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HPC Bedtime Reading Myron Ginsberg, Ph. D. ACM Fellow and HPC Consultant HPC Research HPC Bedtime Reading Myron Ginsberg, Ph. D. ACM Fellow and HPC Consultant HPC Research & Education Farmington Hills, Michigan 48335 -1222 E-mail: m. [email protected] org Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

HPC Benchmarking Ø Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Papers and Presentations on Cray X 1/X HPC Benchmarking Ø Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Papers and Presentations on Cray X 1/X 1 E Evaluation, http: //www. csm. ornl. gov/evaluation/PHOENIX/index. html Ø R. S. Studham et al. , “Leadership Computing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ” Proceedings of the 47 th Cray User Group Conference, Albuquerque, NM, May 16 -19, 2005, http: //www. studham. com/scott/files/Leadership_CUG. pdf Ø L. Oliker et al. , “Scientific Computations on Modern Parallel Vector systems, ” SC 2004: High Performance Computing, Networking and Storage Conference, Nov. 6 -12, 2004, http: //www. crd. lbl. gov/~oliker/papers/SC 04. pdf Ø L. Oliker et al. , “Leading Computational Methods on Scalar and Vector HEC Platforms, ” Proceedings of Supercomputing 2005, Seattle, WA, Nov. 12 -18, 2005, http: //www. crd. lbl. gov/~oliker/papers/SC 05_eval. pdf Ø J. S. Vetter et al. , “Early Evaluation of the Cray XT 3 at ORNL, ”Proceedings of the 47 th Cray User Group Conference, Albuquerque, NM, May 16 -19, 2005, http: //www. csm. ornl. gov/~vetter/xt 3 -2005 -06 -13/2005 -05 -17_cug-ornl-xt 3 -2005 -0613/2005 -05 -17_cug-ornl-xt 3_eval. pdf Ø T. H. Dunigan, Jr. , J. S. Vetter, and P. H. Worley, “Performance Evaluation of the SGI Altix 3700, ” Proceedings, 2005 Intl. Conference on Parallel Processing, http: //www. csm. ornl. gov/~worley/papers/2005 -06 -16_icpp_sgi-altix-evaluation. pdf, 2005. Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

HPC Benchmarking Ø ICL, HPCC Challenge Benchmark Results, http: //icl. cs. utk. edu/hpcc_results. cgi HPC Benchmarking Ø ICL, HPCC Challenge Benchmark Results, http: //icl. cs. utk. edu/hpcc_results. cgi Ø A complete listing of the environment for each HPCC benchmark run can be found at http: //icl. cs. utk. edu/hpcc/export/hpcc. xls Ø Top 500 Supercomputer Sites, http: //www. top 500. org Ø Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation, SPEC Benchmark, http: //www. specbench. org Ø NAS Parallel Benchmarks, http: //www. nasa. gov/Software/NPB/ Ø PMa. C HPC Benchmark Suite, http: //www. sdsc. edu/PMa. C/Benchmark Ø IDC Balanced HPC Benchmark Ratings, http: //www. hpcuseforum. com/benchmark/ Ø C. Lazou, “Sending out an SOS: HPCC Rescue Coming” HPCWIRE, Article 464623, Sept. 2, 2005, http: //news. taborcommunicastions. com/msgget. jsp? mid=464623&xsl Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

