [if Rosh Chodesh or Festival: Half Hallel or Hallel, if it is Sukkot use Lulav in Hallel; some congregations do Hakkafot with Lulav here. ] Kaddish Titkabbal in Major, leading to Torah Service [if this is a Shabbat during Pesach or Sukkot: read Shir ha. Shirim/Kohelet here/ if 1 st day of Pesach/Sukkot falls on Shabbat, chant Shir ha. Shirim/Kohelet on the last day of Pesach / on Shemini Azeret. ]

Klick here to hear on website Shabbat Morning Service 2 (Tora Reading Shabbat Morning) Klick here to hear on website Shabbat Morning Service 2 (Tora Reading Shabbat Morning) Ein Kamocha Av ha. Rachamim Vayehi binsoa Shema / echad / gadlu Lecha Adonai print 15 HOME Adonai Malach Nusach or composition Minor or composition Major or composition • Bracha before the reading in Weekday [study] Minor Bar/Bat Mitzvah in UK: Major from Portuguese tradition) Calls (ya’amod / ta’amod), misheberachs 306 -322 should be in Major, but usually is in Minor • Bracha after the reading Major (anticipates call for next one) [ Chatzi Kaddish before Maftir: study mode (or Ahavah Rabbah) not in Liberal/Reform] Vezot hatorah melody in Major • Bracha before Haftara in Haftara trop (or read if Haftarah is read) • Bracha after Haftara special melody [ Misheberach for congregation Minor not done in Liberal ] last shabbat in month: Blessing for new month [ Ashre Major not done in Liberal and Reform ] Yehallelu and Hodo al eretz Major Psalm 29 Major / or composition Uvnucho yomar Major ; mumbled silently / composition (BSS, Liberal, Reform) Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 (various traditions here! Often Friday evening is used)

16 HOME MATERIALS: Mi shebeirach for Olim and Chatzi Kaddish before Maftir MI SHEBEIRACH 16 HOME MATERIALS: Mi shebeirach for Olim and Chatzi Kaddish before Maftir MI SHEBEIRACH in major NOTE: Both are usually not done in Liberal congregations, seldom in Reform congregations, because Mi Shebeirach interrupts the listening to the torah and Maftir is linked to mussaf which is linked to the tradition of sacrifices, whose mentioning was abolished by Classical Reform. Samples taken from: Andrew Bernard, The Sound of Sacred Time, Charlotte, NC: Andrew Bernard, 2005, p. 118) Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 CHATZI KADDISH BEFORE MAFTIR in Ahavah Rabbah

17 HOME MATERIALS: Mevarchim hachodesh (Rosh Chodesh Bentshing / Birkat ha. Chodesh) Note: this 17 HOME MATERIALS: Mevarchim hachodesh (Rosh Chodesh Bentshing / Birkat ha. Chodesh) Note: this is NOT done ON Rosh Chodesh itself! but on the SHABBAT BEFORE ROSH CHODESH after the prayers for the government , Israel and congregation. 4 th passage: Yechad’sheihu Minor with modulation into Ahavah Rabba Mode Adonai Malach Mode Said Congregation repeats [one could play with motives here, for example include melodies, nusach or trop typical for the festival in that month. ) IN LEITMELODY OF FESTIVAL in the new month or in Adonai Malach Mode Suggestions for tunes for the month to chant Yechad’sheihu: Nissan: Melody of Adir Hu (= Leitmotiv for Pessach); Iyar: Melody of Israel National Anthem; Sivan: Melody of Akdamut (= Leitmotiv for Shavuot); Tammuz: Ekha Trop or Adonai Malach Mode; Av: Melody of eli tzion (piyyut for Tisha be. Av); Ellul: Selicha Mode; Tishri: High Holiday Mi Sinai tune of Evening Service ; Cheshvan: -- no festival in this month, use Adonai Malach Mode or just read ; Kislev: Melody of Maoz Tzur; Tevet: Ekha Trop or Adonai Malach Mode ; Shevat: Melody of a known Tu Bi. Shevat Song (Tubi. Shevat higia…. ); Adar: Melody of a known Purim Song (Ani Purim…. ) Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 1 st passage: Yehi ratzon milfanecha 2 nd passage: Mi she’asah nisim 3 rd passage: anouncement

