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Housing Initiative for Eastern Europe – IWO e. V. for the Support of Market-oriented Housing Initiative for Eastern Europe – IWO e. V. for the Support of Market-oriented Structures in the Housing and Construction Sector in Eastern Europe “Strategies and Instruments Supporting Energy Efficient Refurbishment (EER) in Germany” Knut Höller, Britta Schmigotzki IWO e. V. , Berlin / Germany Tallinn, 29. November 2006

Structure of Presentation 1. IWO e. V. – tasks and structure 2. German experiences Structure of Presentation 1. IWO e. V. – tasks and structure 2. German experiences in energy efficient refurbishment of prefabricated housing estates – „The Berlin Strategy“ - after reunification 3. German strategy for energy efficient refurbishment (EER) – today’s approach

Company Profile: Housing Initiative for Eastern Europe – IWO e. V. IWO (Initiative Wohnungswirtschaft Company Profile: Housing Initiative for Eastern Europe – IWO e. V. IWO (Initiative Wohnungswirtschaft Osteuropa) e. V. – Housing Initiative for Eastern Europe – is an association of private and public partners who aim at a market-oriented and ecological development of the housing and construction economy in transition countries, mostly in Eastern Europe. Finance Housing Industry complex approach Public Authorities Energy Education & Training Academy: EAIB Gmb. H IWO, located in Berlin, is an officially registered non-governmental and nonprofit organisation.

German experiences in energy efficient refurbishment „The Berlin Strategy“ Initial situation after 1990: § German experiences in energy efficient refurbishment „The Berlin Strategy“ Initial situation after 1990: § Eastern part of Berlin: 632, 000 dwellings, of these 360, 000 built after 2 WW § 273, 000 dwellings in prefabricated multi-family buildings. 800, 000 people, i. e. 2/3 of the inhabitants in Eastern Berlin, live in these flats. They are located mainly in the districts Marzahn, Hellersdorf, Lichtenberg and Hohenschönhausen § Berlin government quickly decided that the maintenance of the existing stock and the immediate refurbishment with new support instruments should by applied instead of adopting a policy of wait and see.

German experiences in energy efficient refurbishment „The Berlin Strategy“ The main elements in the German experiences in energy efficient refurbishment „The Berlin Strategy“ The main elements in the strategy: 1. Legal assignment of the property and reorganisation of the housing administration/housing economy. 2. Improvement of the residential environment 3. Renovation and modernisation of the building stock Ø Main difference to situation in CEE: No Privatisation. Housing stock administrated by municipal companies. Rental housing stock!!!

„The Berlin Strategy“: Improvement of the residential environment „The Berlin Strategy“: Improvement of the residential environment

„The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock The approach: § At „The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock The approach: § At the beginning of the 90 s the Berlin Senate ordered extensive structural studies, to determine the renovation and modernisation need of the different buildings types. § A „measure/cost-matrix“ was developed relating 17 building series with 21 renovation measures, and stating an average price for the measure and the overall sum per flat. Prices varied from 7, 000 €/flat (newer buildings) to 34, 000 €/flat (QP 59). The matrix was the basis for the Berlin support guidelines. § Measures listed included: - improvement of thermal insulation and heating system, - new sanitation, - new windows and balconies, - renovation of elevators as well as - modernisation of the housing entrances and staircases.

„The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock In October 1993, the „The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock In October 1993, the pilot phase of the programme supporting the refurbishment of prefabricated housing estates started. . .

„The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock . . . and „The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock . . . and from 1994 on, the renovation programme was implemented on a large scale (over a period of 10 years).

„The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock „The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock

„The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock Methods and instruments: § „The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock Methods and instruments: § Cooperation of players (esp. housing companies, district administration, planners, architects): development of integrated district concepts which enable the individual quarters in the district to develop special identities. § Communal district management focussing especially on the participation of inhabitants and other important actors in the district.

„The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock Basic principles of financing: „The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock Basic principles of financing: § Nearly all refurbishment measures were financed with long-term loans with reduced interest rates § Every credit was secured by mortgages § When necessary: additional state or municipal guarantees were provided § Two levels providing support: - Federal Government - Municipality of Berlin

„The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock Financing / Main support „The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock Financing / Main support programmes: a. The „Kf. W-dwelling modernisation prgramme“ of the Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (Kf. W), provided reduced interest rate loans which were supported by the German government. Alltogether, loans of around 3 Billion € were used for the renovation of the housing stock in Eastern Berlin. b. The „Prefabricated buildings renovation programme“. In accordance with the so-called „Inst. Mod. RL“ the Berlin government provided long term interest subsidies for buildings, where renovation costs could not be covered by rents and with Kf. W-loans alone. Approximately 650 Mio. € were provided in the form of long term interest subsidies by the Berlin government.