Supercomputing Issues Ø Ø Ø Ø D. H. Bailey, “Twelve Ways to Fool the Supercomputing Issues Ø Ø Ø Ø D. H. Bailey, “Twelve Ways to Fool the Masses: 10 years Later, ” paper, ISC 2004, Heidelberg, Germany, June 23 -25, 2004, http: //crd. lbl. gov/~dhbailey/dhbtalks/dhb-12 ways. pdf D. H. Bailey, “Performance of Future High-End Computers, ” http: //crd. lbl. gov/~dhbailey/dhbtalks/dhb-future-perf. pdf S. L. Graham, M. Snir, and C. A. Patterson, eds. , “Getting Up to Speed: The Future of Supercomputing, ” U. S. National Academy of Sciences CSTB Report, 2004, http: //www. cstb. org/project_supercomputing. html prepublication on-line version at http: //books. nap. edu/catalog/11148. html executive summary, http: //www. nap. edu/catalog/11148. html HECRTF, Federal Plan for High-End Computing: Report of the High-End computing Revitalization Task Force (HECTRF), Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, D. C. , May 10, 2004 (second printing – July 2004); available at http: //www. itrd. gov/pubs/2004_hecrtf/20040702_hecrtf. pdf The Council on Competitiveness, “ 2004 HPC Users Conference: Supercharging U. S. Innovation & Competitiveness, ” Report and DVD available, The Council on Competitiveness, Washington, D. C. , 2005, http: //www. compete. org/hpc_conf_report. asp The Council on Competitiveness, “Accelerating Innovation for Competitive Advantage: The Need for HPC Application Software Solutions, ”High Performance Computing Software Workshop Report, Council on Competitiveness, Washington, D. C. 20005, January 2006. The Council on Competitiveness, Second Annual High Performance Computing Users Conference Report: Accelerating Innovation for Prosperity, report and DVD entitled, “High Performance Computing: Accelerating Innovation to Enhance Everyday Life, ” Dream. Works Animation SKG, Council on Competitiveness, Washington D. C. 2005, March 2006 S. Ulfelder, “Supercomputer Architectures Battle for Hearts and Minds of Users, ” Computerworld, March 6, 2006, http: //computerworld. com/hardwaretopics/hardware/story/0, 10801, 109177, 00. html Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading l

Supercomputing Issues Ø President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee, “Computational Science: Ensuring America’s Competitiveness, ” Supercomputing Issues Ø President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee, “Computational Science: Ensuring America’s Competitiveness, ” PITAC, Office of the President, Washington, D. C. , June 2005, http: //www. nitrd. gov/pitac/reports/20050609_computational/computational. pdf Ø E. Joseph, A. Snell, and C. G. Willard, Council on Competitiveness Study of U. S. Industrial HPCUsers, White Paper, IDC, Framingham, MA, July 2004, http: //www. compete. org/pdf/HPC_Users_Survey. pdf Ø E. Joseph et al. , Study of ISVs Serving the High Performance Computing Market: The Need for Better Application Software, Council on Competitiveness Initiative, White Paper, IDC, Framingham, MA, July 2005, http: //www. compete. org/pdf/HPC_Software_Survey. pdf Ø M. Ginsberg, “Influences on the Solution Process for Large, Numeric-Intensive Automotive Simulations, ”Lecture Notes in Computer Science Series, Vol. 2073, Springer, New York, 2001, pp. 1189 -1198. M. Ginsberg, “Impediments to Future Use of Petaflop Class Computers for Large-Scale Scientific/Engineering Applications in U. S. Private Industry, ” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3514, May 2005, pp. 1059 -1066. M. Ginsberg, “Bibliographic Snapshots of High Performance/High Productivity Computing, ” Chapter in Advances in Computers, edited by M. Zelkowitz, Vol. 72, Elsevier Publishing, New York, 2008 National Coordination Office for Information Technology and Development (NITRD), http: //www. itrd. gov Ø Ø Ø Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