Shabbat Morning Service 3 ([Mussaf] and end) print 18 HOME Chatzi Kaddish Adonai Malach Shabbat Morning Service 3 ([Mussaf] and end) print 18 HOME Chatzi Kaddish Adonai Malach If you don’t have Mussaf, skip this Beginning of Mussaf Amida till yimloch adonai Adonai Malach and Ahavah Rabba (same as in continue with le. Dor va. Dor till end of Amida Shacharit, but of course with Aleinu. different text) Kaddish Titkabbal Major Mourner’s Kaddish Adonai Malach Nusach or composition read Final song composition Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 Aleinu

print 19 HOME Shabbat Mincha Ashre (Psalm 145) Magein Avot Amida beginning till yimloch print 19 HOME Shabbat Mincha Ashre (Psalm 145) Magein Avot Amida beginning till yimloch le. Dor va. Dor till end Kaddish titkabbal as on Weekdays (pentatonic) Shabbat Mincha mode Major (if not special occasion) Aleinu Adonai Malach Nusach or composition read Mourner’s Kaddish final song Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 Note: torah Chatzi Kaddish Magein Avot with Mincha Leitmotiv reading is short Torah-Reading (as on weekday) melodies as on Shabbat or with Mincha before the Leitmotiv Amida in Chatzi Kaddish Magein Avot (study mode) Mincha services.

20 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Ma Tovu/ Yigdal/ Adon Olam/ Shachar avakeshcha composition 20 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Ma Tovu/ Yigdal/ Adon Olam/ Shachar avakeshcha composition Birchot ha. Shachar Magein Avot Study mode (as Brachot before Pesuke de. Zimra Magein Avot Study mode Torahreading) End of Pesuke de. Zimra: Yishtabach Ahavah Rabba mode, but much simpler than Shab. Chazi Kaddish Ahavah Rabba mode, but much simpler than Shab. Barchu Ahavah Rabba mode, but much simpler than Shab. Yotzer Ahavah Rabba mode, but much simpler than Shab. Ahava Rabbah Ahavah Rabba mode, but much simpler than Shab. Shema Ahavah Rabba or Major (=“liberale” tradition) and Torah Trop. Adonai elohechem Ahavah Rabba mode, but much simpler than Shab. Geula Ahavah Rabba mode, but much simpler than Shab. Weekday Amida is repeated by Chazzan Weekday Nusach (pentatonic) → On Rosh Chodesh / Chanukka: [Half] Hallel (half = RCh, full = Chanukka. ) → On Monday and Thursday and on Rosh Chodesh: Short Torah Reading [same Nusach as on Shabbat]. Kaddish Titkabbal Aleinu Mourner’s Kaddish → On Purim and Tisha be. Av: Megillat Esther/Echa Magein Avot Study mode Adonai Malach Nusach or composition Read Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 On Chanukka, Purim, Yom Ha. Atzmaut don’t fcorget to insert Al hanissim into the Amida (p. 86 -88 -90). On Rosh Chodesh don’t forget to insert Ya’ale veyavo (p. 84)

21 Birchot ha. Shachar Weekday Minor / Study Mode Major (special motives) / Psalm 21 Birchot ha. Shachar Weekday Minor / Study Mode Major (special motives) / Psalm Mode Pesuke de. Zimra Weekday Minor / Study Mode Major (special motives) / Psalm Mode Yishtabach Weekday Ahavah Rabbah Yishtabach Mode an elaborate festive version of the Shabbat mode “Magen Avot”. The change into this mode starts already with Nishmat kol chai – the specific shabbat ending of Pesuke de. Zimra. Chazi Kaddish Weekday Ahavah Rabbah Yishtabach Mode Barchu Weekday Ahavah Rabbah Yishtabach Mode Yotzer Weekday Ahavah Rabbah Yishtabach Mode but after the piyyut el adon change into Ahavah Rabba where the first time “shabbat” is praised. (Some cantors only change at the words “kulam ahuvim”) Ahava Rabbah Weekday Ahavah Rabbah Shabbat Ahavah Rabbah (elaborate!) Shema Major [German] / Weekday Ahavah Rabbah Shabbat Ahavah Rabbah Adonai elohechem Weekday Ahavah Rabbah Shabbat Ahavah Rabbah Geula Weekday Ahavah Rabbah Shabbat Ahavah Rabbah Amidah Weekday Nusach (pentatonic) 1 -3 Adonai Malach [change in Kedusha] 4 -7 Kedushat ha. Yom till end: Ahavah Rabbah Torah Service (sounds the same Weekday and Shabbat but note that Shabbat has a DIFFERENT TEXT !) Frame all in Adonai Malach / Brachot for Aliyot: Eastern Trad: Study Mode [Minor] Western Trad. : Major (in UK often used by Bar/Bat Mitzvahs) Kaddish Titkabbal Study Mode Aleinu Adonai Malach or composition Mourner’s Kaddish Read Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 The Sound of the Morning Service on a Weekday on Shabbat HOME

