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Housing and ‘Inverse Governmentality’ in Maputo, Mozambique P  resentation at the WB Symposium Housing and ‘Inverse Governmentality’ in Maputo, Mozambique P resentation at the WB Symposium «Rethinking Cities: Framing the Future» Barcelona 8 -10 October 2012 Dr. Inge Tvedten, CMI

Maputo City Space • • • Capital of Mozambique with 1. 1 (1. 8) Maputo City Space • • • Capital of Mozambique with 1. 1 (1. 8) million inhabitants City space historically divided into ‘cidade cemento’ and ‘cidade caniço’ – with ref. to housing Post-independence planning increasing discrepancy between policies and realities Poverty rate from 53 % (2003) to 37% (2010) primarily due to a construction and housing boom A brick house is a key aspect of being urban – and building one is often a life-long process

Housing as a Process • • • 70% of Maputo shantytowns with slum-like characteristics Housing as a Process • • • 70% of Maputo shantytowns with slum-like characteristics and inadequate services Rapidly changing urban-scape with liberalisation of land housing market Sites and service areas overtaken by the better-off with the poor pushed out Land- and housing rights through an elaborate community-based [political] hierarchy Housebuilders imitate urban norms which the state and municipality are unable to implement for security

Incremental Housing from Below • • The processes of ‘inverse governmentality’ in poor bairros Incremental Housing from Below • • The processes of ‘inverse governmentality’ in poor bairros should be protected and supported Urban services (roads, water, electricity, waste collection) through strategic planning to support on-going processes Policy implementation by selecting ‘test-bairros’ for implementation Enforcing a formalisation of land parcelling and house construction are likely to lead to more urban uprisings