Supercomputing Architectures Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø A. Gara et al. , “Overview of Supercomputing Architectures Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø A. Gara et al. , “Overview of the Blue Gene/L System Architecture, ” IBM J. Res. & Dev. , Vol. 49, No. 2/3 March/May 2005, http: //www. research. ibm. com/journal/rd/492/gara. pdf D. A. Bader (ed. ), Petascale Computing: Algorithms and Applications, Chapman & Hall/CRC, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 2008. G. Haff, “Blue Gene’s Teraflop Attack, ” Illuminata, Inc. , Nashua, NH, August 22, 2005, http: //www-03. ibm. com/servers/deepcomputing/pdf/teraflopattackilluminata. pdf ASCI Purple Benchmark Page, http: //www. llnl. gov/asci/platforms/purple Earth Simulator Homepage, http: //www. es. jamstec. go. jp/esc/eng/index. html E. Joseph et al. , “NEC Launches Next-Generation Vector Supercomputer: The SX-8, ” IDC White Paper #4290, IDC, Framingham, MA, October 2004. T. Curns, “Japan: Poised for a Supercomputing Comeback? , ” HPCWIRE, June 3, 2005, http: //news. taborcommunications. com/msgget. jsp? mid=391555&xsl=story. xsl Cray Inc. , “Cray XT 3 Supercomputer Overview, ” http: //www. cray. com/products/xt 3/index. html D. H. Brown Associates, Inc. , Cray XT 3 MPP Delivers Scalable Performance, White Paper, D. H. Brown Associates, Inc. , January 19, 2005, http: //www. cray. com/downloads/05. 01. 19. Cray. XT 3. pdf l Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

Supercomputing Architectures Ø Ø Ø Ø N. Wichmann and J. Levesque, ”Computer Comparisons Using Supercomputing Architectures Ø Ø Ø Ø N. Wichmann and J. Levesque, ”Computer Comparisons Using HPCC, ” http: //www. cray. com/downloads/sc 2004/Levesque. SC 04 HPCCboothtalk 2. pdf SC 2004, Pittsburgh, PA, November 2004 D. Abts, “Achieving a Balanced System Design, ” http: //www. cray. com/downloads/sc 2004/SC 2004_dabts_balance. pdf SC 2004, Pittsburgh, PA, November 2004. Crsy, Inc. , “System Balance – An HPC Performance Metric, ” http: //www. cray. com/products/xd 1/balance. html Cray Inc. , “CAE Strategy: The XD 1 Supercomputer, ” http: //www. cray. com/downloads/sc 2004/SC 2004 -CAE_nov 4_pp. pdf SC 2004, Pittsburgh, PA, November 2004 A. Shan, “Cray XD 1 -FPGA, ” http: //www. cray. com/downloads/sc 2004/SCFPGABooth. Theatre_pp_nov 4. pdf, SC 2004, Pittsburgh, PA, November 2004. D. H. Brown Associates, Inc. , “Cray XD 1 Brings High-Bandwidth Supercomputing to the Mid-Market, ” White Paper, D. H. Brown Associates, Inc. , Oct. 2004, http: //www. cray. com/downloads/dhbrown_crayxd 1_oct 2004. pdf Cray, Inc. , “The Cray XD 1 High Performance Computer: Closing the Gap between Peak and Achievable Performance in High-Performance Computing, ” White Paper, WP-0020404, Cray Inc. , Seattle, WA, 2004, http: //www. cray. com/downloads/whitepaper_closing_the_gap. pdf J. L. Gustafson, “Understanding the Different Acceleration Technologies, ” HPCWIRE, Vol. 13, No. 2, Nov. 14, 2006, http: //www. hpcwire. com/hpc/1091512. html Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