22 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences to a Shabbat Morning Service: q 22 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences to a Shabbat Morning Service: q is generally much simpler and quicker (people need to go to work). Even if it contains hallel on Rosh Chodesh, this hallel is usually done in the psalm mode for hallel, not with much congregational singing. But this depends on the group and there is freedom in adding songs and texts if all agree and each minyan develops its style. q The Weekday Service has NO Adonai Malach Mode for the first three sections of the Amidah. This very majestic major mode is reserved for Shabbat and Festivals. On weekdays there also is no nussach change, the whole weekday Amidah (1 -19) is chanted in a very specific mode for the Amidah, a nusach based on a pentatonic scale. There is a composed kedushah that was introduced in the cantorial school at HUC – this is indeed based on the Weekday Amidah Mode, although very elaborate but uses the scale of the mode. q Different start. This is usually not a problem as many people use the Weekday birkhat ha. Shachar on Shabbat! But Shabbat has its very own nusach for Birchot ha. Shachar and Psuke de. Zimra – but as this is usually done by lay shlichey tzibbur, they usually do on shabbat what they know from Weekdays, pity. . . (on shabbat it’s all in major, not in minor as on weekdays. ) Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 q The Weekday Service has NO “Yishtabach” mode. [Yishtabach mode is the typical feature for Festivals incl. Shabbat. Yishtabach Mode is an elaborate variant of Magen Avot mode (used for example for Ma’ariv Shabbat and Kiddush Shabbat) with elaborate modulations into major – very festive! Nothing to mark an odd normal weekday. On Weekdays the nusach changes with Yishtabach, too – the blessing after Pesuke de. Zimra leads over to the next part - but into Weekday Ahavah Rabbah mode [something related to how the last passages of the Amidah are chanted on Shabbat or how El Male Rachamim is done, and others – but, as it is weekday, it is kept very simple. ] This mode it kept until the end of the shema section, that is until the Amidah starts. So Yishtabach is on weekdays chanted in a simple Ahavah Rabbah Mode!

23 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences between Liberal, Reform, Masorti, Traditional in 23 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences between Liberal, Reform, Masorti, Traditional in the UK Character of service A progressive service is clergy lead, the others join in with exactly the same words/tune/rhythm or listen. A traditional service is more congregational lead: everybody mumbles their prayers and the prayer leader tries to coordinate and synchronize where necessary. A traditional service lives form the togetherness of different voices. Progressive WEEKDAY services are seldom It is seldom that a liberal or progressive synagogue offers regular daily morning services Some liberal or reform synagogues offer during term times Weekday Services on Sunday mornings before or parallel to the start of the children’s cheder. Some Rabbinical Seminaries offer regular daily services. Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 Progressive services tend to contain more songs than traditional services. In a Progressive service you may encounter prayer that are not chanted but read, a custom that started already in the 19 th cent. The likelihood that a modern meditation is inserted into the service is more likely in the progressive service; traditional services may have short study units at the end; masorti services sometimes use a prayerbook that offers a variety of mediations for free choice by the person praying for him/herself. Traditional services are chanted. The Weekday tunes are very different from the shabbat tunes (nusach is the “sound of time”, thus each time has its sound. )