„The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock Consequences for the residents: „The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock Consequences for the residents: § The costs for the complex refurbishment of the buildings amounted to 23, 000 Euro per flat § Measures have been refinanced through the rents § Rents have been increased by 11 percent annually § The average rent in refurbished dwellings included approx. 135 Euro costs for the refurbishment § On average, the rents in renovated buildings amount to 25 percent of the net household income

„The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock Overall results: Ø 60 „The Berlin Strategy“: Renovation and modernisation of the building stock Overall results: Ø 60 % of the stock has been extensively refurbished 25 % 15 % “ “ has been partly refurbished has not been refurbished Ø Between 1993 and 2003 around 6. 2 Billion € have been invested in the renovation and modernisation of the prefabricated building stock in Eastern Berlin, that is on average 23, 000 € per flat, of which ~8, 500 € used for energy efficient measures.

German strategy for EER in the housing stock - today Strategies and Instruments 1. German strategy for EER in the housing stock - today Strategies and Instruments 1. Legal: e. g. Energy Conservation Ordinance En. EV 2. Financial: - Financing programmes by Kf. W - Financing programmes by regional governments and municipalities 3. Information and Transparency 4. Research and increase of know-how

German strategy for EER in the housing stock - today Main Financing Instruments 1. German strategy for EER in the housing stock - today Main Financing Instruments 1. Promotion mainly by the Federal Government through the (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (Kf. W) - Reconstruction Loan Corporation) 2. Promotion by 3. - reduced-interest loans 4. - grants 5. - tax-relief 6.

Promotion of EER by Kf. W programmes What is the Kf. W? Kreditanstalt für Promotion of EER by Kf. W programmes What is the Kf. W? Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (Kf. W) = “Reconstruction Loan Corporation”: § Owned by federal government (80 %) and federal states (20 %) § Kf. W Förderbank = Kf. W Promotional Bank § Funding areas: housing construction, modernisation, energy conservation

Conveyance principle Capital market (AAA) co-operative banks/ savings banks „conveying bank“ private companies owner Conveyance principle Capital market (AAA) co-operative banks/ savings banks „conveying bank“ private companies owner budget funds e. g. BMVBS commercial bank cooperatives 12

Promotion of EER by Kf. W programmes Financing Principles Ø Long-term, low-interest financing for Promotion of EER by Kf. W programmes Financing Principles Ø Long-term, low-interest financing for projects that reduce CO 2 Ø Interest rate is set considerably below capital market level Ø Interest rate fixed for 10 years – reliable basis for calculation Ø Financing of up to 100 % of the investment costs Ø Partial dept relief for the Kf. W loan once the level of a low-energy house has been attained Ø Possibility of combination with other promotional funds and with other Kf. W programmes

Promotion of EER by Kf. W programmes Eligible Applicants and Programmes Applicants: § Whoever Promotion of EER by Kf. W programmes Eligible Applicants and Programmes Applicants: § Whoever wants to invest in owner occupied or rented residential buildings (Private individuals, Housing companies, Housing cooperatives, other investors, municipalities, districts etc. ) Relevant Programmes: a. CO 2 Building Rehabilitation Programme: 4 fixed packages of extensive energy refurbishment measures - high interest rate reduction b. Housing Modernisation Programme: certain energy efficient measures (ÖKO-Plus) or modernisation in general (STANDARD) – comparatively low interest rate reduction

Promotion of EER by Kf. W programmes Volume of the CO 2 building rehabilitation Promotion of EER by Kf. W programmes Volume of the CO 2 building rehabilitation programme § Total amount approx. 1. 4 billion EUR state support per year, of these - 1. 0 billion EUR for CO 2 Building Rehabilitation Programme, divided in * 600 million EUR reduced interest loans for residential buildings * 200 million EUR grants for residential buildings * 200 million EUR for schools, kindergarten etc. § From 2001 to 2005 approx. 5 billion EUR have been granted for loans in the programme, for the energy efficient refurbishment of 304, 820 dwellings. § 2005: Average size of daily (!) received application amounted to 5 million EUR.

German strategy for EER in the housing stock - today Current state of the German strategy for EER in the housing stock - today Current state of the programme: § Improved conditions since February 2006 lead to the approval of loans amounting to 7. 5 billion EUR until August 2006. § Due to the huge demand for the programme, an additional amount of 350 million EUR has been approved by the budget committee of the German Parliament. § Currently discussion about re-launch of modified programme from January 2007 on.

“Strategies and Instruments Supporting Energy Efficient Refurbishment in Germany” Thank you very much for “Strategies and Instruments Supporting Energy Efficient Refurbishment in Germany” Thank you very much for your attention!!! Contact: Initiative Wohnungswirtschaft Osteuropa (IWO e. V. ) Knut Höller / Britta Schmigotzki Friedrichstraße 95 10117 Berlin (Germany) Phone: +49 30 20 67 98 02 Fax: +49 30 20 67 98 04 [email protected] org www. iwoev. org