Supercomputing Architectures Ø Ø Ø Cray Inc. , “Cray X 1 E Supercomputer, ” Supercomputing Architectures Ø Ø Ø Cray Inc. , “Cray X 1 E Supercomputer, ” http: //www. cray. com/products/x 1 e/index. html Cray Inc. , “Cray X 1 E System Architecture, ” http: //www. cray. com/products/x 1 e/architecture. html L. G. Harbaugh, ”Building High-performance Linux Clusters, ” (sponsored by Appro), White Paper, June 2004, http: //www. appro. com/whitepaper. pdf D. A. Patterson, “Latency Lags Bandwidth, ” Comm. ACM, Vol. 47, No. 10, Oct. 2004, pp. 7175. J. Hennessy and D. A. Patterson, Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 4 th Edition, Morgan Kauffman, San Francisco, CA, 2007. D. A. Patterson and J. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface, Morgan Kauffman, San Francisco, CA, 2004. M. B. Gokhale and P. S. Graham, Reconfigurable Computing: Accelerating Computation with Field-Programmable Gate Arrays, Spring-Verlag, 2005. J. D. Owens et al. , “A Survey of General-Purpose Computation on Graphics Hardware, ” Proceedings, Eurographics 2005, August 29 -September 2, 2005, Dublin, Ireland, pp. 21 -51, http: //graphics. idav. ucdavis. edu/graphics/publications/func/return_pdf? pub_id=844 H. Simon, “Progress in Supercomputing: The Top Three Breakthroughs of the Last Twenty Years and the Top Three Challenges for the Next Twenty Years, ” ISC 2005, Heidelberg, June 22, 2005, video at mms: //netshow 01. eecs. berkeley. edu/Horst_Simon S. K. Moore, “Winner: Multimedia Monster, ” http: //www. spectrum. ieee. org/jan 06/2609 S. Holland, “Taming the Wild Supercomputer, ” Tom’s Hardware Guide, March 20, 2007, http: //www. tomshardware. com/2007/03/20/taming_the_wild_supercomputer/index. ht ml Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

DARPA HPCS, Phase 2 Ø Ø Ø M. Elnozahy, “IBM Has Its PERCS, ” DARPA HPCS, Phase 2 Ø Ø Ø M. Elnozahy, “IBM Has Its PERCS, ” HPCWIRE, April 7, 2006, http: //www. hpcwire. com/hpc/614724. html IBM, Inc. , “The X 10 Programming Language, ”March 17, 2006, http: //domino. research. ibm. com/comm/research_projects. nsf/pages/x 10. index. html IBM, Inc. , “Report on the Experimental Language X 10, ”Draft v 0. 41, February 7, 2006, http: //domino. research. ibm. com/comm/research_projects. nsf/pages/x 10. index. html/$FILE/ATTH 4 YZ 5. pdf V. Saraswat, “X 10 Overview, ” http: //crd. lbl. gov/~parry/hpcs_resources. html V. Saraswat, “X 10: An Object-Oriented Approach to Non. Uniform Cluster Computing, ” http: //crd. lbl. gov/~parry/hpcs_resources. html Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

DARPA HPCS, Phase 2 Ø Ø M. Vildibill, “Sun’s Hero Program: Changing the Productivity DARPA HPCS, Phase 2 Ø Ø M. Vildibill, “Sun’s Hero Program: Changing the Productivity Game, ” HPCWIRE, April 7, 2006, http: //www. hpcwire. com/hpc/614805. html G. L. Steele, Jr. , “Programming Language Research: Exploration of Programming Languages Constructs and Principles, ” http: //research. sun. com/projects/plrg/ G. L. Steele, Jr. , “Parallel Programming and Parallel Abstractions in Fortress, ” FLOPS 2006, April 24, 2006, http: //research. sun. com/projects/plrg/FLOPS 2006 public. pdf G. L. Steele, Jr. and J-W Maessen, “Fortress Programming Language Tutorial, ” PLDI’ 06, June 11, 2006, http: //research. sun. com/projects/plrg/PLDITutorial. Slides 9 Ju n 2006. pdf Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

DARPA HPCS, Phase 2 Ø Ø Ø A. Snell and C. G. Willard, “Bridging DARPA HPCS, Phase 2 Ø Ø Ø A. Snell and C. G. Willard, “Bridging the Capability Gap: Cray Pursues ‘Adaptive Supercomputing’ Vision, ” White Paper No. 200808, IDC, Framingham, MA, March 2006, http: //www. cray. com/downloads/IDC-Adaptive. SC. pdf S. Scott, “In Cray’s ‘Cascade’ The Computer Will Adapt to the Codes, ” HPCWIRE, April 7, 2006, http: //www. hpcwire. com/hpc/614695. html B. Chamberlain, “An Introduction to Chapel – Cray Cascade’s High -Productivity Language, ” AHPCRC/DARPA PGAS Conference, September 14, 2005, http: //chapel. cs. washington. edu/Chapel. For. AHPCRC. pdf S. Deitz, “Chapel: Compiler Challenges, ” LCPC, October 21, 2005, http: //chapel. cs. washington. edu/Chapel. For. LCPC. pdf Cray, Inc. , “Chapel – The Cascade High-Productivity Language, ” Chapel Programming Language Homepage, http: //chapel. cs. washington. edu/ Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