24 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences between Liberal, Reform, Masorti, Traditional in 24 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences between Liberal, Reform, Masorti, Traditional in the UK Textual differences Traditional vs Progressive (SUMMARY) q The main differences are at the beginning and at the end. Inbetween note some textual variants, especially in the Yotzer (the progressive trad. has no Kedushah) and in the Weekday Amidah (especially the last passages). q After the Amidah follows in a traditional service private meditative time (“Tachanun”), prayers about the fragility of live, our limitations and our hope. A traditional service concludes slowly. . . Ashrei. . . Uvah le. Tzion Goel (a third Kedushah corresponding to the Kedushah in the Yotzer, so that the congregational praise of God’s holiness is framed by two private ones) and several study texts (Aleinu and the psalm of the day) to give people the opportunity to say Kaddish. A Progressive Service concludes quickly: just Aleinu, Kaddish (usually said together and this is usually also the only Kaddish in the whole service). Progressive Services usually end similarly as they have started: with a jointly sung congregational hymn (very often Adon Olam, but many other modern songs can be chosen on weekdays as well. ) Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 q Pesuke de. Zimra may be abridged in a masorti service. It is definitely abridged in a Reform service and there also contains alternative texts and very different in a Liberal Weekday service. Whereas Progressive services have a congregational start, traditional services have a relaxed beginning, as Birkhat ha. Shakhar is people’s private preparation, everybody comes in at his/her time and prepares in his/her own time, until people spiritually unite for Barchu. Liberal and Reform services, however, usually start together with a commonly chanted “Mah Tovuh” – a tradition that started in 19 th century Germany (majestic choral intro piece while clergy enters the room). In a traditional service Mah Tovuh is never sung or even heard.

25 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences between Liberal, Reform, Masorti, Traditional in 25 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences between Liberal, Reform, Masorti, Traditional in the UK Differences in detail in the opening part Sed ha. Tefillot [Reform] Lev Chadash [Liberal] . . . [private, people are coming, donning tallit and tefillin, begin their prayer] p. 32 congregational MAH TOVU [sometimes preceded by a niggun] p. 29 congregational MAH TOVU while standing leader usually starts to lead with morning blessings p. 16 ויהי רצון. . . יהי רצון מלפניך. . . לעולם לא על צדקותינו till first shema [private]. [very short silence for private study] p. 36 Ps 30 Mizmor shir chanukkat habayit Kaddish Yatom [if minyan] “Entering Ourselves” containing a choice of the traditional texts as אשר , יצר את אדם, אלהי נשמה morning blessings, either שתרגילנו or , שתצילנו לא על צדק often read in English. Study passage Modern meditation in English “Teach us to see each new day as a token of your love. . . ” p. 40 BARUKH SHE-AMAR 1 Chron 16: 8 -36 various psalm verses, mostly from psalm 95 -99 Psalm 100 Daily Hallel (Ashre till Psalm 150) p. 54 Vayevarech David. . . (1 Chron 29: 1013; Neh 9: 6 -11; Exod 14: 30 -15: 19 (shirat ha. Yam) p. 58 YISHTABACH Chazi Kaddish to prepare Barchu. “Preparing to encounter God” p. 39 BARUKH SHE-AMAR evtl. psalm, often congregationally sung Psalm 150 (Hallelu. . . ) the siddur offers the trad. daily psalms, Ashrei, shirat ha. Yam [without intro] and Vayevarech David after Ps 150 before song: shachar avakeshcha passage from creation story for the day p. 53 YISHTABACH the siddur prints Chazi Kaddish, but often omitted. p. 36 BARUKH SHE-AMAR [abridged] one psalm for the day [new choices] p. 48 YISHTABACH [abridged] Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 Singer’s [Masorti customs]

26 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences between Liberal, Reform, Masorti, Traditional in 26 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences between Liberal, Reform, Masorti, Traditional in the UK Differences in texts There are variants between the movements, the most imporant differences is the version of the Yotzer (the 1 st blessing before the Shema) and the versions of the Weekday Amidah. It is worth to compare these texts in detail to understand the differences. ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 Sed ha. Tefillot [Reform] Lev Chadash [Liberal] Yotzer can be found on pages 62 – 67 in the green centenary edition. Yotzer can be found on page 55 “The Creator of the Universe”. Yotzer can be found on page 49 “We praise you. . . ”. The Weekday Amidah The Daily Amidah עמידה can be found on pages לימות החול can be found 74 -95. on pages 74 -86. The Daily Prayer תפלה can be found on pages 52 -61. Colour Overview Singer’s [Masorti customs]