DARPA Phase 3 Ø Ø Ø HPCWIRE, “Cray Advances to Phase III of DARPA DARPA Phase 3 Ø Ø Ø HPCWIRE, “Cray Advances to Phase III of DARPA HPCS, ” HPCWIRE, November 22, 2006, http: //www. hpcwire. com/hpc/1115742. html HPCWIRE, “DARPA Selects IBM for HPCS Phase III, ” HPCWIRE November 22, 2006, http: //www. hpcwire. com/hpc/1115743. html M. Feldman, “DARPA Selects Cray and IBM for Final Phase of HPCS, ”Vol. 15, No. 46, November 24, 2006, http: //www. hpcwire/hpc/1119092. html M. Feldman, “High Productivity Computing for the Rest of Us, ” Vol. 15, No. 46, November 24, 2006, http: //www. hpcwire. com/hpc/1119786. html M. Feldman, “Is it Time for Heterogeneous Supercomputing, ” HPCWIRE, Vol. 15, No. 28, July 14, 2006, http: //www. hpcwire. com/hpc/726342. html K. Yelick, “The Software Challenges of Petascale Computing, ” HPCWIRE, Vol. 15, No. 45, November 10, 2006, http: //www. hpcwire. com/hpc/1071362. html Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

Supercomputing Issues Ø Ø Ø R. W. Hockney, The Science of Computer Benchmarking, SIAM, Supercomputing Issues Ø Ø Ø R. W. Hockney, The Science of Computer Benchmarking, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1996. M. Overton, Numerical Computing with IEEE Floating Point Arithmetic, SIAM, Philadelphia, 2001. S. Goedecker and A. Hoisie, Performance Optimization of Numerically Intensive Codes, SIAM, Philadelphia, 2001. M. Wolfe, High-Performance Compilers for Parallel Computing, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 2000. A. M. Bruaset and A. Tveito (eds. ), Numerical Solutions of Partial Differential Equations on Parallel Computers, Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering Series, Vol. 51, Springer. Verlag, 2006. M. Ginsberg, “Challenges and Opportunities for U. S. Private Industry Utilization of HPC Technology, ” International Conference on Scientific Computing (CSC’ 07), 2007 World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, and Applied Computing (WORLDCOMP 07), Monte Carlo Resort Hotel, Las Vegas, NV, June 25 -28, 2007. Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

Supercomputing Issues Ø Ø Ø D. J. Lilja, Measuring Computer Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide, Supercomputing Issues Ø Ø Ø D. J. Lilja, Measuring Computer Performance: A Practitioner’s Guide, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2000. B. Einarsson, Accuracy and Reliability in Scientific Computing, SIAM, 2005. R. P. Garg and I. Sharapov, Techniques for Optimizing Applications: High Performance Computing, Prentice Hall PTR Series, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2002. T. Mc. Donald, “Designers Look to Take Computer Chips Off the Clock, ” News. Factor Network, Sept. 16, 2001, http: //www. newsfactor. com/perl/printer/13584/ A. Snell and C. G. Williard, “Bridging the Capability Gap: Cray Pursues ‘Adaptive Supercomputing’ Vision, ” White Paper No. 200808, IDC, Framingham, MA, March 2006, http: //www. cray. com/downloads/IDC-Adaptive. SC. pdf S. Scott, “In Cray’s ‘Cascade’ The Computer Will Adapt to the Codes, ” HPCWIRE, April 7, 2006, http: //www. hpcwire. com/hpc/614695. html Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

Supercomputing Issues Ø Ø Ø J. Dongarra, Guest Editior, “The Promise and the Perils Supercomputing Issues Ø Ø Ø J. Dongarra, Guest Editior, “The Promise and the Perils of the Coming Multicore Revolution and its Impact, ”CTWatch Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 1, February 2007, http: //ctwatch. org/quarterly/pdf/ctwatchquarterly 10. pdf D. A. Patterson et al. , “The Landscape of Parallel Computing Research: A View from Berkeley, ”Tech Report No. UCB/EECS-2006 -183, Dec. 18, 2006, http: //www. eecs. berkeley. edu/Pubs/Tech. Rpts/2006/EECS 2006 -183. html E. A. Lee, “The Problem with Threads, ” IEEE Computer, Vol. 39, No. 5, May 2006, pp. 33 -42 or at http: //www. eecs. berkeley. edu/Pubs/Tech. Rpts/2006/EECS-20061. html D. A. Patterson et al. , “RAMP: A Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors, ” UCB, EECS, Nov. 24, 2006, http: //www. eecs. berkeley. edu/Pubs/Tech. Rpts/2006/EECS-2006158. html D. A. Bader (ed. ), Petascale Computing: Algorithms and Applications, CRC Press, Atlanta, GA, December 2007. Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

Supercomputing Issues Ø Ø IDC, “IDC’s HPC Market Categories, ”IDC Analyst Briefing Breakfast at Supercomputing Issues Ø Ø IDC, “IDC’s HPC Market Categories, ”IDC Analyst Briefing Breakfast at Supercomputing SC 06, Tampa FL, November 15, 2006. ISC, “The Star-P Platform: Delivering Interactive Parallel Computing Power to the Desktop, ” White Paper, ISC, Waltham. MA, 2006, http: //www. interactivesupercomputing. com/downl oads/ISCwhitepaper. pdf Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

Computational Science Programs Ø Ø C. D. Swanson, “Computational Science Education, ”Krell Institute, November Computational Science Programs Ø Ø C. D. Swanson, “Computational Science Education, ”Krell Institute, November 2003, http: //www. krellinst. org/services/technology/CSE_survey/in dex. html SIAM Working Group on CSE Undergraduate Education, “Undergraduate Computational Science and Engineering Education, ” SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, September 20, 2006, http: //www. siam. org/about/pdf/CSE_Report. pdf SIAM Working Group on CSE Education, “Graduate Education in Computational Science and Engineering, ” SIAM Rev. , Vol. 43, No. 1, March 2001, pp. 163 -177 or at http: //www. siam. org/journals/sirev/43 -1/37974. html SIAM Working Group on CSE Education, “Graduate Education for Computational Science and Engineering, ” 2007 http: //www. siam. org/students/resources/report. php Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading

Computational Science Ø Ø Ø Ø M. T. Heath, Scientific Computing: An Introductory Survey, Computational Science Ø Ø Ø Ø M. T. Heath, Scientific Computing: An Introductory Survey, second edition, Mc. Graw-hill, New York, 2001. http: //www. cse. uiuc. edu/heath/scicomp. L. R. Scott, T. Clark, and B. Bagheri, Scientific Parallel Computing, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2005, http: //amrit. ittc. ku. edu/spc/ R. H. Landau, A First Course in Scientific Computing – Symbolic, Graphic, and Numeric Modeling using Maple, Java, Mathematica, and Fortran 90, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2005. A. B. Shiflet and G. W. Shiflet, Introduction to Computational Science: Modeling and Simulation for the Sciences, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2006. H. El-Rewini and M. Abd-El-Barr, Advanced Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing, J. Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2005. R. Eigenmann (ed. ), Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking with Realistic Applications, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, Jan. 2001, http: //www. mitpress. mit. edu D. T. Nguyen, Parallel-Vector Equation Solvers for Finite Element Engineering Applications, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Hingham, MA, Sept. 2001. L. Komzsik, What Every Engineer Should Know about Computational Techniques of Finite Element Analysis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2005 Dr. Myron Ginsberg l HPC R & E l 2008 HPC Bedtime Reading