27 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences between Liberal, Reform, Masorti, Traditional in 27 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences between Liberal, Reform, Masorti, Traditional in the UK Differences in the concluding part Singer’s [Masorti customs] Reform Liberal p. 310 Aleinu (either new version with asher bachar anu. . . or the traditional text. ) p. 520 Aleinu (with asher sam chelkeinu leyached et shemo. . . ) After the Amidah follow very personal prayers, said in silence, tachanun. It has become custom to sing “shomer Yisrael” p. 116, together with a composed tune. p. 132 ASHREI p. 134 Lamenatzeach mizmor le. David (Ps 20) p. 136 Uvah Le. Tzion Goel. . . (= Kedushah de. Sitra) p. 140 Aleinu KADDISH YATOM psalm of the day KADDISH YATOM evtl. other psalm(s) or study KADDISH YATOM often said together SONG “Vorspruch” (meditation before Kaddish) KADDISH YATOM said together SONG Adom Olam or other FINAL BLESSING Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 KADDISH TITKABBAL

28 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences between Liberal, Reform, Masorti, Traditional in 28 HOME The Weekday Morning Service Main differences between Liberal, Reform, Masorti, Traditional in the UK Differences After Amidah and Weekday Torah Service Monday/Thursday Singer’s [Masorti customs] Liberal Reform the torah service, p. 88 -93. The text is identical with the traditional liturgy. Usually there is only one Aliyah. Usually Reform congregations do not have Kohen and Levi (but EDRS for e. G has). The text can be chanted or read. Any passsage of the parashah can be chosen. After the Amidah – (which is done loud altogether, most of the texts read in English) follows immediately Aleinu. ꜜ note the different text! ꜜ Monday and Thursday: torah reading with text of first Aliyah of shabbat with 3 Call ups: Kohen, Levi and one Israel. The leyning is done quickly. The framing is short and quick: just Vayehi bino’a and gadlu and procession at the beginning; hagbaah, yehallelu and Ladonai Haaretz (Ps 24) [quickly, no dramatic tune!] at the end. ------- The Reading of the Torah on Weekdays (p. 490 -496) begins with “Hakhel et ha-am” Assemble the people. . . (Deut 31: 12 f), followed by the congregational song “vehaer eneinu”, the Shema with echad, gadlu and procession. It concludes with yehallelu, Psalm 24 and “Vezot haberit” This is the covenant. . . (Jer 31: 31 f), ending with the congregational song “hashiveinu”. Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 After the Amidah follow very personal prayers, said in silence, tachanun. It has -------become custom to sing “shomer Yisrael” p. 116, together with a composed tune. After the Amidah – (which can Then follows Ashrei, Uva Letzion, . . . or be done with repetition or only the first three passages aloud or one loud Amidah altogether) follows immediately Aleinu or

Weekdays Sjabbat Torah Reading 29 HOME on Monday/Thursday/ (Tora Reading Shabbat Morning) Rosh Chodesh Weekdays Sjabbat Torah Reading 29 HOME on Monday/Thursday/ (Tora Reading Shabbat Morning) Rosh Chodesh Not on weekdays 100 102 • Brachah before the reading in Major (= Dutch tradition, inherited from portugese tradition) Calls (ya’amod / ta’amod), misheberachs 306 -322 in Major • Brachah after the reading Major (anticipates call for next one) [if Chatzi Kaddish before Maftir: study mode or Ahavah Rabbah] Vezot hatorah melody in Major • Bracha before Haftarah in Haftara trop (or read if Haftarah is read) Not on weekdays • Bracha after Haftarah special melody Misheberach for congregation Not on weekdays Ashre Not on weekdays Yehallelu and Hodo al eretz Major Psalm 24 on weekdays Psalm 29 Major/composition uvnucho yomar composition ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 96 Major or composition Not on weekdays Major or composition ON WEEKDAYS ONLY 3 ALIYOT, ONLY SHORT TEXT IS READ (Traditionally the first Shabbat Aliya but split into 3 Aliyot, see the divisions in a Tikkun Kor’im. ) ON ROSH CHODESH 4 Aliyot and special torah reading. Colour Overview 96 96 Ein Kamochah Av ha. Rachamim Vayehi binsoah Shema / echad / gadlu Lecha Adonai

Final Version: 08/06/2009 30 HOME Training of shelichay tzibbur 2007 -2009 Nusach in Colour Final Version: 08/06/2009 30 HOME Training of shelichay tzibbur 2007 -2009 Nusach in Colour dr Annette M. Boeckler with rabbijn David Lilienthal and prof. dr. Eli Schleifer Colour Overview ©Annette M. Boeckler 2014 2009